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Finland

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Finland signed the UN Convention on 3 March 2007. The Parliament accepted the governmental bill to ratify the UN Convention on 3 March 2015, which was followed by the ratification on 11 May 2016. The ratification entered into force on 10 June 2016.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Finland signed the optional protocol of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007, and ratified it on 11 May 2016. It entered into force on 10 June 2016.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Finland has not registered any Declarations, Reservations or Objections.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A4. Comprehensive review

A comprehensive review of the existing legislation was done before Finland ratified the UN Convention. On 1 January 2011 the Act on Home Municipality and the Social Welfare Act were modified to meet the demands of Article 19 of the UN Convention. Amendments have been done to the Act on Home Municipality and to the Act on Social Welfare Act, as well. These amendments made it possible for persons residing in institutional care, supported housing and adult foster care to move officially to a municipality where they have stayed in care at least for a year. After a lengthy preparation process, the Parliament made an amendment in the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) in 2016, which came into force in June 2016. This amendment widened self-determination of people with intellectual disabilities and reduced the use of involuntary measures, in order to meet the requirements of the UN Convention. A proposal for specific legislation on self-determination is planned to be presented to the Parliament in Spring 2018.

Finland is currently preparing a national implementation programme of the Convention, which is planned to be published in March 2018.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A5. Focal point

The focal point at the government is set in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and in the Minister of Health and Social Affairs.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A6. Coordination mechanism

Following the ratification of the Convention, the newly reformed advisory board for the rights of persons with disabilities as the national coordination system was established under the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. The board consists of representatives of the ministries, persons with disabilities and their families, labour market organisations as well as representatives from regional and local government. The task of the coordination mechanism includes coordination, counseling, education and communication related to the ratification.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A7. Independent mechanism

The Human Rights Centre, especially its Human Rights Delegation, and the Ombudsman of the Parliament form the independent mechanism.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A8. Official reporting

The first state report is due on 10 June 2018. The first draft is getting ready for comments.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

A9. Shadow reporting

The Finnish Disability Forum has taken the initiative to write a shadow report in collaboration with the Human Rights Centre and the Finnish Society of Disability Research. It is currently under development.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) promotes equality and prevents discrimination as well as enhances the protection provided by law to those who have been discriminated against. The act amended the old version (21/2004). People with disabilities are mentioned in section 15: 'Reasonable accommodation to realize equality of persons with disabilities'. The Constitution of Finland (731/1999) sets everyone equal before law and requires equal treatment.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

Recognition of legal capacity of persons with disabilities is mentioned in Finland’s Disability Policy Programme. A right to legal capacity of persons with disabilities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. The Guardianship Services Act mentions that the legal capacity can be restricted in cases when the person cannot take care of himself/herself mostly in an economic sphere. The legislation regulates the trusteeship.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

Participation is limited in Section 27 of the Constitution of Finland that states that people who are under guardianship may not be candidates in elections. Article L5 of the Electoral Code, Section 2 of the Election Act and Article L3211-3 (6) of the Public Health Code allow for full participation in voting. The Decision of the Ombudsman as of 6 May 2004 states that disabled persons' secrecy at the ballot must be ensured. This statement is grounded by Section 6 of the Constitution concerning securing equal treatment, as well as Section 14 of the Constitution, which refers to participation in substantive protection. The Ministry of Justice has produced guidelines on how to make sure that secrecy at the ballot for disabled persons is secured. Voting at the polling station is favoured in light of the new guidelines and the accessibility must be ensured. Otherwise, the voting secrecy must be ensured.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Basic recognition of Finnish sign language is covered in the Finnish legislation in the Constitution of Finland (731/1999). Section 17 states that the rights of persons using Sign Language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation assistance owing to disability shall be guaranteed. The Law on the Institute for the Languages of Finland (1403/2011) in Section 3 states that among the duties of the Institute for Languages of Finland is the co-ordination of the language planning of Finnish Sign Language. Section 4 states that there are language committees for Finnish, Swedish, Saami languages, Finnish Sign Language and Finnish Romani Language. The task of the committees is to give principled and general guidance in the languages. The Law on sign language (359/2015) in Section 2 states the generic linguistic rights of people who are using sign language in Finnish or in Finland’s Swedish. The law strengthens the rights and equality in different fields of administration (Section 4). The Finland Swedish sign language is threatened due to the small number of users and lack of education.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The National Disability Strategy and action plan is included in the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO). The VAMPO’s aimed to implement equality, non-discrimination and sufficient service and support to persons with disabilities. VAMPO was also published in plain language. In 2014 the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) published the second monitoring report on the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO-seurantaraportti II). The first one was published in 2013. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health coordinates Finnish Disability Policy. However, a new programme has not been planned yet.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) requires in fourth section that 'the needs of different population groups have to be taken into account when defining the standard of service'. The sixth section mentions examples of these population groups as follows: 'children, young people, women, men, elderly and disabled'. In section 48 the law states that the holder of an operating permit has to define the quality of the service. Amongst other things, the permit holder needs to define the service and assistance available for disabled service users. The standard of service on the national level is defined by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Municipalities provide transport services to those who have severe disabilities causing exceptional mobility difficulties. A transport service may include an assistance service. This benefit is included in the Act on Disability Services. A Decree (275/2010) of the government says that government subsidies are given to municipalities to develop an accessible public transport. The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) will be repealed 1 July 2018 when the new Act on Services in Traffic (320/2017) will come into effect.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

C2. Built environment accessibility

The built environment accessibility is not included in the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). In 2017, the Government accepted a new Act on Accessible Buildings (241/2017), which aims to make regulations on accessibility of buildings clearer and decrease regional differences. The Ministry of the Environment has also renewed its building regulations in 2017. In the Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) the objectives in land use planning are stated in the fifth section. The first of the eleven points to promote is: 'a safe, healthy, pleasant, socially functional living and working environment which provides for the needs of various population groups, such as children, older people and disabled people'. The Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999) contains more detailed regulations on accessibility in buildings. The Finnish Building Code provides more technical regulations and guidelines which apply to new constructions. Especially, sections F1 on 'Barrier-free Building', F2 on 'Safety in use of buildings' and G1 on 'Housing design' set the requirements to accessibility in both public buildings and private homes.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Finland does not have ICT and web accessibility legislation yet. At the moment, there are guidelines for designing web services in the public administration and recommendations for producing online services. Usability and accessibility of the services are particularly taken into account. The guidelines were first published in June 2005 and they have been updated in October 2012. After the EU’s adoption of the directive on making the websites and mobile apps of public sector bodies more accessible in October 2016, a national discussion has been ongoing concerning its implementation in Finland. As a result, national legislation is currently being prepared. This legislation will regulate accessibility of web pages of public bodies and it is planned to be proposed to the Parliament in the spring 2018.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Finland has signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which obliges the states to ensure that people with disabilities can choose their place and type of residence as well as with whom they want to live on an equal basis with others. There is no legislation in Finland, which would determine living arrangements of persons with disabilities, there is only guidance.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D2. De-institutionalisation

In 2010, the Government of Finland decided that the number of people with ID living in institutions should be diminished from 2,000 to 500 people within the next five years (during 2010-2015). The government resolution on housing of people with intellectual disabilities of 21 January 2010 sets goals for a housing programme for intellectually disabled persons, namely:

  1. To manage a quick, but systematic and controlled decrease in the amount of places of residence in institutions.
  2. To produce approximately 1,500 apartments for intellectually disabled people moving out of institutions and 2,100 apartments for adult intellectually disabled people moving away from their childhood homes.
  3. All of this adds up to 3,600 apartments for people with intellectual disabilities. The plan is to produce 600 apartments per year for six years.

