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Austria

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Austria signed the UNCRPD and the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention and the Protocol in July 2008. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 September 2010. According to Art. 45(2) both instruments entered into force for the Republic of Austria on 26 October 2008 and were published on 23 October 2008 in the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl. III Nr. 155/2008).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-12-28

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Austria signed the UNCRPD and the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention and the Protocol in July 2008. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 September 2010. According to Art. 45(2) both instruments entered into force for the Republic of Austria on 26 October 2008 and were published on 23 October 2008 in the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl. III Nr. 155/2008).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-12-28

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

There were no declarations or reservations on the Austrian part to the Convention or the Protocol but Austria raised an objection to the reservation made by El Salvador.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A4. Comprehensive review

After the ratification of the CRPD, the Austrian government introduced a committee for the monitoring of the implementation of the CRPD. In the explanatory remarks of the Federal Law for the constitution of this monitoring committee it is stated: 'It has to be assumed that the specific rights which are set in the agreement are already established by law in the Austrian legal system in terms of content before the signing of the Convention.'

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-12-28

A5. Focal point

In Austria, the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is the governmental focal point at the federal level. At the moment regional focal points are being appointed at the level of the nine provinces (Laender).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is the coordinating body for the UN CRPD.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

A7. Independent mechanism

The 2008 Federal Disability Act established the Independent Monitoring Committee for the implementation of the CRPD as a committee of the Federal Disability Advisory Board at the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Its members are representatives of disabled people's organisations, NGOs in the fields of human rights and international development as well as one academic representative. The Monitoring Committee’s tasks are to report to the Federal Disability Advisory Board, to make statements and recommendations on the rights of people with disabilities and to ask administrative bodies for statements in individual cases. The Independent Monitoring Committee started its work in 2009 and has since published several statements on different areas of Austrian disability policy. All provinces established some kind of monitoring by December 2015, however, the competences of the monitoring bodies vary considerably.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

A8. Official reporting

The first comprehensive State report on the implementation of the UN-Disability Rights Convention in Austria was due on 26 October 2010. In accordance with Art. 35 (1) the report was adopted by the federal government on 5 October 2010 and was submitted on time. The first state review took place in September 2013, concluding observations and recommendations were issued by the UN-CRPD committee.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

The Austrian Disability Council (Österreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Rehabilitation) the officially recognised umbrella association of Austrian disability organisations and service providers, in cooperation with several NGOs from the disability and anti-discrimination field, human rights experts and academics issued a comprehensive shadow report. Additionally, the Independent Monitoring Committee, the Austrian Litigation Association of NGOs against discrimination and the Austrian Forum on Sex workers submitted statements. Finally, the Austrian Disability Council replied to the list of issues that had been issued by the CRPD committee.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

In 1997, an anti-discrimination clause and a commitment by the Republic to the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled people was amended to the federal constitutional law, which states that: ’Nobody may be discriminated against because of his or her disability. The Republic (federal government, the provinces and local authorities) commits itself to guaranteeing the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled persons in all fields of everyday life.’ This constitutional clause may only be considered a political declaration of will and did not directly become effective; regulations needed to be implemented into further legal acts. Furthermore, it is relevant when a legal act is proved by the Austrian Constitutional Court and the question is arisen if this act is in line with the constitution. At the beginning of 2006, the Disability Equality Act was introduced and an amendment to the Disability Employment Act came into force as well as an amendment to the Federal Disability Act. The latter creates the position of the Federal Disability Ombudsman (section 13b ff. Federal Disability Act). The Federal Disability Equality Act provides protection against direct and indirect discrimination in the whole administration of the Federation including the Federation as bearer of private rights ( Section 2 paragraph 1 Federal Disability Equality Act). The Federal Disability Equality Act also covers protection against discrimination regarding access to and supply of goods and services available to the public as far as the matter is covered by Federal competence. This includes all legal relationships, their initiation and conclusion as well as claiming of benefits outside a legal relationship ( section 2 paragraph 2 Federal Disability Equality Act). There is no legal requirement that discrimination must be eliminated; there is an entitlement to compensation for individual damages. On the basis of the First State Review, the UN-CRPD committee „recommends that the discrimination laws be strengthened by broadening the available remedies to include other remedies that require a change of behaviour in people who discriminate against persons with disabilities, such as injunctive powers. The Committee recommends that the State party examine the appropriateness of the current structures used to deal with situations of multiple discrimination.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

The General Civil Code distinguishes between legal capacity ( section 16 General Civil Code) and the capacity to act. A person’s capacity to act includes the capacity to contract ( section 865 General Civil Code) and to be found culpable of a crime ( section 15 and 1307ff. General Civil Code). Adults are considered capable of contracting and managing if they are able to arrange their affairs in a reasonable way and to comply with laws. People who are not able to foresee the consequences of their actions due to their age, their reduced cognitive abilities or reduced consciousness are considered not, or only partially capable of acting. Such people come under special legal protection and are allocated a representative. Protection is provided by a system of guardianship. The task or responsibilities of a guardian can be as follows: a single legal act, e.g. inheritance procedures; a certain range of matters, e.g. dealing with official authorities, administration of assets; or all matters, e.g. administration of all finances, consent to medical treatment etc. ( section 268ff. General Civil Code). In May 2012, the independent monitoring committee published a statement on legal capacity, guardianship and supported decision making.

The National Action Plan on Disability lists four measures with regard to legal capacity: Amendment of guardianship legislation with the participation of people with disabilities; Creation of a model of supported decision-making with the involvement of people with disabilities; Ongoing further training events with the involvement of self-advocates in order to ensure that the current guardianship legislation is applied more thoroughly and to support the further development of guardianship law; Via increased funding, guardianship associations should be enabled to take over additional cases and functions

On the basis of the First State Review, the UN-CRPD committee „recommends that substituted decision making be replaced with supported decision making. The Committee recommends that Austria do more to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to supported decision-making and are not placed under guardianship. The Committee recommends that supported decision making structures should respect the person’s autonomy, will and preferences, and be in full conformity with article 12 of the Convention, including with respect to the individual's right, in his/her own capacity, to give and withdraw informed consent for medical treatment, to access justice, to vote, to marry, to work, and to choose a place of residence. The Committee also recommends that disabled persons organizations be involved in all aspects of the pilot program on supported decision-making. The Committee further recommends that the State party provide training, in consultation and cooperation with persons with disabilities and their representative organizations of persons with disabilities, at the national, regional and local levels for all actors, including civil servants, judges, and social workers, on the recognition of the legal capacity of persons with disabilities and on mechanisms of supported decision-making.”

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

The right to full political participation is enshrined in the Austrian Constitution. No particular group of people with disabilities is denied the right to vote. Election regulations for the National Parliament say that blind people and persons with visual impairments or physical disabilities should be able to access polling stations with their personal assistants. It is up to the election authorities, however, to decide individually whether personal assistants or persons of trust are allowed to accompany persons with disabilities into the polling booth. There is no overview on how far polling stations should be accessible for people with mobility or visual impairments. No comprehensive overview is available of the regulations for other elections (e.g. for the provincial governments).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

B4. Official recognition of sign language

In September 2005, sign language was constitutionally recognised as an official language in Austria (Art. 8 (3) Federal Constitutional Law). Further details regarding the provision of sign language have been implemented for civil court procedures (§ 73a Law for Civil Court Procedures) and criminal court procedures (56 (2) Law for Criminal Court Procedures) as well as for administrative procedures (General Administration Procedure Act) in the relevant laws.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-06-23

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

In July 2012, the “National Action Plan on Disability 2012 – 2020: Strategy of the Austrian Federal Government for the implementation of the Disability Rights Convention. Inclusion as a human right and a mandate” passed by the Council of Ministers. This National Action Plan is the new Disability Strategy of the Federal Government and does not include responsibilities of the Provincial Governments (Laender).

The National Action Plan on Disability includes the following eight main topics with specific subchapters:Disability Policy; Protection against discrimination; Accessibility; Education; Employment; Living Independently; Health and Rehabilitation; Awareness-Raising and Information.

The development of the National Action Plan on Disability has been informed by the UN CRPD as well as by the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020. A regional action plan is available in Styria, it covers the competences of the province of Styria.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Accessibility of all kind of public transport services is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act. The Act defines accessibility to be that a means of transport can be used by people with disabilities without any particular difficulty and in principle without any outside help. Every public transport company had to design a step-by-step plan for making all of their facilities accessible by the end of 2015. The Federal Disability Act provides a claim for financial compensation of the material or immaterial damage suffered in the case of discrimination. It neither includes an injunctive relief or a claim for the removal of barriers.