This process received its confirmation in 2012, when the Government of Finland decided to close down all institutions for people with intellectual disability (ID). The National plan on developing community living arrangements issued on 8 November 2012 sets as a national goal that by 2016 there should have been maximum 500 people living in institutions. There are approximately 40,000 people with intellectual disability in Finland. About 920 of them were still living in institutions at the end of 2016, which was 15.8% less than in the previous year. In 2015, 114 children with intellectual disabilities lived in institutions.
The aim now is that by 2020 no one lives in institutions. De-institutionalisation is especially targeted to people with intellectual disabilities. People with other kind of disabilities rarely live in institutions and, for example, the statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet does not separate any other disability groups living in institutions.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D3. Quality of social services

There are no Acts in Finland that would oblige certain quality standards of social services for people with disabilities, but the main steering and guidance is based concerning this issue on the Social Welfare Act (1301/2014), the Disability Services Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977).

In May 2013, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health set up a working-group with the task to combine the Disability Services Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) to a new Disability Act that would cover social services for people with all kinds of disabilities. The working group submitted its final report on 16 April 2015. Comments for the proposed bill were invited from stakeholders by July 2017. Currently the government is planning to present the bill to the Parliament in the spring 2018 so that the new Disability Act comes into force in 2020.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Assistive equipment and adaptations are included in public services for people with disabilities. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, ‘assistive devices are available from health centres or by referral from the assistive device units of health care districts. Assistive device services include instruction on use, renewal and maintenance. The services are free of charge. Assistive devices for use to help with social life and recreation are also available as a disability service from social welfare departments.’ Moreover, ‘people with severe disabilities are reimbursed for renovations made to their home and for devices installed at home, as well as for the costs of acquiring devices and equipment.’ Assistive devices are provided by local authorities. This service is based on the Disability Services Act, the Act on Housing Condition Improvement Grants for Special Groups (1281/2004) and the connected recommendations.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

From 1 September 2009, an amendment to the Disability Services Act has granted all ‘severely’ disabled people, including people with intellectual disability, the legal right to have a personal assistant. A person is defined as ‘severely disabled’ if s/he needs, due to a long-term disability, on a regular basis, another person’s help in order to manage daily activities, studies, work, hobbies, social participation or to maintain social interaction. People whose needs for regular support are caused by ageing are not included in the scheme.

This legislative change introduced rights to personal assistance for domestic, social, educational and employment purposes, including a right to 30 hours per month to support recreation and social interaction. The act also underlines the importance of involving the disabled person in the assessment of need. The Bill was drafted through collaboration between the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and the Finnish Disability Forum. The change also offers a broader choice of services, including personal assistance under the person’s own control.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D6. Income maintenance

The disability pension is available to eligible disabled people. The criterion for receiving the pension is an incapacity to work. Persons who have a permanent mobility disability or blindness always receive the full amount of this pension. The disability allowance is an alternative to the disability pension and is tax free. It is divided into three levels based on the level of disability. The legislative basis for the disability pension is included in the National Pensions Act (568/2007). The maximum of the national pension was in 2017 EUR 628.85 per month (for a person living alone) and EUR 557.79 per month (for a person living in a relationship). Disabled people may also receive an earnings-related pension depending on their employment history. The national pension and work pension are combined if the work pension does not exceed the maximum amount of EUR 55 per month. In addition, it is possible to receive other allowances, such as a housing allowance, meals allowance, disability allowance or pensioners’ care allowance. People in rehabilitation programmes receive a rehabilitation benefit instead of the disability pension.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D7. Additional costs

According to the Disability Services Act, extra costs will be paid when a disability causes a need for special clothing or special diet.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

D8. Retirement income

The national pension is a basic income for persons who are entitled only to a very small earnings-related pension or to none at all. The national pension is paid by the Social Insurance Institution. National and earnings-related pensions systems do not exclude disabled persons, if they fulfill the criteria. Earnings-related pension rights are accrued through employment and self-employment. There are several earnings-related pension providers. To qualify for a national pension, any other pension or benefits received may not exceed a certain limit. The age limits for the disability pension is 16-64 years old and after that the disability pension is automatically converted into an old-age pension. The Act on Guarantee Pensions came into effect on 1 March 2011, introducing a guarantee pension, which is paid to persons whose other retirement incomes are under the amount of full guarantee pension. Furthermore, a pension reform was agreed on 20 November 2015 and it came into effect in the beginning of 2017. For example, the reform increases the pension age limit gradually from 63 to the age of 65.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2018-02-28

E. Education

E1. Special schools

According to the Basic Education Act and its amendments on special education, municipal educational authorities guarantee school placement as nearest as possible to the child’s place of residence. It does not matter if a pupil has a disability or not. However, parents have THE right to choose another school, if they want. New amendments on special education include a range of types of educational support, where full-time special education is the strongest measure. This means that special education is usually arranged in mainstream schools and separate special schools are decreasing. Pupils needing special support at school are receiving it both in general and special education. Over half of these students are fully or partially integrated into general education groups.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

E2. Mainstream schools

The school system itself is not subjective to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). Basic Education Act (628/1998) has been amended (Amendment 642/2010) to provide support to disabled pupils. A pupil who has temporarily fallen behind with their studies or otherwise needs short-term support in learning shall be entitled to remedial teaching (Section 16). A pupil who has difficulties in learning or in going to school shall be entitled to part-time special-needs education. Section 16a on Enhanced support (Amendment 642/2010) provides for a learning plan devised for him or her, in collaboration with the pupil, the parent, the carer or, where necessary, some other legal representative of the pupil. Enhanced support shall be determined multi-professionally, based on a pedagogical assessment of the pupil welfare (Section 31a (1) and (2)). The education provider shall give a written account of the provision of special-needs support, to be reviewed at least by the second year class and before transfer to the seventh year class. The decision on special needs support shall determine the pupil's primary teaching group, possible interpretation and assistant services and other services where needed, such as exceptional teaching arrangements referred to above. Before a decision on special needs support is made, the education provider should also seek out written reports on the pupil’s progress.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

Deaf and deaf-blind persons have the right to education in sign-language. This kind of teaching is organised in special classes or units of mainstream schools (see Basic Education Act 628/1998). Special attention is focused on culturally sensitive instruction.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

E4. Vocational training

Vocational training providers are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). The fifth section of the law requires that 'a person commissioning work or arranging training shall where necessary take any reasonable steps to help a person with disabilities to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career' (Non-Discrimination Act 21/2004). In determining what constitutes 'reasonable accommodation' the law directs attention to the costs of the measures that need to be taken, to the financial position of the training provider and to the availability of other funds. Vocational education and training are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Key legislation consists of the Vocational Education and Training Act (531/2017), and the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (1705/2007). Vocational special education is stated in the Vocational Education and Training Act (531/2017) and it is mostly arranged in mainstream vocational schools with special curricula. There are also special schools for vocational education.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

E5. Higher education

Universities are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) the same way as vocational training providers. The word 'koulutus' translates both to 'training' and 'education', so they are not separated in the Non-Discrimination Act. Also the Constitution of Finland (731/1999) states in its sixth section that everyone is equal before the law. The 16th section set that the 'public authorities shall, as provided in more detail by an Act, guarantee for everyone equal opportunity to receive other educational services in accordance with their ability and special needs, as well as the opportunity to develop themselves without being prevented by economic hardship' (Finnish law 731/1999). Universities may make special arrangements for entrance examinations, campus accessibility and learning support, but they are not obliged to provide any special educational support. There are, however, examples of such support in some institutions. Several universities have also developed measures to promote accessibility of their educational provisions. Financial aid is available to all students in financial difficulty and rehabilitation allowances are payable to young disabled people in education but there is no specific, separate system of financial support for disabled students. There is not any legislation for physical arrangements at universities for disabled students, but there is a rehabilitation allowance for disabled students paid by the Social Insurance Institution, because this allowance helps the pathway to employment. This is stated in the Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

According to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), equality, work or training conditions must be arranged to help a person with disabilities 'to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career'. According to a report from the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health the main adaptations to workplaces are working times, ergonomic adaptations and the employee's own work planning. Since 2013 people with disabilities, who receive disability pension, have right to use the services of employment and economic offices because of the new Act on public employment and business service (916/2012). Its aim is to promote equality (Section 6) and non-discrimination (Section 7) in working-life as mentioned in the Non-Discrimination Act (Section 6(1)).

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

F2. Public employment services

The Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) and the Social Welfare Act (710/1982) include elements that support disabled persons to get jobs, although the focus is on the unemployed population in general. The main idea is to activate unemployed persons at the municipal level. Municipalities can organise activation activities themselves or they can buy this function from outside organisations. Most municipalities have established foundations with enterprises and non-governmental organisations to actualise this obligation. Public employment services have some services allocated to disabled people. These include for example vocational rehabilitation and wage subsidies. The report on disability and employment services points out that the services are multifaceted and individually tailored and therefore also rather variable. The Finnish term used (vajaakuntoinen, person with partial work ability) does not simply mean disabled people but includes also other people, for example, those who are temporarily not fully fit for work due to long-term sickness. The question of who belongs to these groups is not always fully clear.
The increasing numbers of disability pensioners is a special problem in Finland. Approximately 25,000 people retire on a disability pension every year. A new way to hold these people in the workforce is to develop special services to them, e.g. an operational programme to reintroduce people with partial work ability into the labour force has produced a concept for allowing people with partial work ability to continue working or to find employment. The objective of the concept is to ensure a seamless chain of services for people with partial work ability that enables them to continue working or to find employment. Either employer or the local Employment and Economic Development Office is responsible for adopting the tools.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

F3. Workplace adaptations

Through a Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002), the employer has the right to apply for a benefit for arranging the working conditions to enable the employment of a disabled person. Adaptations can cover necessary arrangements and new equipment to reduce the disadvantage in working conditions or hiring another employee to assist the disabled employee. Workplace adaptations are always means-tested. The benefit is limited to EUR 4,000 per person regarding adaptations and EUR 20 per hour for maximum 18 months in a case of a personally employed assistant. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland provides assistive devices needed to enable employment. Such devices include for example video magnifiers, Braille displays or other computer equipment. The main adaptations at workplaces concern working times, ergonomics and the employee’s own work planning. The employee receives subsidies for these adaptations. An employer employing a disabled employee could also get wage subsidies or other support in organizing the work.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

F4. Financial incentives

The employers employing a person with disabilities are entitled to different benefits also in the open labour market. The most common benefits are an employment subsidy and a subsidy for arrangement of the working conditions. Subsidy can also be granted for social enterprises, which support the employment of disabled people. The employment subsidy is regulated by the Act on Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012), which also regulates the subsidy for the arrangement of working conditions.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

There is no single institution or department especially responsible for research on disability equality or for the collection of relevant data and statistics. The National Disability Policy (VAMPO 2010-2015) included a key commitment that 'disability research shall be reinforced, the information base improved, and diversified high-quality methods developed in support of disability policy and monitoring'. The Finnish Society for Disability Research has been coordinating disability researchers and organises annual conferences. The Human Rights Centre is part of the monitoring mechanism of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and appointed a staff dedicated to this work in 2016. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) publishes statistics on disability benefits and services (number of recipients etc.). The National Institute for Health and Welfare publishes statistics on institutional care and housing and has been given the mandate to promote disability research. At the Åbo Akademi University there is an Institute for Human Rights that conducts research on disability equality. The first Finnish disability studies professorship was established with the support of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) at the University of Helsinki. Disability Studies is part of the Department of Social Research, the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Helsinki. The professor in disability studies was appointed for 5 years (2013-2017). In 2017, the University of Helsinki decided to maintain this professorship position beyond 2017 and to make the position permanent. The next holder of the professorship will most likely be appointed in 2018.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

G2. Census data

Finland has an accurate population registry system, thus censuses are in practice conducted by studying the registry, rather than as a separate project. Thus Finland does not run census questionnaires that would gather specific data on living conditions of different population groups like disabled people. The number of people who use disability services is recorded in official statistics. Statistics on disability benefits are provided by The Social Insurance Institution of Finland.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

G3. Labour Force Survey

Finnish Labour Survey is conducted by Statistics Finland. It distinguishes people with partial work incapacity. The European Labour Force Survey ad hoc module in 2002 and 2012 included Finnish disabled people.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

G4. Disability equality indicators

There are no specific disability equality indicators available.