A blind man submitted a complaint to the UN CRPD Committee under the optional protocol which was replied to in 2015. The UN CRPD Committee asks Austria to improve accessibility of written information with regard to public transportation.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

C2. Built environment accessibility

Accessibility of the built environment is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act as far as federal buildings and private businesses are concerned. The Act says that access is given if buildings or services offered to the public can be used by people with disabilities without any particular difficulty and in principle without any outside help. According to the Federal Disability Act, a step-by-step plan was established to make all federal buildings accessible by the end of 2015. In 2010, the federal government introduced the option to postpone this deadline until 2019 in the framework of consolidating the budget. The Federal Disability Equality Act provides grounds for a claim to compensation for facing barriers but it does not provide any obligation or claim to remove barriers. Due to the long period of transition for the implementation of the Act by 2015, steps to eliminate physical barriers are taken at the discretion of businesses in line with their economic priorities. Apart from Federal buildings, building laws are the responsibility of the nine provinces and nine further laws cover the issue of accessibility differently. Additionally, each province has individual technical regulations for planning and buildings. The provincial laws as well as the technical regulations deal with accessibility quite differently with regard to standards and quality, for private as well as for public buildings. No comprehensive overview is available on the overall situation in Austria. In 2005, the Austrian Parliament passed a resolution that requested the Minister for Social Affairs to negotiate with the provinces for a unified contract for accessibility provisions in the planning and building laws. This led to standard guidelines on accessibility for planning and building which were developed by the Austrian Institute for structural engineering in 2007 and which were also agreed upon with all provinces. In 2015 the guidelines for user security and accessibility were changed. The reference to Austrian Standard B-1600 regarding standards for accessibility were deleted. The Austrian provinces are about to agree to the new guidelines.

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Update date: Thu, 2016-03-17

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Accessibility of information processing is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act as far as federal responsibilities and private businesses are concerned. The Federal Disability Act does not establish any obligation for removing barriers in the case of discrimination, it only provides a claim for a low level of compensation. Austria signed the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled but has not ratified it.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Support services for people with disabilities are the responsibility of the nine Austrian provinces (Laender). Each province has its own law that defines and regulates such services. None of the nine provincial laws obliges people with disabilities to live in a particular living arrangement, but none of them includes a legal right to live independently in the community either. No general overview is available on which services are provided in the nine provinces, but there is usually a variety of special housing services: personal assistance, attended housing, shared apartments with attendance, institutional care or residential homes. Some people with disabilities live in care homes for the elderly. There are major differences between larger towns and rural regions with regard to the availability of services. In its introduction to the chapter on Independent Living, the National Action Plan Disability 2012-2020 generally describes this situation.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2014-04-04

D2. De-institutionalisation

In Austria, the term de-institutionalisation has so far mainly been used to refer to moving people with disabilities out of psychiatric hospitals. In 1991 the so called Placement Act came into force that regulates the placement of people in psychiatric hospitals. However, the National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 emphasizes the necessity of a more comprehensive program for de-institutionalisation in all Austrian provinces (Laender). It states that large institutions should be reduced and that individual support services should be built up. The National Action Plan does not include any particular measures to obtain this goal. On the basis of the First State Review, the UN CRPD Committee 'recommends that the State party shall ensure that the Federal Government and the Governments of the Länder place greater efforts on de-institutionalisation and in allowing persons with disabilities to choose where they live.'

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D3. Quality of social services

In 2012, the Austrian Ombudsman Board (AOB) took over new responsibilities based on the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) as well as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD). The AOB and controlling commissions established by the AOB undertake preventive measures to ensure compliance with and implementation of these two international treaties. The new investigative mandate extends to all institutions and facilities where people with and without disabilities are in danger of abuse, inhuman treatment and measures that deprive or may deprive them of their liberty. Experts from different disciplines carry out the visits in these institutions and facilities. They collect information and facts and evaluate them as set out in the international treaties. The AOB and its Commissions undertake this responsibility as the so-called National Preventive Mechanism (NPM). This also includes the prevention of any form of exploitation, violence and abuse in institutions and facilities designed to serve people with disabilities as outlines in Art. 16 of the CRPD. The Austrian Ombudsman Board publishes an annual report on the activities of the NPM that includes a chapter on institutions and facilities for persons with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

The principle of causality is decisive for which insurance or which official authority is concerned with financing assistive equipment and adaptations for people with disabilities. Health, pension and work insurance institutions are responsible as well as the Social Ministry Service and the authorities for social affairs in the nine provinces. In many cases several authorities are responsible for financing special equipment. People with disabilities who work are generally advantaged because there are additional funds for providing them with assistive technology or for financing adaptations at the workplace as well as at home. There is provision of rehabilitation and assistive equipment for those who have an accident at the workplace or on the way to work. Work accidents are covered by the AUVA (Allgemeine Unfall-Versicherungs-Anstalt = General Accident Insurance Institute). The AUVA is the national accident insurance company and all people who are gainfully employed must pay for this obligatory insurance. Children born with a disability and adults with disabilities who do not work are not covered by this insurance. So they have to apply for funding at the social service departments of their respective provinces for up-to-date equipment like electric wheelchairs. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on assistive devices. To improve the provision of assistive devices for people with disabilities, it proposes four measures:1) Closer cooperation of all institutions and authorities that fund assistive devices;2) Creation of assistive devices contact-points for people with disabilities, especially for children with disabilities;3) Closing gaps in the funding of assistive devices for people with disabilities;4) Continuing the existing online databank on assistive devices.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Apart from Personal Assistance at the Workplace, which is a national programme, all support services are regulated and funded individually by the nine provinces. Personal Assistance is only available in some Austrian regions, depending mainly on the existence of strong Centres for Independent Living as in Upper-Austria, Tyrol and Vienna. Upper-Austria was the first province that included the option of Personal Assistance into the Act for Equal Chances for people with disabilities in 2008. In Vienna, the so called Addition to the long-term care benefit for personal assistance was introduced in 2008. This is a model of direct payment according to individual needs that is limited to people with severe physical or mobility impairments. People who already receive institutional care or people with learning difficulties are excluded from this programme. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on Personal Assistance. It lists three measures to implement the provision of Personal Assistance services in Austria:1) Developing a concept for a federally uniform regulation for Personal Assistance that includes people with all forms of impairments. The concept shall be developed with the participation of people with disabilities;2) Considering Personal Assistance in the fiscal equalization scheme;3) Developing guidelines for Personal Assistance in federal schools.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D6. Income maintenance

A means-tested minimum income was introduced to the Austrian social-security system in 2010. In an agreement, the federal government and the provincial governments laid down the main points for a means-tested minimum income, which is now being implemented in the corresponding national and provincial legislation. People with disabilities are not excluded from the means-tested minimum-income. To be entitled for this benefit, a person must meet certain requirements, e.g. he or she must be capable of working and must be willing to work. If a person with disabilities is not deemed capable of working or is not considered employable, he or she would be entitled to a means of subsistence according to the individual provincial law that regulates services for people with disabilities. No comprehensive overview is available on the details of the nine provincial Acts for means-tested income.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D7. Additional costs

Several benefits aim at covering additional costs caused by disabilities: 1) Long-term care benefit: The long-term care benefit aims at compensating additional costs of long-term care, in the form of a flat-rate cash benefit (from 154.20 to 1,655.80 euro per month) to ensure, as far as possible, the provision of necessary attendance and support, and to improve their chances of living an independent life according to their needs. To receive long-term care benefit a person has to qualify as follows: a person must be in need of care due to a physical, cognitive or mental impairment that lasts for at least six months (permanent need for care must amount to at least 60 hours per month). The long-term care benefit is organised in seven levels according to the need of care, which is estimated in hours per month. About 80% of all people who receive long-term care benefit are older than 60 years. 2) Increased Family Allowance: If a child has a disability, parents may apply for an increased family allowance. The supplement is 138.30 euro per month (as of 1 January 2009) and is paid in addition to the regular family allowance. Adults with disabilities who are not considered employable or capable of working may receive increased family allowance beyond the usual age limit. The usual age limit is the end of vocational training. 3) Accident Benefit: This benefit is paid after a work related accident that caused a permanent disability.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

D8. Retirement income

People with disabilities who are employed are fully covered by social insurance and therefore receive a regular retirement pension once they retire. If the health situation of a working person deteriorates and he or she cannot continue their work they can apply for invalidity pension. To be entitled to this the person must have worked for a specified period that varies. The invalidity pension is a benefit that is part of the general pension insurance. People with disabilities who are not considered employable and therefore work in sheltered workshops (vocational therapy) or who do not work are not covered by social insurance; they are not entitled to receive a retirement income and thus live on social security. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 includes a sub-chapter on vocational therapy and lists the creation of social security coverage of people with disabilities in vocational therapy as the measure to take.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

E. Education

E1. Special schools

Integration in elementary schools was established by law in 1993 (section 8 Compulsory Schooling Act). Since then, parents of children with disability have had the right to choose whether their child attends a special school or a regular school. In 1996, this right to choose was also introduced for four years of the lower secondary level. However, special schools are very well established in Austria. Regarding the concrete implementation of school integration, there are significant differences between the nine provinces (rates ranging from between 35% to 80% of children with special educational needs being included). The barometer for inclusion that was published by the Lebenshilfe Austria in 2010 illustrates this situation very well. The Independent Monitoring Committee issued two statements on Inclusive Education (Art. 24 CRPD). It concludes that major efforts have to be made to move towards an inclusive educational system in Austria. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 lists several measures to further inclusive education in Austria: Participatory development of a strategy to implement an inclusive education system according to the CRPD; Development of inclusive model regions for the collection of knowledge and experience, on the basis of which a detailed developmental program shall be worked out; More school pilot projects for secondary education II; Increased number of integrated classes in the lower stage of general secondary school (AHS) throughout Austria; In-service training for teachers and school inspectors with a focus on the diagnosis of special educational needs and the counselling of parents; In-service training for teachers with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

E2. Mainstream schools

It is unclear whether the protection in the area of access to goods and services granted by the Federal Disability Equality Act ( Section 2) also comprises Federal education with regard to disability. If education is regarded as a service available to the public then disability is also covered in relation to Federal competences. As a step-by-step plan was set up to make all federal schools accessible it can be assumed that schools are subject to anti-discrimination laws with regard to disability. Apart from Federal schools, provinces and municipalities are responsible for school buildings and provincial laws govern these, but no overview is available on the details. The same applies to the provision of support for integrated schooling: nine provincial laws and regulations are the framework for each regional and individual case. As there has not been a distinct resource transfer from special schools to mainstream schools, integration in many cases has been delayed. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 lists several measures to further inclusive education in Austria:

  • Participatory development of a strategy to implement an inclusive education system according to the CRPD;
  • Development of inclusive model regions for the collection of knowledge and experience, on the basis of which a detailed developmental program shall be worked out;
  • More school pilot projects for secondary education II;
  • Increased number of integrated classes in the lower stage of general secondary school (AHS) throughout Austria;
  • Inservice training for teachers and school inspectors with a focus on the diagnosis of special educational needs and the counseling of parents;
  • Inservice training for teachers with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education.