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

Assistentti-info is a nationwide network of personal assistance and information services, which produces educational materials. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which consists of civil society associations and local and nationwide public service organisations. The network is financed by the Finnish Slot Machine Association that is controlled by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The network’s main focus is on developing personal assistance. The DPO Threshold Association runs the network and its members are service providers, disability organisations and foundations. Assistentti-info is now controlled by disabled people and provides a national co-ordinating and information function, as well as raising awareness about personal assistance and independent living. Advice and legal support can also be provided to personal assistance users. The National Council of Disability (Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE) is a governmental cooperative body for the development of social and public policy considering living conditions and equality of disabled people. In addition, the Association for People with Physical Disabilities (Invalidiliitto) organizes a web portal of accessibility (Esteetön.fi), which provides information, education and social campaigns. The Finnish Disability Forum, an umbrella organization of 31 DPOs, also constantly implements its awareness raising activities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H2. Training for teachers

In Finland inclusive teacher training is not organised in disability-oriented streams. The aim is to provide to all future teachers a range of knowledge and skills that they can apply in various settings and situations to arrange inclusive educational possibilities. This training is not focused on disability awareness, but on the opportunities for participation of students with special needs. The training in university education science program includes minimum 35 credits and maximum 50 credits, as defined by the Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) in the section 14.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H3. Training for lawyers

There is no obligation for law students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of lawyers’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training. In legal science studies, after training in the court of justice, practical training is voluntary.

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H4. Training for doctors

There is no obligation for medical students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of doctors’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training. The degree of licence of medicine includes a mandatory training from 4 to 16 weeks in clinical methods (at the University of Oulu).

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H5. Training for engineers

The Finnish Design for All (DfA) network is a member of the European Design for All eAccessibility Network EDeAN. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which has 39 members, including research institutions, universities and user organisations. This DfA network moved from the National Institute of Health and Welfare to the Accessibility Center (ESKE) of the Finnish Association of People with Physical Disabilities and to AVAAVA in 2015.

There is no obligation for engineer students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of engineers’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

H6. International development aid

Abilis Foundation and Disability Partnership Finland (DPF) are two partner organizations of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in the field of disability among 22 partner non-governmental organizations. Abilis Foundation channels project grants to groups and organizations of persons with disabilities in the Global South, while DPF coordinates the programme of nine Finnish organizations of persons with disabilities working in the field of development cooperation. The Finnish government has been active in promoting disability rights in its international and development cooperation mainly through allocation of its official development aid to non-governmental organizations and also through international policy dialogue.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-03-01

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                    [access] => 0
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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        )

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                    [parent_id] => 1
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [lft] => 10
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [created_by] => 548
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            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
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                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
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            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
                    [title] => D7. Additional costs
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
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            [28] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
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                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 31
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                    [lft] => 59
                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 5
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
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                )

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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 37
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                    [slug] => f-employment
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                    [alias] => 
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                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
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                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
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                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
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                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
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                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [41] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

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                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
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                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Finland
                    [location_id] => 14
                    [location_slug] => finland
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Finland signed the UN Convention on 3 March 2007. The Parliament accepted the governmental bill to ratify the UN Convention on 3 March 2015, which was followed by the ratification on 11 May 2016. The ratification entered into force on 10 June 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:08:23
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Human Rights Council, 2012)
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=100736&GUID={B14C4F3E-A67E-4C09-BF5C-1311A4349DAC}
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Current government platform
                                                    [url] => http://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/frontpage
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Finland signed the optional protocol of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007, and ratified it on 11 May 2016. It entered into force on 10 June 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:11:56
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Disability Policy VAMPO 2010-2015
                                                    [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Press release of the government
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=346189
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ratification handbook of a DPO (in Finnish)
                                                    [url] => https://www.invalidiliitto.fi/sites/default/files/2017-03/YK_Toolkit_2016_low.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Finland has not registered any Declarations, Reservations or Objections.
                                    [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:14:03
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. FINLAND.
                                                    [url] => http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=100736&GUID={B14C4F3E-A67E-4C09-BF5C-1311A4349DAC}
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => A comprehensive review of the existing legislation was done before Finland ratified the UN Convention. On 1 January 2011 the Act on Home Municipality and the Social Welfare Act were modified to meet the demands of Article 19 of the UN Convention. Amendments have been done to the Act on Home Municipality and to the Act on Social Welfare Act, as well. These amendments made it possible for persons residing in institutional care, supported housing and adult foster care to move officially to a municipality where they have stayed in care at least for a year. After a lengthy preparation process, the Parliament made an amendment in the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) in 2016, which came into force in June 2016. This amendment widened self-determination of people with intellectual disabilities and reduced the use of involuntary measures, in order to meet the requirements of the UN Convention. A proposal for specific legislation on self-determination is planned to be presented to the Parliament in Spring 2018.