In 2015 an overall educational reform was proposed that includes inclusion as an option for regular schools.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

There is no right for deaf or hearing impaired children to learn sign language, neither in mainstream nor in special schools. The curriculum for special schools for deaf or hearing impaired children, which applies to children in mainstream as well as in special schools, emphasizes the importance of oral language; sign language is considered an option or therapeutic exercise. There is a special curriculum for special schools for blind children that applies to children in mainstream as well as in special schools. Braille and the use of technical aids are compulsory at all school levels. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists several measures with regard to the needs of children with visual and hearing impairments respectively for children who are blind or deaf:

  • Development and diversification of accessible teaching materials, especially for blind and deaf children;
  • In-service training for teaching children with hearing impairments;
  • Development of information for using manual- and sign language systems;
  • Development of a bilingual databank (Austrian sign language and German) and development of information for teachers as well as for parents.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

E4. Vocational training

Integration in vocational schools was established in 2003 when the Vocational Training Act was modified. Vocational school students with learning difficulties may either expand their first vocational school year over two years, or finish their training with a partial qualification. These two models are called integrated vocational training. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists two measures with regard to vocational training:

  • Continuing the two models of integrated vocational training
  • Making integrated vocational training possible for youth with disabilities who serve a sentence

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

E5. Higher education

Universities are covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act. The Federal University Act enshrines the right for a modified examination method for students with disabilites. There are representatives for students with disabilities and chronic diseases at many universities in Austria. They offer support and information, ‘Uniability’ is their Austrian wide network. According to a comprehensive report on the situation of students with health impairments, 1,1% of all students – more men than women – consider themselves as having a disability, 12% have a health impairment. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-202 lists five measures with regard to higher education:

  • Awareness raising for inclusion in the framework of the negotiations for performance agreements for the period 2013-2015;
  • Continuting the pilot project 'studying as a deaf person' at the Vienna University of Technology and securing the institutes 'Integrated Study';
  • In the framework of the negotiations for performance agreements with the universities talks about the possible increase of training programmes for sign language interpreters and sign language teachers;
  • Networking of existing support services;
  • Study on the situation of students with health impairments at universities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

The Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People imposes a duty on employers to employ disabled people (according to a quota system), confers protection against dismissal and arranges for grants or loans. The Act only covers what it defines as ’advantaged disabled‘ people who must have a certain degree of impairment as well as a certain productive capability. The Act includes regulations for anti-discrimination in employment as well as the concept of reasonable accommodation. It provides for protection against direct and indirect discrimination. Anti-discrimination regulations include people with all kinds of disabilities, not only advantaged-disabled. For employees with disabilities in institutions which are under the responisbility of the Laender, there are individual provincial laws for non-discrimination.

The Independent Monitoring Committee issued two statements with regard to employment: one on work and employment and one on the legal situation of people with disabilities in sheltered workshops.

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes three measures with regard to non-discrimination in employment

  • Developing cornerstones for the further development of non-discrimination measures with the participation of people with disabilities;
  • Improving non-discrimination measures in the field of employment according to changes in the General Act on Equal Treatment;
  • Evaluating the amendments to the Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People as of 1 January 2011.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

F2. Public employment services

The public employment service Austria offers information and services for people with disabilities. However, the central government agency concerned with the employment of people with disabilities is the Social Ministry Service, which is responsible for the operative regulation of employment agendas for people with disabilities. The main provisions and support services are: wage subsidies for employers, mobility subsidies, work place adaptation, supported employment, clearing (transition from school to work), qualification projects, integrated vocational training, employment projects and personal assistance at the workplace.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

F3. Workplace adaptations

To make a workplace or a vocational-training place and all related facilities accessible for employee(s) with disabilities, adaptations can be funded or financially supported by the Social Ministry Service. Funding is limited to 50% of the total costs, however, in single cases, 100% of the costs are covered. Necessary assistive devices or technical equipment that are directly linked to the occupation can be funded up to 100%. Also, granting of a loan is possible. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes one measure with regard to workplace adaptation:

  • Information event on workplace adaptations for the labour inspection, the public employment service and the Social Ministry Service

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

F4. Financial incentives

Wage subsidies are one of the main public measures to support employment of people with disabilities. If a company employs a person with a disability they can receive a benefit for covering wages and social security payments. This is considered an incentive for businesses to employ unemployed people with disabilities. According to the Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People, all employers employing 25 employees or more are obliged to employ at least one person with disabilities for each group of 25 employees. If they do not employ people with disabilities according to this quota they have to pay a compensation fee. Depending on the size of the business the compensation fee ranges between € 226 and €336 per month and per not employed person with disability The quota applies to the public as well as to the private sector. In 2010, 22.8% of all employers who were obliged to employ people with disabilities fulfilled this obligation, the public sector fulfills 66% of its employment duty.

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists several measures to further the employment of people with disabilities, e.g.:

  • Developing a comprehensive concept 'Support structures'
  • Evaluating this concept
  • Develop a pilot project 'Inclusive Employment'
  • Evaluating this pilot project
  • Implementing the results of both evaluations
  • Austrian wide implementation of Youth Coaching
  • Specific support of women with disabilities who are far away from the labour market

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

There is no specific research institute for disability equality or for the collection of data on disability. Some university institutes or small research teams at universities deal with disability issues: a research focus on inclusive education and disability studies at the University of Innsbruck, the Institute Integrated Study at the University of Linz, a Center for Sign Language and the Communication of Hearing Impaired People at the University of Klagenfurt, the Research Unit for Special Needs and Inclusive Education at the University of Vienna, the Institute for Inclusive Education at the College for Education in Linz, the Department for Social and Inclusive Education at the University of Klagenfurt, the Center for Applied Assistive Technologies at the University for Technology Vienna, the working group for sign-language and deaf-culture at the University of Graz and Vienna, Bidok which is a scientific online library with full text articles dealing with disability issues and a general focus on inclusion. There is no particular funding body for disability (equality) research in Austria. There is an informal network of individual researchers doing disability research, DISTA (Disability Studies Austria).

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on research that lists two measures:

  • Intensified research on the situation of people with learning difficulties
  • Longtime study on the effect of sport on the health of people with disabilities

Links

Update date: Tue, 2016-03-22

G2. Census data

A census takes place every ten years in Austria. The census of 2001 did not identify people with disabilities. In 2007, there was a microcensus with a focus on people with disabilities living in private households. A census took place in 2011, it did not identify persons with disabilities either. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on statistics which lists four measures:

  • Participating at the uniform and systematic data collection of the European Union (Eurostat) on the situation of people with disabilities;
  • Periodical analysis of EU-SILC Data with a focus on people with disabilities;
  • Development of an appropriate modus to ask for disabilities in statistic data collections;
  • Contract for a survey 'People with Disabilities in Austria' on the occasion of the 2nd State report for the UN CRPD.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

G3. Labour Force Survey

The national Labour Force Survey in Austria does not identify people with disabilities in its collection of data. Statistics on the labour market and people with disabilities are provided on a special website 'work and disability', data is updated on a regular basis.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-06-08

G4. Disability equality indicators

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 includes indicators in some target areas, e.g. (list is not comprehensive):

1. Chapter 3: Accessibility – subchapter 6: media
Indicator: Percentage of accessible broadcasts in the Austrian Broadcast

2. Chapter 4: Education – subchapter 3: accessibility
Indicator: Number of accessible teaching materials

3. Chapter 5: Employment – subchapter 1: general
Indicator: Unemployment rate of people with disabilities
Indicator: Number of workplaces in integrated businesses

4. Chapter 6: Independent Living – subchapter 1: general
Indicator: Number of places in institutions
Indicator: Number of places in models for independent living
Indicator: Number of supported self-advocacies

5. Chapter 7: Health and Rehabilitation – subchapter 3: rehabilitation
Indicator: In the context of in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation the waiting period is an indicator. The goal is reached when the waiting period is less than three months

6. Chapter 8: Awareness raising and information
No indicators listed

An advisory group to accompany the implementation of the National Action Plan is mentioned which should develop the indicators. No specific agency is responsible, no data sources or time-tables are specified either.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

The Federal Minsistry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection and the Social Ministry Service are officially responsible for promoting and raising awareness of the equality and rights of people with disabilities. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 has a chapter on awareness raising and information, which includes five sub-chapters: research, statistics, reports, public relations and the provision of information as well as training of professional groups. Apart from continuing and improving existing sources of information, two measures for general awareness raising are planned:

  • Raising the awareness and spreading information on the CRPD, also in Easy to Read Language
  • Information Campaign in 2016: 'Letting people with disabilities participate - Austria's way to inclusion'

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H2. Training for teachers

In 2013, a new framework and concept was introduced for teacher training in Austria. It is called 'New Teacher Training' and includes compulsory training for inclusive education for all teachers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 does not include any measures to generally raise disability awareness in teacher training. It includes measures with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education which are not compulsory for all teachers.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H3. Training for lawyers

Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programmes for lawyers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes training on disability and disability law as a measure in the juridical field.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H4. Training for doctors

Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programmes for doctors. The Independent Monitoring Committee held a public meeting with a focus on health care for persons with disabilities. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 in its chapter on health and rehabilitation includes two measures to raise disability awareness for doctors and medical staff:

  • Pre-service and in-service training of medical and care staff on the necessary needs of people with disabilities;
  • Sign language training for medical doctors to make possible confidential conversations between deaf people and their doctors.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H5. Training for engineers

Disability awareness, equality issues, accessibility or universal design are not a compulsory part of training programmes for engineers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 mentions training for engineers in two measures in its chapter on accessibility:

  • Making sure that courses on accessibility are being offered in training programmes where relevant;
  • Accessibility as a compulsory subject in all relevant trainings.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

H6. International development aid

The Austria Development Cooperation has published recommendations for considering the needs of people with disabilities in international development aid, but these are not binding. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on international development aid which lists four measures:

  • Continuing framework programs for Non-Governmental Organisations to strengthen rehabilitation and human rights of people with disabilities;
  • Support of people with disabilities in the context of anti-mines-programes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the South Caucasus;
  • Support of a partnership between the University of Vienna and the University of Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) with a focus on higher education, technical support and employment of people with disabilities;
  • Pre-service and in-service training of employees with a focus on the inclusion of people with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2016-03-18

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                    [title] => Romania
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
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                    [id] => 30
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovenia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 31
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
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                    [path] => 
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                    [id] => 33
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => united-kingdom
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
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            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
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                    [id] => 40
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
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        )

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                    [level] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 3
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                    [title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [id] => 6
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                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 7
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 8
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
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                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [10] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 21
                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [12] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 16
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                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 17
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                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 18
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                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 19
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                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                    [title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 21
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                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 41
                    [rgt] => 58
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
                    [title] => D. Independent living
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                    [title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 46
                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [24] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 26
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                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [25] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [lft] => 50
                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 28
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 52
                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [27] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 29
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 54
                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
                    [title] => D7. Additional costs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [28] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 22
                    [lft] => 56
                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 59
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
                    [title] => E. Education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 5
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 34
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 80
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [6] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Austria
                    [location_id] => 6
                    [location_slug] => austria
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Austria signed the UNCRPD and the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention and the Protocol in July 2008. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 September 2010. According to Art. 45(2) both instruments entered into force for the Republic of Austria on 26 October 2008 and were published on 23 October 2008 in the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl. III Nr. 155/2008).
                                    [update_date] => 2016-12-28 18:13:45
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Federal Law Gazette 2008/III/155
                                                    [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2008_III_155/BGBLA_2008_III_155.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Austria signed the UNCRPD and the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention and the Protocol in July 2008. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 September 2010. According to Art. 45(2) both instruments entered into force for the Republic of Austria on 26 October 2008 and were published on 23 October 2008 in the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl. III Nr. 155/2008).
                                    [update_date] => 2016-12-28 18:15:50
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Federal Law Gazette 2008/III/155
                                                    [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2008_III_155/BGBLA_2008_III_155.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => There were no declarations or reservations on the Austrian part to the Convention or the Protocol but Austria raised an objection to the reservation made by El Salvador.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:18:29
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Federal Law Gazette 2008/III/155
                                                    [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2008_III_155/BGBLA_2008_III_155.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => After the ratification of the CRPD, the Austrian government introduced a committee for the monitoring of the implementation of the CRPD. In the explanatory remarks of the Federal Law for the constitution of this monitoring committee it is stated:  'It has to be assumed that the specific rights which are set in the agreement are already established by law in the Austrian legal system in terms of content before the signing of the Convention.'
                                    [update_date] => 2016-12-28 18:17:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amendment to the Federal Disability Act
                                                    [url] => http://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/XXIII/I/I_00587/fnameorig_111163.html
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => In Austria, the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is the governmental focal point at the federal level. At the moment regional focal points are being appointed at the level of the nine provinces (Laender).
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-04 12:00:22
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Information on the CRPD provided by the Federal Ministry for Social Affairs
                                                    [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/site/Soziales/Menschen_mit_Behinderungen/UN_Konvention_ueber_die_Rechte_von_Menschen_mit_Behinderungen/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is the coordinating body for the UN CRPD.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:13:51
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Information on the National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 provided by the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection 
                                                    [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/site/Soziales/Menschen_mit_Behinderungen/UN_Konvention_ueber_die_Rechte_von_Menschen_mit_Behinderungen/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (BMASK)
                                                    [url] => https://www.sozialministerium.at/cms/site/attachments/1/4/1/CH3434/CMS1450698563210/national_action_plan_disability_2012-2020.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => The 2008 Federal Disability Act established the Independent Monitoring Committee for the implementation of the CRPD as a committee of the Federal Disability Advisory Board at the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Its members are representatives of disabled people's organisations, NGOs in the fields of human rights and international development as well as one academic representative. The Monitoring Committee’s tasks are to report to the Federal Disability Advisory Board, to make statements and recommendations on the rights of people with disabilities and to ask administrative bodies for statements in individual cases. The Independent Monitoring Committee started its work in 2009 and has since published several statements on different areas of Austrian disability policy. All provinces established some kind of monitoring by December 2015, however, the competences of the monitoring bodies vary considerably.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:19:17
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Homepage of the Independent Monitoring Committee
                                                    [url] => http://www.monitoringausschuss.at
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Rules of Procedure for the Independent Monitoring Committee (in English ) 
                                                    [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/download/documents-in-english/MA_GO_2009_04_01_EN.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The first comprehensive State report on the implementation of the UN-Disability Rights Convention in Austria was due on 26 October 2010. In accordance with Art. 35 (1) the report was adopted by the federal government on 5 October 2010 and was submitted on time. The first state review took place in September 2013, concluding observations and recommendations were issued by the UN-CRPD committee.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-03 12:19:54
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=10&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation:
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=10
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => The Austrian Disability Council (Österreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Rehabilitation) the officially recognised umbrella association of Austrian disability organisations and service providers, in cooperation with several NGOs from the disability and anti-discrimination field, human rights experts and academics issued a comprehensive shadow report. Additionally, the Independent Monitoring Committee, the Austrian Litigation Association of NGOs against discrimination and the Austrian Forum on Sex workers submitted statements. Finally, the Austrian Disability Council replied to the list of issues that had been issued by the CRPD committee.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:31:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=10
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Shadow report published by the Austrian Disability Council (in English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.oear.or.at/ihr-recht/un-behindertenrechtskonvention/zivilgesellschaftsbericht/Austria_CRPD_AlternativeReport_final_2608.doc/view
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Reply to the list of issues submitted by the Austrian Disability Council (in English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.oear.or.at/ihr-recht/un-behindertenrechtskonvention/zivilgesellschaftsbericht/1-osterreichischer-zivilgesellschaftsbericht/answers_LoI_BKF_final.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Statement submitted to the UN CRPD committee by the Independent Monitoring Committee (in English)
                                                    [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/download/berichte/MA_Report_to_UN_Committee.pdf
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Statement submitted to the UN CRPD Committee by the Austrian Litigation Association of NGOs against Discrimination (in English)
                                                    [url] => http://www.klagsverband.at/dev/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/klagsverband-crpd.doc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => In 1997, an anti-discrimination clause and a commitment by the Republic to the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled people was amended to the federal constitutional law, which states that: ’Nobody may be discriminated against because of his or her disability. The Republic (federal government, the  provinces and local authorities) commits itself to guaranteeing the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled persons in all fields of everyday life.’ This constitutional clause may only be considered a political declaration of will and did not directly become effective; regulations needed to be implemented into further legal acts. Furthermore, it is relevant when a legal act is proved by the Austrian Constitutional Court and the question is arisen if this act is in line with the constitution. At the beginning of 2006, the Disability Equality Act was introduced and an amendment to the Disability Employment Act came into force as well as an amendment to the Federal Disability Act. The latter creates the position of the Federal Disability Ombudsman (section 13b ff. Federal Disability Act). The Federal Disability Equality Act provides protection against direct and indirect discrimination in the whole administration of the Federation including the Federation as bearer of private rights ( Section 2 paragraph 1 Federal Disability Equality Act). The Federal Disability Equality Act also covers protection against discrimination regarding access to and supply of goods and services available to the public as far as the matter is covered by Federal competence. This includes all legal relationships, their initiation and conclusion as well as claiming of benefits outside a legal relationship ( section 2 paragraph 2 Federal Disability Equality Act). There is no legal requirement that discrimination must be eliminated; there is an entitlement to compensation for individual damages. On the basis of the First State Review, the UN-CRPD committee „recommends that the discrimination laws be strengthened by broadening the available remedies to include other remedies that require a change of behaviour in people who discriminate against persons with disabilities, such as injunctive powers. The Committee recommends that the State party examine the appropriateness of the current structures used to deal with situations of multiple discrimination.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:19:32
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Federal Disability Equality Act
                                                    [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004228
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Information on Disability Equality provided by the Social Ministry Service
                                                    [url] => http://www.bundessozialamt.gv.at/basb/Behindertengleichstellung
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => The General Civil Code distinguishes between legal capacity ( section 16 General Civil Code) and the capacity to act. A person’s capacity to act includes the capacity to contract ( section 865 General Civil Code) and to be found culpable of a crime ( section 15 and 1307ff. General Civil Code). Adults are considered capable of contracting and managing if they are able to arrange their affairs in a reasonable way and to comply with laws. People who are not able to foresee the consequences of their actions due to their age, their reduced cognitive abilities or reduced consciousness are considered not, or only partially capable of acting. Such people come under special legal protection and are allocated a representative. Protection is provided by a system of guardianship. The task or responsibilities of a guardian can be as follows: a single legal act, e.g. inheritance procedures; a certain range of matters, e.g. dealing with official authorities, administration of assets; or all matters, e.g. administration of all finances, consent to medical treatment etc. ( section 268ff. General Civil Code). In May 2012, the independent monitoring committee published a statement on legal capacity, guardianship and supported decision making.