Finland is currently preparing a national implementation programme of the Convention, which is planned to be published in March 2018. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:17:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => A written question to the Speaker of Parliament 381/2012: 'What is the government intending to do to hurry the ratification of the UN Convention?' [url] => http://www.eduskunta.fi/faktatmp/utatmp/akxtmp/kk_381_2012_p.shtml ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Amendments to the Act on Home Municipality (1377/2010) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2010/20101377 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Amendments to the Act on Social Welfare Act (1378/2010) Service [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2011/20110923 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/disability ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The final report of the working group on self-determination [url] => http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/116147/URN_ISBN_978-952-00-3485-6.pdf?sequence=1 ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The final report on the reform of disability legislation [url] => http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/125919/URN_ISBN_978-952-00-3582-2.pdf?sequence=1 ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => A bill on the special services for people with intellectual disability [url] => http://stm.fi/documents/1271139/1340739/HE_KehVL_luonnos_17.7.2015.pdf/3b7ccf4f-3116-4105-9ea9-8aa731d57296 ) ) ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A5. Focal point [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point [theme_id] => 7 [contents] => The focal point at the government is set in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and in the Minister of Health and Social Affairs. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:19:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Disability Programme VAMPO 2010-2015 [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability policy programme (Ministry of Social Affairs and Health) [url] => http://stm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/disability-policy-programme-involves-all-administrative-sectors ) ) ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism [theme_id] => 8 [contents] => Following the ratification of the Convention, the newly reformed advisory board for the rights of persons with disabilities as the national coordination system was established under the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. The board consists of representatives of the ministries, persons with disabilities and their families, labour market organisations as well as representatives from regional and local government. The task of the coordination mechanism includes coordination, counseling, education and communication related to the ratification. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:21:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Advisory board for the rights of persons with disabilities [url] => http://vane.to/en/frontpage ) ) ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism [theme_id] => 9 [contents] => The Human Rights Centre, especially its Human Rights Delegation, and the Ombudsman of the Parliament form the independent mechanism. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:22:02 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Human Rights Centre and Human Rights Delegation [url] => http://www.ihmisoikeuskeskus.fi/in-english/who-we-are/human-rights-delegation/ ) ) ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting [theme_id] => 10 [contents] => The first state report is due on 10 June 2018. The first draft is getting ready for comments. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:22:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61&DocTypeID=29 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61 ) ) ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting [theme_id] => 11 [contents] => The Finnish Disability Forum has taken the initiative to write a shadow report in collaboration with the Human Rights Centre and the Finnish Society of Disability Research. It is currently under development. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:23:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=61&DocTypeID=14 ) ) ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation [theme_id] => 13 [contents] => The Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) promotes equality and prevents discrimination as well as enhances the protection provided by law to those who have been discriminated against. The act amended the old version (21/2004). People with disabilities are mentioned in section 15: 'Reasonable accommodation to realize equality of persons with disabilities'. The Constitution of Finland (731/1999) sets everyone equal before law and requires equal treatment. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:28:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2014/20141325#Pidp810544 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Constitution of Finland (731/1999) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), in English [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => Recognition of legal capacity of persons with disabilities is mentioned in Finland’s Disability Policy Programme. A right to legal capacity of persons with disabilities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. The Guardianship Services Act mentions that the legal capacity can be restricted in cases when the person cannot take care of himself/herself mostly in an economic sphere. The legislation regulates the trusteeship. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:30:41 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guardianship Service Act (442/1999) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990442 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finland’s Disability Policy Programme 2010-2015: Final report [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/130234 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Act on Trusteeship [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2007/20070648 ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => Participation is limited in Section 27 of the Constitution of Finland that states that people who are under guardianship may not be candidates in elections. Article L5 of the Electoral Code, Section 2 of the Election Act and Article L3211-3 (6) of the Public Health Code allow for full participation in voting. The Decision of the Ombudsman as of 6 May 2004 states that disabled persons' secrecy at the ballot must be ensured. This statement is grounded by Section 6 of the Constitution concerning securing equal treatment, as well as Section 14 of the Constitution, which refers to participation in substantive protection. The Ministry of Justice has produced guidelines on how to make sure that secrecy at the ballot for disabled persons is secured. Voting at the polling station is favoured in light of the new guidelines and the accessibility must be ensured. Otherwise, the voting secrecy must be ensured. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:32:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Constitution of Finland [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finland supports implementation of voting rights of persons with disabilities [url] => http://www.formin.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=298283&contentlan=1&culture=fi-FI ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => Basic recognition of Finnish sign language is covered in the Finnish legislation in the Constitution of Finland (731/1999). Section 17 states that the rights of persons using Sign Language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation assistance owing to disability shall be guaranteed. The Law on the Institute for the Languages of Finland (1403/2011) in Section 3 states that among the duties of the Institute for Languages of Finland is the co-ordination of the language planning of Finnish Sign Language. Section 4 states that there are language committees for Finnish, Swedish, Saami languages, Finnish Sign Language and Finnish Romani Language. The task of the committees is to give principled and general guidance in the languages. The Law on sign language (359/2015) in Section 2 states the generic linguistic rights of people who are using sign language in Finnish or in Finland’s Swedish. The law strengthens the rights and equality in different fields of administration (Section 4). The Finland Swedish sign language is threatened due to the small number of users and lack of education. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:33:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Institute for Languages of Finland [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2011/20111403 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finnish Sign Language [url] => http://suvi.viittomat.net/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Constitution of Finland [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on sign language (359/2015) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2015/20150359#Pidp1794896 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Government’s proposal to the Parliament for the law on sign language (HE 294/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/esitykset/he/2014/20140294 ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => The National Disability Strategy and action plan is included in the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO). The VAMPO’s aimed to implement equality, non-discrimination and sufficient service and support to persons with disabilities. VAMPO was also published in plain language. In 2014 the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) published the second monitoring report on the Finland's Disability Programme 2010-2015 (VAMPO-seurantaraportti II). The first one was published in 2013. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health coordinates Finnish Disability Policy. However, a new programme has not been planned yet. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 15:36:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finland's Disability Programme VAMPO [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/112339/URN%3aNBN%3afi-fe201504224874.pdf?sequence=1 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => VAMPO in plain language [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/112358/URN%3aNBN%3afi-fe201504222931.pdf?sequence=1 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report I [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/110226 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report II [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/116678 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Policy [url] => http://stm.fi/vammaispolitiikka ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) requires in fourth section that 'the needs of different population groups have to be taken into account when defining the standard of service'. The sixth section mentions examples of these population groups as follows: 'children, young people, women, men, elderly and disabled'. In section 48 the law states that the holder of an operating permit has to define the quality of the service. Amongst other things, the permit holder needs to define the service and assistance available for disabled service users. The standard of service on the national level is defined by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Municipalities provide transport services to those who have severe disabilities causing exceptional mobility difficulties. A transport service may include an assistance service. This benefit is included in the Act on Disability Services. A Decree (275/2010) of the government says that government subsidies are given to municipalities to develop an accessible public transport. The Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) will be repealed 1 July 2018 when the new Act on Services in Traffic (320/2017) will come into effect. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:30:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability services and support – Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [url] => http://www.stm.fi/sosiaali_ja_terveyspalvelut/sosiaalipalvelut/vammaispalvelut ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act for Public Transportation (869/2009) in Finnish [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2009/20090869 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Transposition of the technical standards in decision of European Commission (2008/164/EY) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/data/normit/35023-TRAFI_7107_03.04.02.00_2011.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Handbook on Disability Services [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/fi-FI/vammaispalvelujen-kasikirja/itsenaisen-elaman-tuki/liikkuminen/ ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Services in Traffic 320/2017 (in Finnish) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2017/20170320 ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => The built environment accessibility is not included in the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). In 2017, the Government accepted a new Act on Accessible Buildings (241/2017), which aims to make regulations on accessibility of buildings clearer and decrease regional differences. The Ministry of the Environment has also renewed its building regulations in 2017. In the Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) the objectives in land use planning are stated in the fifth section. The first of the eleven points to promote is: 'a safe, healthy, pleasant, socially functional living and working environment which provides for the needs of various population groups, such as children, older people and disabled people'. The Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999) contains more detailed regulations on accessibility in buildings. The Finnish Building Code provides more technical regulations and guidelines which apply to new constructions. Especially, sections F1 on 'Barrier-free Building', F2 on 'Safety in use of buildings' and G1 on 'Housing design' set the requirements to accessibility in both public buildings and private homes. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:32:20 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990132.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Land Use and Building Decree (895/1999) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990895.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finnish Building Code [url] => http://www.ym.fi/en-us/Land_use_and_building/Legislation_and_instructions/The_National_Building_Code_of_Finland ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Accessible Building Act (241/2017) [url] => https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2017/20170241 ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => Finland does not have ICT and web accessibility legislation yet. At the moment, there are guidelines for designing web services in the public administration and recommendations for producing online services. Usability and accessibility of the services are particularly taken into account. The guidelines were first published in June 2005 and they have been updated in October 2012. After the EU’s adoption of the directive on making the websites and mobile apps of public sector bodies more accessible in October 2016, a national discussion has been ongoing concerning its implementation in Finland. As a result, national legislation is currently being prepared. This legislation will regulate accessibility of web pages of public bodies and it is planned to be proposed to the Parliament in the spring 2018. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:34:16 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => JHS 129 – guidelines [url] => http://www.jhs-suositukset.fi/web/guest/jhs/recommendations/129 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Saavutettava (a forum for digital accessibility, in Finnish) [url] => http://saavutettava.fi/category/saavutettavuus/ ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => Finland has signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which obliges the states to ensure that people with disabilities can choose their place and type of residence as well as with whom they want to live on an equal basis with others. There is no legislation in Finland, which would determine living arrangements of persons with disabilities, there is only guidance. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:35:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Amendments of the Act on Home Municipality (1377/2010) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2010/20101377 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Housing programme and strategy, Ministry of Environment [url] => http://www.ym.fi/en-US/Housing/Programmes_and_strategies ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => In 2010, the Government of Finland decided that the number of people with ID living in institutions should be diminished from 2,000 to 500 people within the next five years (during 2010-2015). The government resolution on housing of people with intellectual disabilities of 21 January 2010 sets goals for a housing programme for intellectually disabled persons, namely:

  1. To manage a quick, but systematic and controlled decrease in the amount of places of residence in institutions.
  2. To produce approximately 1,500 apartments for intellectually disabled people moving out of institutions and 2,100 apartments for adult intellectually disabled people moving away from their childhood homes.
  3. All of this adds up to 3,600 apartments for people with intellectual disabilities. The plan is to produce 600 apartments per year for six years.

This process received its confirmation in 2012, when the Government of Finland decided to close down all institutions for people with intellectual disability (ID). The National plan on developing community living arrangements issued on 8 November 2012 sets as a national goal that by 2016 there should have been maximum 500 people living in institutions. There are approximately 40,000 people with intellectual disability in Finland. About 920 of them were still living in institutions at the end of 2016, which was 15.8% less than in the previous year. In 2015, 114 children with intellectual disabilities lived in institutions.
The aim now is that by 2020 no one lives in institutions. De-institutionalisation is especially targeted to people with intellectual disabilities. People with other kind of disabilities rarely live in institutions and, for example, the statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet does not separate any other disability groups living in institutions. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:55:02 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National plan on developing community living arrangements [url] => http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=5065240&name=DLFE-24202.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => VAMPO Monitoring Report II [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/116678 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Links to resolutions and other relevant documents [url] => http://www.ym.fi/fi-FI/Asuminen/Ohjelmat_ja_strategiat/Paattyneet_hankkeet/Kehitysvammaisten_asumisen_ohjelma_20102%281711%29 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action plan for 2016-2020 [url] => https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/74818 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics and indicator bank SOTKAnet, service of the National Institute for Health and Welfare [url] => https://www.thl.fi/en/web/mental-health ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics of the National Institute for Health and Welfare (in Finnish) [url] => https://www.thl.fi/fi/-/ymparivuorokautinen-hoiva-jarjestetaan-yha-useammin-palveluasumisena-laitoshoidon-sijaan?redirect=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thl.fi%2Ffi%2Fetusivu%3Fp_p_id%3D101_INSTANCE_tcsSJTqcGl0N%26p_p_lifecycle%3D0%26p_p_state%3Dnormal%26p_p_m ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => There are no Acts in Finland that would oblige certain quality standards of social services for people with disabilities, but the main steering and guidance is based concerning this issue on the Social Welfare Act (1301/2014), the Disability Services Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977).

In May 2013, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health set up a working-group with the task to combine the Disability Services Act (380/1987) and the Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) to a new Disability Act that would cover social services for people with all kinds of disabilities. The working group submitted its final report on 16 April 2015. Comments for the proposed bill were invited from stakeholders by July 2017. Currently the government is planning to present the bill to the Parliament in the spring 2018 so that the new Disability Act comes into force in 2020. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:56:02 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Welfare Act (1301/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2014/20141301 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Services Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Intellectual Disabilities (519/1977) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1977/19770519 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Quality recommendations for assistive devices [url] => https://www.thl.fi/documents/470564/817072/Apuvalinepalveluiden_laatusuositus_fi.pdf/29b07498-f5ec-4a21-9559-0216b5f1827a ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Quality recommendations for housing for people with intellectual disabilities [url] => https://www.thl.fi/documents/10542/471223/omatupa.pdf ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => Assistive equipment and adaptations are included in public services for people with disabilities. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, ‘assistive devices are available from health centres or by referral from the assistive device units of health care districts. Assistive device services include instruction on use, renewal and maintenance. The services are free of charge. Assistive devices for use to help with social life and recreation are also available as a disability service from social welfare departments.’ Moreover, ‘people with severe disabilities are reimbursed for renovations made to their home and for devices installed at home, as well as for the costs of acquiring devices and equipment.’ Assistive devices are provided by local authorities. This service is based on the Disability Services Act, the Act on Housing Condition Improvement Grants for Special Groups (1281/2004) and the connected recommendations. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:57:42 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Services and Assistance for the Disabled Act [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on housing condition improvement of special groups [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2004/20041281 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Quality recommendations for assistive devices [url] => https://www.thl.fi/documents/470564/817072/Apuvalinepalveluiden_laatusuositus_fi.pdf/29b07498-f5ec-4a21-9559-0216b5f1827a ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => From 1 September 2009, an amendment to the Disability Services Act has granted all ‘severely’ disabled people, including people with intellectual disability, the legal right to have a personal assistant. A person is defined as ‘severely disabled’ if s/he needs, due to a long-term disability, on a regular basis, another person’s help in order to manage daily activities, studies, work, hobbies, social participation or to maintain social interaction. People whose needs for regular support are caused by ageing are not included in the scheme.