The National Action Plan on Disability lists four measures with regard to legal capacity: Amendment of guardianship legislation with the participation of people with disabilities; Creation of a model of supported decision-making with the involvement of people with disabilities; Ongoing further training events with the involvement of self-advocates in order to ensure that the current guardianship legislation is applied more thoroughly and to support the further development of guardianship law; Via increased funding, guardianship associations should be enabled to take over additional cases and functions

On the basis of the First State Review, the UN-CRPD committee „recommends that substituted decision making be replaced with supported decision making. The Committee recommends that Austria do more to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to supported decision-making and are not placed under guardianship. The Committee recommends that supported decision making structures should respect the person’s autonomy, will and preferences, and be in full conformity with article 12 of the Convention, including with respect to the individual's right, in his/her own capacity, to give and withdraw informed consent for medical treatment, to access justice, to vote, to marry, to work, and to choose a place of residence. The Committee also recommends that disabled persons organizations be involved in all aspects of the pilot program on supported decision-making. The Committee further recommends that the State party provide training, in consultation and cooperation with persons with disabilities and their representative organizations of persons with disabilities, at the national, regional and local levels for all actors, including civil servants, judges, and social workers, on the recognition of the legal capacity of persons with disabilities and on mechanisms of supported decision-making.” [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:19:19 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on custodianship provided by the Austrian government [url] => http://www.help.gv.at/Content.Node/290/Seite.2900000.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statement on supported decision making published by the independent monitoring committee (in English): [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/download/documents-in-english/MA_SN_supported_decision_making_2012_05_21.pdf ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => The right to full political participation is enshrined in the Austrian Constitution. No particular group of people with disabilities is denied the right to vote. Election regulations for the National Parliament say that blind people and persons with visual impairments or physical disabilities should be able to access polling stations with their personal assistants. It is up to the election authorities, however, to decide individually whether personal assistants or persons of trust are allowed to accompany persons with disabilities into the polling booth. There is no overview on how far polling stations should be accessible for people with mobility or visual impairments. No comprehensive overview is available of the regulations for other elections (e.g. for the provincial governments). [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:19:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report of the Fundamental Rights Agency on the Right to Political Participation (in English) [url] => http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/1216-Report-vote-disability_EN.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => ANED Country report on citizenship and political participation [url] => http://www.disability-europe.net/content/aned/media/ANED%202013%20Task%203%264%20-%20AT%20-%20FINAL.doc ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulation on federal parliamentary elections (in English) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_1992_471/ERV_1992_471.pdf ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => In September 2005, sign language was constitutionally recognised as an official language in Austria (Art. 8 (3) Federal Constitutional Law). Further details regarding the provision of sign language have been implemented for civil court procedures (§ 73a Law for Civil Court Procedures) and criminal court procedures (56 (2) Law for Criminal Court Procedures) as well as for administrative procedures (General Administration Procedure Act) in the relevant laws. [update_date] => 2015-06-23 17:06:22 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal constitutional law (German/English version) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_1930_1/ERV_1930_1.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil Court Procedure Act [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10001699 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Criminal Court Procedure Act [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002326 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => General Administration Procedure Act (German/English version) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_1991_51/ERV_1991_51.pdf ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => In July 2012, the “National Action Plan on Disability 2012 – 2020: Strategy of the Austrian Federal Government for the implementation of the Disability Rights Convention. Inclusion as a human right and a mandate” passed by the Council of Ministers. This National Action Plan is the new Disability Strategy of the Federal Government and does not include responsibilities of the Provincial Governments (Laender).

The National Action Plan on Disability includes the following eight main topics with specific subchapters:Disability Policy; Protection against discrimination; Accessibility; Education; Employment; Living Independently; Health and Rehabilitation; Awareness-Raising and Information.

The development of the National Action Plan on Disability has been informed by the UN CRPD as well as by the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020. A regional action plan is available in Styria, it covers the competences of the province of Styria. [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:34:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 (in English) [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Styrian Actionplan for the Implementation of the CRPD [url] => http://www.soziales.steiermark.at/cms/dokumente/11910254_94717223/8a076d76/Aktionsplan.pdf ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Accessibility of all kind of public transport services is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act. The Act defines accessibility to be that a means of transport can be used by people with disabilities without any particular difficulty and in principle without any outside help. Every public transport company had to design a step-by-step plan for making all of their facilities accessible by the end of 2015. The Federal Disability Act provides a claim for financial compensation of the material or immaterial damage suffered in the case of discrimination. It neither includes an injunctive relief or a claim for the removal of barriers.