This legislative change introduced rights to personal assistance for domestic, social, educational and employment purposes, including a right to 30 hours per month to support recreation and social interaction. The act also underlines the importance of involving the disabled person in the assessment of need. The Bill was drafted through collaboration between the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and the Finnish Disability Forum. The change also offers a broader choice of services, including personal assistance under the person’s own control. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 16:59:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Personal assistance under persons own control (in Finnish), Työnantajamalli [url] => http://www.sosiaaliportti.fi/fi-FI/vammaispalvelujen-kasikirja/itsenaisen-elaman-tuki/henkilokohtainen-apu/avun-jarjestamistavat/tyonantajamalli/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Services Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => The disability pension is available to eligible disabled people. The criterion for receiving the pension is an incapacity to work. Persons who have a permanent mobility disability or blindness always receive the full amount of this pension. The disability allowance is an alternative to the disability pension and is tax free. It is divided into three levels based on the level of disability. The legislative basis for the disability pension is included in the National Pensions Act (568/2007). The maximum of the national pension was in 2017 EUR 628.85 per month (for a person living alone) and EUR 557.79 per month (for a person living in a relationship). Disabled people may also receive an earnings-related pension depending on their employment history. The national pension and work pension are combined if the work pension does not exceed the maximum amount of EUR 55 per month. In addition, it is possible to receive other allowances, such as a housing allowance, meals allowance, disability allowance or pensioners’ care allowance. People in rehabilitation programmes receive a rehabilitation benefit instead of the disability pension. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 17:01:11 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Pensions Act (568/2007) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2007/20070568 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability pension and rehabilitation subsidy (Kela) [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/disability-pension-and-rehabilitation-subsidy ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => According to the Disability Services Act, extra costs will be paid when a disability causes a need for special clothing or special diet. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 17:01:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability benefits available from The Social Insurance Institution in Finland [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/130608122240HS?OpenDocument ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Services Act (380/1987) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1987/19870380 ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => The national pension is a basic income for persons who are entitled only to a very small earnings-related pension or to none at all. The national pension is paid by the Social Insurance Institution. National and earnings-related pensions systems do not exclude disabled persons, if they fulfill the criteria. Earnings-related pension rights are accrued through employment and self-employment. There are several earnings-related pension providers. To qualify for a national pension, any other pension or benefits received may not exceed a certain limit. The age limits for the disability pension is 16-64 years old and after that the disability pension is automatically converted into an old-age pension. The Act on Guarantee Pensions came into effect on 1 March 2011, introducing a guarantee pension, which is paid to persons whose other retirement incomes are under the amount of full guarantee pension. Furthermore, a pension reform was agreed on 20 November 2015 and it came into effect in the beginning of 2017. For example, the reform increases the pension age limit gradually from 63 to the age of 65. [update_date] => 2018-02-28 17:03:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Social Insurance Institution - Pensions [url] => http://www.kela.fi/in/internet/english.nsf/NET/081101151613EH?OpenDocument ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Pensions Act (568/2007) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2007/20070569 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Earnings-related pensions (395/1961) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1961/19610395 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Guarantee Pensions (703/2010) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2010/20100703 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Agreement on earnings-related pension for the year 2017 [url] => http://www.elakeuudistus.fi/media/linkkitiedostot/sopimus-vuoden-2017-tyoelakeuudistukseksi.pdf ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => According to the Basic Education Act and its amendments on special education, municipal educational authorities guarantee school placement as nearest as possible to the child’s place of residence. It does not matter if a pupil has a disability or not. However, parents have THE right to choose another school, if they want. New amendments on special education include a range of types of educational support, where full-time special education is the strongest measure. This means that special education is usually arranged in mainstream schools and separate special schools are decreasing. Pupils needing special support at school are receiving it both in general and special education. Over half of these students are fully or partially integrated into general education groups. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:27:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) and amendments up to 1136/2010 (the newest translation) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland on special support in schools 2016 [url] => http://www.stat.fi/til/erop/2016/erop_2016_2017-06-13_tie_001_en.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Recommendations on special support [url] => http://www.oph.fi/saadokset_ja_ohjeet/ohjeita_koulutuksen_jarjestamiseen/perusopetuksen_jarjestaminen/tietoa_tuen_jarjestamisesta/erityinen_tuki ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => The school system itself is not subjective to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). Basic Education Act (628/1998) has been amended (Amendment 642/2010) to provide support to disabled pupils. A pupil who has temporarily fallen behind with their studies or otherwise needs short-term support in learning shall be entitled to remedial teaching (Section 16). A pupil who has difficulties in learning or in going to school shall be entitled to part-time special-needs education. Section 16a on Enhanced support (Amendment 642/2010) provides for a learning plan devised for him or her, in collaboration with the pupil, the parent, the carer or, where necessary, some other legal representative of the pupil. Enhanced support shall be determined multi-professionally, based on a pedagogical assessment of the pupil welfare (Section 31a (1) and (2)). The education provider shall give a written account of the provision of special-needs support, to be reviewed at least by the second year class and before transfer to the seventh year class. The decision on special needs support shall determine the pupil's primary teaching group, possible interpretation and assistant services and other services where needed, such as exceptional teaching arrangements referred to above. Before a decision on special needs support is made, the education provider should also seek out written reports on the pupil’s progress. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:28:22 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2014/20141325#Pidp810544 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) and amendments up to 1136/2010: [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => Deaf and deaf-blind persons have the right to education in sign-language. This kind of teaching is organised in special classes or units of mainstream schools (see Basic Education Act 628/1998). Special attention is focused on culturally sensitive instruction. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:29:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Basic Education Act (628/1998) (see § 10 (teaching language) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Vocational training providers are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014). The fifth section of the law requires that 'a person commissioning work or arranging training shall where necessary take any reasonable steps to help a person with disabilities to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career' (Non-Discrimination Act 21/2004). In determining what constitutes 'reasonable accommodation' the law directs attention to the costs of the measures that need to be taken, to the financial position of the training provider and to the availability of other funds. Vocational education and training are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Key legislation consists of the Vocational Education and Training Act (531/2017), and the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (1705/2007). Vocational special education is stated in the Vocational Education and Training Act (531/2017) and it is mostly arranged in mainstream vocational schools with special curricula. There are also special schools for vocational education. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:30:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Vocational Education and Training Act [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1998/19980630 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), amended [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (21/2004), old version [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2004/en20040021.