A blind man submitted a complaint to the UN CRPD Committee under the optional protocol which was replied to in 2015. The UN CRPD Committee asks Austria to improve accessibility of written information with regard to public transportation. [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:41:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Disability Equality Act [url] => https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004228 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => A brochure on accessible mobility on the basis of the Federal Disability Equality Act published by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology [url] => http://www.bmvit.gv.at/service/publikationen/verkehr/gesamtverkehr/downloads/mobilitaet.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the individual complaint of a blind man to the UN CRPD Committee under the optional protocol [url] => http://www.klagsverband.at/archives/10220 ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => Accessibility of the built environment is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act as far as federal buildings and private businesses are concerned. The Act says that access is given if buildings or services offered to the public can be used by people with disabilities without any particular difficulty and in principle without any outside help. According to the Federal Disability Act, a step-by-step plan was established to make all federal buildings accessible by the end of 2015. In 2010, the federal government introduced the option to postpone this deadline until 2019 in the framework of consolidating the budget. The Federal Disability Equality Act provides grounds for a claim to compensation for facing barriers but it does not provide any obligation or claim to remove barriers. Due to the long period of transition for the implementation of the Act by 2015, steps to eliminate physical barriers are taken at the discretion of businesses in line with their economic priorities. Apart from Federal buildings, building laws are the responsibility of the nine provinces and nine further laws cover the issue of accessibility differently. Additionally, each province has individual technical regulations for planning and buildings. The provincial laws as well as the technical regulations deal with accessibility quite differently with regard to standards and quality, for private as well as for public buildings. No comprehensive overview is available on the overall situation in Austria. In 2005, the Austrian Parliament passed a resolution that requested the Minister for Social Affairs to negotiate with the provinces for a unified contract for accessibility provisions in the planning and building laws. This led to standard guidelines on accessibility for planning and building which were developed by the Austrian Institute for structural engineering in 2007 and which were also agreed upon with all provinces. In 2015 the guidelines for user security and accessibility were changed. The reference to Austrian Standard B-1600 regarding standards for accessibility were deleted. The Austrian provinces are about to agree to the new guidelines. [update_date] => 2016-03-17 14:47:36 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Austrian Institute of Construction Engineering [url] => http://www.oib.or.at/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guidelines for user security and accessibility published by the Austrian Institute of Construction Engineering [url] => http://www.oib.or.at/de/guidelines/richtlinie-4-1 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Disability Equality Act [url] => https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004228 ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => Accessibility of information processing is covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act as far as federal responsibilities and private businesses are concerned. The Federal Disability Act does not establish any obligation for removing barriers in the case of discrimination, it only provides a claim for a low level of compensation. Austria signed the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled but has not ratified it. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 11:08:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => E-Government Act (in English) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokument.wxe?Abfrage=Erv&Dokumentnummer=ERV_2004_1_10 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Disability Equality Act: [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004228 ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => Support services for people with disabilities are the responsibility of the nine Austrian provinces (Laender). Each province has its own law that defines and regulates such services. None of the nine provincial laws obliges people with disabilities to live in a particular living arrangement, but none of them includes a legal right to live independently in the community either. No general overview is available on which services are provided in the nine provinces, but there is usually a variety of special housing services: personal assistance, attended housing, shared apartments with attendance, institutional care or residential homes. Some people with disabilities live in care homes for the elderly. There are major differences between larger towns and rural regions with regard to the availability of services. In its introduction to the chapter on Independent Living, the National Action Plan Disability 2012-2020 generally describes this situation. [update_date] => 2014-04-04 11:49:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020. Strategy of the Austrian Federal Government for the Implementation of the UN Disability Rights Convention. Inclusion as a Human Right and a Mandate (in English) [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => In Austria, the term de-institutionalisation has so far mainly been used to refer to moving people with disabilities out of psychiatric hospitals. In 1991 the so called Placement Act came into force that regulates the placement of people in psychiatric hospitals. However, the National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 emphasizes the necessity of a more comprehensive program for de-institutionalisation in all Austrian provinces (Laender). It states that large institutions should be reduced and that individual support services should be built up. The National Action Plan does not include any particular measures to obtain this goal. On the basis of the First State Review, the UN CRPD Committee 'recommends that the State party shall ensure that the Federal Government and the Governments of the Länder place greater efforts on de-institutionalisation and in allowing persons with disabilities to choose where they live.' [update_date] => 2016-03-18 11:17:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Placement Act [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002936 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020. Strategy of the Austrian Federal Government for the Implementation of the UN Disability Rights Convention. Inclusion as a Human Right and a Mandate: [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => In 2012, the Austrian Ombudsman Board (AOB) took over new responsibilities based on the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) as well as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD). The AOB and controlling commissions established by the AOB undertake preventive measures to ensure compliance with and implementation of these two international treaties. The new investigative mandate extends to all institutions and facilities where people with and without disabilities are in danger of abuse, inhuman treatment and measures that deprive or may deprive them of their liberty. Experts from different disciplines carry out the visits in these institutions and facilities. They collect information and facts and evaluate them as set out in the international treaties. The AOB and its Commissions undertake this responsibility as the so-called National Preventive Mechanism (NPM). This also includes the prevention of any form of exploitation, violence and abuse in institutions and facilities designed to serve people with disabilities as outlines in Art. 16 of the CRPD. The Austrian Ombudsman Board publishes an annual report on the activities of the NPM that includes a chapter on institutions and facilities for persons with disabilities. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 11:21:01 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on preventive human rights monitoring of the Austrian Ombudsman Board [url] => http://volksanwaltschaft.gv.at/en/preventive-human-rights-monitoring ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Annual Report on the activities of the Austrian National Preventive Mechanism 2014 [url] => http://volksanwaltschaft.gv.at/downloads/66ouj/Report%20on%20the%20activities%20of%20the%20NPM%20-%202014.pdf ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => The principle of causality is decisive for which insurance or which official authority is concerned with financing assistive equipment and adaptations for people with disabilities. Health, pension and work insurance institutions are responsible as well as the Social Ministry Service and the authorities for social affairs in the nine provinces. In many cases several authorities are responsible for financing special equipment. People with disabilities who work are generally advantaged because there are additional funds for providing them with assistive technology or for financing adaptations at the workplace as well as at home. There is provision of rehabilitation and assistive equipment for those who have an accident at the workplace or on the way to work. Work accidents are covered by the AUVA (Allgemeine Unfall-Versicherungs-Anstalt = General Accident Insurance Institute). The AUVA is the national accident insurance company and all people who are gainfully employed must pay for this obligatory insurance. Children born with a disability and adults with disabilities who do not work are not covered by this insurance. So they have to apply for funding at the social service departments of their respective provinces for up-to-date equipment like electric wheelchairs. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on assistive devices. To improve the provision of assistive devices for people with disabilities, it proposes four measures:1) Closer cooperation of all institutions and authorities that fund assistive devices;2) Creation of assistive devices contact-points for people with disabilities, especially for children with disabilities;3) Closing gaps in the funding of assistive devices for people with disabilities;4) Continuing the existing online databank on assistive devices. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 11:47:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Online Databank on assistive devices [url] => http://www.hilfsmittelinfo.gv.at/ ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => Apart from Personal Assistance at the Workplace, which is a national programme, all support services are regulated and funded individually by the nine provinces. Personal Assistance is only available in some Austrian regions, depending mainly on the existence of strong Centres for Independent Living as in Upper-Austria, Tyrol and Vienna. Upper-Austria was the first province that included the option of Personal Assistance into the Act for Equal Chances for people with disabilities in 2008. In Vienna, the so called Addition to the long-term care benefit for personal assistance was introduced in 2008. This is a model of direct payment according to individual needs that is limited to people with severe physical or mobility impairments. People who already receive institutional care or people with learning difficulties are excluded from this programme. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on Personal Assistance. It lists three measures to implement the provision of Personal Assistance services in Austria:1) Developing a concept for a federally uniform regulation for Personal Assistance that includes people with all forms of impairments. The concept shall be developed with the participation of people with disabilities;2) Considering Personal Assistance in the fiscal equalization scheme;3) Developing guidelines for Personal Assistance in federal schools. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 11:55:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Addition to the long-term-care benefit for Personal Assistance in Vienna [url] => http://behinderung.fsw.at/unterstuetzung_im_alltag/pge/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on Personal Assistance at the Workplace provided by the Social Ministry Service: [url] => https://www.sozialministeriumservice.at/site/UnternehmerInnen/Persoenliche_Assistenz_am_Arbeitsplatz ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => A means-tested minimum income was introduced to the Austrian social-security system in 2010. In an agreement, the federal government and the provincial governments laid down the main points for a means-tested minimum income, which is now being implemented in the corresponding national and provincial legislation. People with disabilities are not excluded from the means-tested minimum-income. To be entitled for this benefit, a person must meet certain requirements, e.g. he or she must be capable of working and must be willing to work. If a person with disabilities is not deemed capable of working or is not considered employable, he or she would be entitled to a means of subsistence according to the individual provincial law that regulates services for people with disabilities. No comprehensive overview is available on the details of the nine provincial Acts for means-tested income. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:18:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the means-tested minimum income provided by the Austrian government [url] => http://www.help.gv.at/Content.Node/169/Seite.1693903.html ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => Several benefits aim at covering additional costs caused by disabilities: 1) Long-term care benefit: The long-term care benefit aims at compensating additional costs of long-term care, in the form of a flat-rate cash benefit (from 154.20 to 1,655.80 euro per month) to ensure, as far as possible, the provision of necessary attendance and support, and to improve their chances of living an independent life according to their needs. To receive long-term care benefit a person has to qualify as follows: a person must be in need of care due to a physical, cognitive or mental impairment that lasts for at least six months (permanent need for care must amount to at least 60 hours per month). The long-term care benefit is organised in seven levels according to the need of care, which is estimated in hours per month. About 80% of all people who receive long-term care benefit are older than 60 years. 2) Increased Family Allowance: If a child has a disability, parents may apply for an increased family allowance. The supplement is 138.30 euro per month (as of 1 January 2009) and is paid in addition to the regular family allowance. Adults with disabilities who are not considered employable or capable of working may receive increased family allowance beyond the usual age limit. The usual age limit is the end of vocational training. 3) Accident Benefit: This benefit is paid after a work related accident that caused a permanent disability. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:04:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on increased family allowance provided by the Austrian government: [url] => http://www.help.gv.at/Content.Node/122/Seite.1220330.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on accident benefit provided by the Austrian accident insurance: [url] => http://www.auva.at/portal27/portal/auvaportal/channel_content/cmsWindow?p_tabid=4&p_menuid=1897&action=2 ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => People with disabilities who are employed are fully covered by social insurance and therefore receive a regular retirement pension once they retire. If the health situation of a working person deteriorates and he or she cannot continue their work they can apply for invalidity pension. To be entitled to this the person must have worked for a specified period that varies. The invalidity pension is a benefit that is part of the general pension insurance. People with disabilities who are not considered employable and therefore work in sheltered workshops (vocational therapy) or who do not work are not covered by social insurance; they are not entitled to receive a retirement income and thus live on social security. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 includes a sub-chapter on vocational therapy and lists the creation of social security coverage of people with disabilities in vocational therapy as the measure to take. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:08:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on retirement pension [url] => http://www.pensionsversicherung.at/portal27/portal/pvaportal/channel_content/cmsWindow?action=2&p_menuid=5316&p_tabid=4 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on invalidity pension: [url] => http://www.pensionsversicherung.at/portal27/portal/pvaportal/channel_content/cmsWindow?p_tabid=4&p_menuid=5320&action=2 ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => Integration in elementary schools was established by law in 1993 (section 8 Compulsory Schooling Act). Since then, parents of children with disability have had the right to choose whether their child attends a special school or a regular school. In 1996, this right to choose was also introduced for four years of the lower secondary level. However, special schools are very well established in Austria. Regarding the concrete implementation of school integration, there are significant differences between the nine provinces (rates ranging from between 35% to 80% of children with special educational needs being included). The barometer for inclusion that was published by the Lebenshilfe Austria in 2010 illustrates this situation very well. The Independent Monitoring Committee issued two statements on Inclusive Education (Art. 24 CRPD). It concludes that major efforts have to be made to move towards an inclusive educational system in Austria. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 lists several measures to further inclusive education in Austria: Participatory development of a strategy to implement an inclusive education system according to the CRPD; Development of inclusive model regions for the collection of knowledge and experience, on the basis of which a detailed developmental program shall be worked out; More school pilot projects for secondary education II; Increased number of integrated classes in the lower stage of general secondary school (AHS) throughout Austria; In-service training for teachers and school inspectors with a focus on the diagnosis of special educational needs and the counselling of parents; In-service training for teachers with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:18:05 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on integration, inclusion and special education provided by the Federal Ministry for Education [url] => http://www.cisonline.at/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => First Statement of the Independent Monitoring Committee on Inclusive Education (Art. 24 CRPD) [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/stellungnahmen/inklusive-bildung-10-06-2010/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Second Statement of the Independent Monitoring Committee on Inclusive Education (Art. 24 CRPD) [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/stellungnahmen/barrierefreie-bildung-fuer-alle-10-12-2012/ ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Barometer for Inclusion by Lebenshilfe Austria [url] => http://www.lebenshilfe.at/index.php?/de/Aktuelles/Inklusionsbarometer-der-Lebenshilfe ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 [url] => http://www.sozialministerium.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => It is unclear whether the protection in the area of access to goods and services granted by the Federal Disability Equality Act ( Section 2) also comprises Federal education with regard to disability. If education is regarded as a service available to the public then disability is also covered in relation to Federal competences. As a step-by-step plan was set up to make all federal schools accessible it can be assumed that schools are subject to anti-discrimination laws with regard to disability. Apart from Federal schools, provinces and municipalities are responsible for school buildings and provincial laws govern these, but no overview is available on the details. The same applies to the provision of support for integrated schooling: nine provincial laws and regulations are the framework for each regional and individual case. As there has not been a distinct resource transfer from special schools to mainstream schools, integration in many cases has been delayed. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 lists several measures to further inclusive education in Austria:

  • Participatory development of a strategy to implement an inclusive education system according to the CRPD;
  • Development of inclusive model regions for the collection of knowledge and experience, on the basis of which a detailed developmental program shall be worked out;
  • More school pilot projects for secondary education II;
  • Increased number of integrated classes in the lower stage of general secondary school (AHS) throughout Austria;
  • Inservice training for teachers and school inspectors with a focus on the diagnosis of special educational needs and the counseling of parents;
  • Inservice training for teachers with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education.

In 2015 an overall educational reform was proposed that includes inclusion as an option for regular schools. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:30:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on integration, inclusion and special education provided by the Federal Ministry for Education [url] => http://www.cisonline.at/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020. Strategy of the Austrian Government to implement the UN-CRPD. Inclusion as a human right and a mission (in DE) [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_web.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020. Strategy of the Austrian Government to implement the UN-CRPD. Inclusion as a human right and a mission (in EN) [url] => http://www.sozialministerium.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the 2015 proposal on an educational reform [url] => https://www.bmbf.gv.at/ministerium/vp/2015/20151117.pdf?55kaz6 ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => There is no right for deaf or hearing impaired children to learn sign language, neither in mainstream nor in special schools. The curriculum for special schools for deaf or hearing impaired children, which applies to children in mainstream as well as in special schools, emphasizes the importance of oral language; sign language is considered an option or therapeutic exercise. There is a special curriculum for special schools for blind children that applies to children in mainstream as well as in special schools. Braille and the use of technical aids are compulsory at all school levels. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists several measures with regard to the needs of children with visual and hearing impairments respectively for children who are blind or deaf:
  • Development and diversification of accessible teaching materials, especially for blind and deaf children;
  • In-service training for teaching children with hearing impairments;
  • Development of information for using manual- and sign language systems;
  • Development of a bilingual databank (Austrian sign language and German) and development of information for teachers as well as for parents.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:33:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Curriculum for special schools for deaf children [url] => http://www.cisonline.at/fileadmin/kategorien/BGBl_II__Nr_137_Anlage_C_2.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Curriculum for special schools for blind children: [url] => http://www.cisonline.at/fileadmin/kategorien/BGBl_II__Nr_137_Anlage_C_3.pdf ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Integration in vocational schools was established in 2003 when the Vocational Training Act was modified. Vocational school students with learning difficulties may either expand their first vocational school year over two years, or finish their training with a partial qualification. These two models are called integrated vocational training. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists two measures with regard to vocational training:
  • Continuing the two models of integrated vocational training
  • Making integrated vocational training possible for youth with disabilities who serve a sentence
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:43:48 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on integrated vocational training [url] => http://www.help.gv.at/Content.Node/183/Seite.1830000.html ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => Universities are covered by the Federal Disability Equality Act. The Federal University Act enshrines the right for a modified examination method for students with disabilites. There are representatives for students with disabilities and chronic diseases at many universities in Austria. They offer support and information, ‘Uniability’ is their Austrian wide network. According to a comprehensive report on the situation of students with health impairments, 1,1% of all students – more men than women – consider themselves as having a disability, 12% have a health impairment. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-202 lists five measures with regard to higher education:
  • Awareness raising for inclusion in the framework of the negotiations for performance agreements for the period 2013-2015;
  • Continuting the pilot project 'studying as a deaf person' at the Vienna University of Technology and securing the institutes 'Integrated Study';
  • In the framework of the negotiations for performance agreements with the universities talks about the possible increase of training programmes for sign language interpreters and sign language teachers;
  • Networking of existing support services;
  • Study on the situation of students with health impairments at universities.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:50:44 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Act on the Organisation of Universities and their Studies (Universities Act 2002) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_2002_1_120/ERV_2002_1_120.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => 'Uniability' Consortium for equalisation for people with disabilities and chronic deseases at Austrian universities and colleges [url] => http://info.tuwien.ac.at/uniability/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the situation of students with health impairments [url] => http://www.equi.at/dateien/IHS_Studierende_mit_Behinder.pdf ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => The Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People imposes a duty on employers to employ disabled people (according to a quota system), confers protection against dismissal and arranges for grants or loans. The Act only covers what it defines as ’advantaged disabled‘ people who must have a certain degree of impairment as well as a certain productive capability. The Act includes regulations for anti-discrimination in employment as well as the concept of reasonable accommodation. It provides for protection against direct and indirect discrimination. Anti-discrimination regulations include people with all kinds of disabilities, not only advantaged-disabled. For employees with disabilities in institutions which are under the responisbility of the Laender, there are individual provincial laws for non-discrimination.

The Independent Monitoring Committee issued two statements with regard to employment: one on work and employment and one on the legal situation of people with disabilities in sheltered workshops.

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes three measures with regard to non-discrimination in employment

  • Developing cornerstones for the further development of non-discrimination measures with the participation of people with disabilities;
  • Improving non-discrimination measures in the field of employment according to changes in the General Act on Equal Treatment;
  • Evaluating the amendments to the Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People as of 1 January 2011.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 12:57:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Disability Employment Act [url] => https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10008253 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on the employment of persons with disabilities provided by the Social Ministry Service [url] => http://sozialministeriumservice.at/site/Behindertengleichstellung/In_der_Arbeitswelt ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statement of the Independent Monitoring Committee on work and employment [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/stellungnahmen/arbeit-und-beschaeftigung-27-06-2011/ ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statement of the Independent Monitoring Committee on vocational therapy [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/stellungnahmen/beschaeftigungstherapie-16-02-2010/ ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The public employment service Austria offers information and services for people with disabilities. However, the central government agency concerned with the employment of people with disabilities is the Social Ministry Service, which is responsible for the operative regulation of employment agendas for people with disabilities. The main provisions and support services are: wage subsidies for employers, mobility subsidies, work place adaptation, supported employment, clearing (transition from school to work), qualification projects, integrated vocational training, employment projects and personal assistance at the workplace. [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:17:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Ministry Service [url] => http://www.sozialministeriumservice.at/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information for employees with disabilities provided by the Social Ministry Service [url] => https://www.sozialministeriumservice.at/site/DienstnehmerInnen ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Publich employment service Austria (in English) [url] => http://www.ams.at/english ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information for people with disabilities provided by the public employment service Austria [url] => http://www.ams.at/sfa/14075.html ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => To make a workplace or a vocational-training place and all related facilities accessible for employee(s) with disabilities, adaptations can be funded or financially supported by the Social Ministry Service. Funding is limited to 50% of the total costs, however, in single cases, 100% of the costs are covered. Necessary assistive devices or technical equipment that are directly linked to the occupation can be funded up to 100%. Also, granting of a loan is possible. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes one measure with regard to workplace adaptation:
  • Information event on workplace adaptations for the labour inspection, the public employment service and the Social Ministry Service
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 13:07:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guiding principles for the provisions and incentives under the Disability Employment Act provided by the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/site/Soziales/Menschen_mit_Behinderungen/Richtlinien/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information for employers provided by the Social Ministry Service: [url] => https://www.sozialministeriumservice.at/site/UnternehmerInnen ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => Wage subsidies are one of the main public measures to support employment of people with disabilities. If a company employs a person with a disability they can receive a benefit for covering wages and social security payments. This is considered an incentive for businesses to employ unemployed people with disabilities. According to the Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People, all employers employing 25 employees or more are obliged to employ at least one person with disabilities for each group of 25 employees. If they do not employ people with disabilities according to this quota they have to pay a compensation fee. Depending on the size of the business the compensation fee ranges between € 226 and €336 per month and per not employed person with disability The quota applies to the public as well as to the private sector. In 2010, 22.8% of all employers who were obliged to employ people with disabilities fulfilled this obligation, the public sector fulfills 66% of its employment duty.

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 lists several measures to further the employment of people with disabilities, e.g.:

  • Developing a comprehensive concept 'Support structures'
  • Evaluating this concept
  • Develop a pilot project 'Inclusive Employment'
  • Evaluating this pilot project
  • Implementing the results of both evaluations
  • Austrian wide implementation of Youth Coaching
  • Specific support of women with disabilities who are far away from the labour market
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 14:36:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Act on the Employment of Disabled People [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10008253 ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => There is no specific research institute for disability equality or for the collection of data on disability. Some university institutes or small research teams at universities deal with disability issues: a research focus on inclusive education and disability studies at the University of Innsbruck, the Institute Integrated Study at the University of Linz, a Center for Sign Language and the Communication of Hearing Impaired People at the University of Klagenfurt, the Research Unit for Special Needs and Inclusive Education at the University of Vienna, the Institute for Inclusive Education at the College for Education in Linz, the Department for Social and Inclusive Education at the University of Klagenfurt, the Center for Applied Assistive Technologies at the University for Technology Vienna, the working group for sign-language and deaf-culture at the University of Graz and Vienna, Bidok which is a scientific online library with full text articles dealing with disability issues and a general focus on inclusion. There is no particular funding body for disability (equality) research in Austria. There is an informal network of individual researchers doing disability research, DISTA (Disability Studies Austria).

The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on research that lists two measures:

  • Intensified research on the situation of people with learning difficulties
  • Longtime study on the effect of sport on the health of people with disabilities
[update_date] => 2016-03-22 12:12:22 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Research focus on Disability Studies and Inclusive education, University of Innsbruck [url] => https://www.uibk.ac.at/iezw/forschung/disability-studies-und-inklusive-paedagogik.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute for Integrated Study at the University of Linz [url] => http://www.jku.at/iis/content ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Centre for Sign Language and the Communication of Hearing Impaired People at the University of Klagenfurt [url] => http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/zgh/inhalt/1.htm ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Working Unit for Special Needs and Inclusive Education at the University of Vienna [url] => http://bildungswissenschaft.univie.ac.at/inklusive-paedagogik/arbeitsbereich/ ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute for Inclusive Education at the University for Education in Linz [url] => http://www.ph-ooe.at/inklusive-paedagogik.html ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Center for Inclusive Education and Special Education [url] => http://www.bzib.at/ ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Department for Social and Inclusive Education at the University of Klagenfurt [url] => http://www.ifeb.uni-klu.ac.at/index.php?id=44 ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Center for Applied Assistive Technologies at the University for Technology Vienna [url] => http://www.aat.tuwien.ac.at/index_en.html ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Bidok: scientific online library on the inclusion of people with disabilities [url] => http://bidok.uibk.ac.at/ ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Dista – Disability Studies Austria [url] => http://dista.uniability.org/ ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => A census takes place every ten years in Austria. The census of 2001 did not identify people with disabilities. In 2007, there was a microcensus with a focus on people with disabilities living in private households. A census took place in 2011, it did not identify persons with disabilities either. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on statistics which lists four measures:
  • Participating at the uniform and systematic data collection of the European Union (Eurostat) on the situation of people with disabilities;
  • Periodical analysis of EU-SILC Data with a focus on people with disabilities;
  • Development of an appropriate modus to ask for disabilities in statistic data collections;
  • Contract for a survey 'People with Disabilities in Austria' on the occasion of the 2nd State report for the UN CRPD.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:10:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Census 2011 - Austria [url] => http://www.statistik.at/web_en/publications_services/Publicationsdetails/index.html?includePage=detailedView§ionName=Population&pubId=685 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 [url] => http://www.sozialministerium.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => The national Labour Force Survey in Austria does not identify people with disabilities in its collection of data. Statistics on the labour market and people with disabilities are provided on a special website 'work and disability', data is updated on a regular basis. [update_date] => 2012-06-08 12:05:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Market Data provided by Statistics Austria (in English) [url] => http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/labour_market/index.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Data on work, employment and people with disabilities [url] => http://www.arbeitundbehinderung.at/de/arbeitsmarkt/arbeitsmarktdaten/index.php ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-20 includes indicators in some target areas, e.g. (list is not comprehensive):

1. Chapter 3: Accessibility – subchapter 6: media
Indicator: Percentage of accessible broadcasts in the Austrian Broadcast

2. Chapter 4: Education – subchapter 3: accessibility
Indicator: Number of accessible teaching materials

3. Chapter 5: Employment – subchapter 1: general
Indicator: Unemployment rate of people with disabilities
Indicator: Number of workplaces in integrated businesses

4. Chapter 6: Independent Living – subchapter 1: general
Indicator: Number of places in institutions
Indicator: Number of places in models for independent living
Indicator: Number of supported self-advocacies

5. Chapter 7: Health and Rehabilitation – subchapter 3: rehabilitation
Indicator: In the context of in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation the waiting period is an indicator. The goal is reached when the waiting period is less than three months

6. Chapter 8: Awareness raising and information
No indicators listed

An advisory group to accompany the implementation of the National Action Plan is mentioned which should develop the indicators. No specific agency is responsible, no data sources or time-tables are specified either. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:13:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020. Strategy of the Austrian Government to implement the UN-CRPD. Inclusion as a human right and a mission [url] => http://www.bmask.gv.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_web.pdf ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => The Federal Minsistry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection and the Social Ministry Service are officially responsible for promoting and raising awareness of the equality and rights of people with disabilities. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 has a chapter on awareness raising and information, which includes five sub-chapters: research, statistics, reports, public relations and the provision of information as well as training of professional groups. Apart from continuing and improving existing sources of information, two measures for general awareness raising are planned:

  • Raising the awareness and spreading information on the CRPD, also in Easy to Read Language
  • Information Campaign in 2016: 'Letting people with disabilities participate - Austria's way to inclusion'
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:16:21 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Information on disability equality provided by the Social Ministry Service [url] => http://www.bundessozialamt.gv.at/basb/Behindertengleichstellung ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => In 2013, a new framework and concept was introduced for teacher training in Austria. It is called 'New Teacher Training' and includes compulsory training for inclusive education for all teachers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 does not include any measures to generally raise disability awareness in teacher training. It includes measures with a focus on inclusive education and special needs education which are not compulsory for all teachers. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:17:44 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Law for the Organisation of Teacher Training Colleges and their studies [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004626 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programmes for lawyers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes training on disability and disability law as a measure in the juridical field. [update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:18:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Law for the Organisation of Universities and their Studies (German / English) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_2002_1_120/ERV_2002_1_120.pdf ) ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programmes for doctors. The Independent Monitoring Committee held a public meeting with a focus on health care for persons with disabilities. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 in its chapter on health and rehabilitation includes two measures to raise disability awareness for doctors and medical staff:
  • Pre-service and in-service training of medical and care staff on the necessary needs of people with disabilities;
  • Sign language training for medical doctors to make possible confidential conversations between deaf people and their doctors.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:20:16 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Law for the Organisation of Universities and their Studies (German / English) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_2002_1_120/ERV_2002_1_120.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Protocol of the public meeting of the Independent Monitoring Committee with a focus on health care for persons with disabilities [url] => http://monitoringausschuss.at/sitzungen/salzburg-23-04-2013-gesundheitsversorgung-fuer-alle/ ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => Disability awareness, equality issues, accessibility or universal design are not a compulsory part of training programmes for engineers. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 mentions training for engineers in two measures in its chapter on accessibility:
  • Making sure that courses on accessibility are being offered in training programmes where relevant;
  • Accessibility as a compulsory subject in all relevant trainings.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:23:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Federal Law for the Organisation of Universities and their studies (German / English) [url] => http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_2002_1_120/ERV_2002_1_120.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 [url] => http://www.sozialministerium.at/cms/site/attachments/7/7/8/CH2477/CMS1332494355998/nap_behinderung-web_2013-01-30_eng.pdf ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => The Austria Development Cooperation has published recommendations for considering the needs of people with disabilities in international development aid, but these are not binding. The National Action Plan on Disability 2012-2020 includes a sub-chapter on international development aid which lists four measures:
  • Continuing framework programs for Non-Governmental Organisations to strengthen rehabilitation and human rights of people with disabilities;
  • Support of people with disabilities in the context of anti-mines-programes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the South Caucasus;
  • Support of a partnership between the University of Vienna and the University of Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) with a focus on higher education, technical support and employment of people with disabilities;
  • Pre-service and in-service training of employees with a focus on the inclusion of people with disabilities.
[update_date] => 2016-03-18 15:25:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Recommendations for the inclusion of people with disabilities provided by the Austrian Development Agency [url] => http://www.entwicklung.at/uploads/media/Focus_Disabilities_May2011_01.pdf ) ) ) ) ) ) )