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Ministry of Education and Culture, Finnish acts and decrees concerning education [url] => http://www.minedu.fi/OPM/Koulutus/koulutuspolitiikka/lait_ja_ohjeet/?lang=en ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => Universities are subject to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) the same way as vocational training providers. The word 'koulutus' translates both to 'training' and 'education', so they are not separated in the Non-Discrimination Act. Also the Constitution of Finland (731/1999) states in its sixth section that everyone is equal before the law. The 16th section set that the 'public authorities shall, as provided in more detail by an Act, guarantee for everyone equal opportunity to receive other educational services in accordance with their ability and special needs, as well as the opportunity to develop themselves without being prevented by economic hardship' (Finnish law 731/1999). Universities may make special arrangements for entrance examinations, campus accessibility and learning support, but they are not obliged to provide any special educational support. There are, however, examples of such support in some institutions. Several universities have also developed measures to promote accessibility of their educational provisions. Financial aid is available to all students in financial difficulty and rehabilitation allowances are payable to young disabled people in education but there is no specific, separate system of financial support for disabled students. There is not any legislation for physical arrangements at universities for disabled students, but there is a rehabilitation allowance for disabled students paid by the Social Insurance Institution, because this allowance helps the pathway to employment. This is stated in the Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:31:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Financing Benefits (566/2005) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2005/20050566 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Constitution of Finland [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => According to the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014), equality, work or training conditions must be arranged to help a person with disabilities 'to gain access to work or training, to cope at work and to advance in their career'. According to a report from the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health the main adaptations to workplaces are working times, ergonomic adaptations and the employee's own work planning. Since 2013 people with disabilities, who receive disability pension, have right to use the services of employment and economic offices because of the new Act on public employment and business service (916/2012). Its aim is to promote equality (Section 6) and non-discrimination (Section 7) in working-life as mentioned in the Non-Discrimination Act (Section 6(1)). [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:34:03 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2014/en20141325.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on public employment and business service (916/2012) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2012/20120916?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika5D=laki%20julkisesta%20ty%B6voimapalvelu%2A ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) and the Social Welfare Act (710/1982) include elements that support disabled persons to get jobs, although the focus is on the unemployed population in general. The main idea is to activate unemployed persons at the municipal level. Municipalities can organise activation activities themselves or they can buy this function from outside organisations. Most municipalities have established foundations with enterprises and non-governmental organisations to actualise this obligation. Public employment services have some services allocated to disabled people. These include for example vocational rehabilitation and wage subsidies. The report on disability and employment services points out that the services are multifaceted and individually tailored and therefore also rather variable. The Finnish term used (vajaakuntoinen, person with partial work ability) does not simply mean disabled people but includes also other people, for example, those who are temporarily not fully fit for work due to long-term sickness. The question of who belongs to these groups is not always fully clear.
The increasing numbers of disability pensioners is a special problem in Finland. Approximately 25,000 people retire on a disability pension every year. A new way to hold these people in the workforce is to develop special services to them, e.g. an operational programme to reintroduce people with partial work ability into the labour force has produced a concept for allowing people with partial work ability to continue working or to find employment. The objective of the concept is to ensure a seamless chain of services for people with partial work ability that enables them to continue working or to find employment. Either employer or the local Employment and Economic Development Office is responsible for adopting the tools. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:44:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => On disability and employment services (in Finnish): Vajaakuntoinen TE-toimiston asiakkaana [url] => https://tem.fi/documents/1410877/3346190/Vajaakuntoinen+TE-toimiston+asiakkaana+20092011.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act of Vocational Rehabilitation (189/2001) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kokoelma/2001/20010027.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social Welfare Act (710/1982) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1982/en19820710.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Employee who have lost partial ability to work and their work agreement provisions (in Finnish) [url] => http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79295/RAP2017-14-selvitysraportti.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => A government key project on career opportunity for people with partial work ability [url] => http://stm.fi/en/career-opportunities-for-people-with-partial-work-ability ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => Through a Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002), the employer has the right to apply for a benefit for arranging the working conditions to enable the employment of a disabled person. Adaptations can cover necessary arrangements and new equipment to reduce the disadvantage in working conditions or hiring another employee to assist the disabled employee. Workplace adaptations are always means-tested. The benefit is limited to EUR 4,000 per person regarding adaptations and EUR 20 per hour for maximum 18 months in a case of a personally employed assistant. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland provides assistive devices needed to enable employment. Such devices include for example video magnifiers, Braille displays or other computer equipment. The main adaptations at workplaces concern working times, ergonomics and the employee’s own work planning. The employee receives subsidies for these adaptations. An employer employing a disabled employee could also get wage subsidies or other support in organizing the work. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:49:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Government Decree on Benefits Related to Public Employment Service (1346/2002) (in Finnish) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2002/20021346 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Vocational Rehabilitation of the Social Insurance Institute of Finland [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/vocational-rehabilitation ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Assistive Devices of the Social Insurance Institute of Finland [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/assistive-devices ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => The employers employing a person with disabilities are entitled to different benefits also in the open labour market. The most common benefits are an employment subsidy and a subsidy for arrangement of the working conditions. Subsidy can also be granted for social enterprises, which support the employment of disabled people. The employment subsidy is regulated by the Act on Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012), which also regulates the subsidy for the arrangement of working conditions. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:50:31 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the Public Employment and Enterprise Services (916/2012) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2012/20120916 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guide to the employer for hiring a disabled or partially fit to work person [url] => http://yhdenvertaisuus-fi-bin.directo.fi/@Bin/7175229e9494afc2319f883fb46c1b32/1450871813/application/pdf/173585/Vammoista%20viis%20final%20FI.pdf ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => There is no single institution or department especially responsible for research on disability equality or for the collection of relevant data and statistics. The National Disability Policy (VAMPO 2010-2015) included a key commitment that 'disability research shall be reinforced, the information base improved, and diversified high-quality methods developed in support of disability policy and monitoring'. The Finnish Society for Disability Research has been coordinating disability researchers and organises annual conferences. The Human Rights Centre is part of the monitoring mechanism of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and appointed a staff dedicated to this work in 2016. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) publishes statistics on disability benefits and services (number of recipients etc.). The National Institute for Health and Welfare publishes statistics on institutional care and housing and has been given the mandate to promote disability research. At the Åbo Akademi University there is an Institute for Human Rights that conducts research on disability equality. The first Finnish disability studies professorship was established with the support of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) at the University of Helsinki. Disability Studies is part of the Department of Social Research, the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Helsinki. The professor in disability studies was appointed for 5 years (2013-2017). In 2017, the University of Helsinki decided to maintain this professorship position beyond 2017 and to make the position permanent. The next holder of the professorship will most likely be appointed in 2018. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:53:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finland's Disability Policy Programme (VAMPO) [url] => https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/112497 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social insurance fund statistics (Kela) [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/496 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute for Human Rights [url] => http://www.abo.fi/institution/en/humanrights ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finnish Society for Disability Research [url] => http://www.vammaistutkimus.fi/english ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => Finland has an accurate population registry system, thus censuses are in practice conducted by studying the registry, rather than as a separate project. Thus Finland does not run census questionnaires that would gather specific data on living conditions of different population groups like disabled people. The number of people who use disability services is recorded in official statistics. Statistics on disability benefits are provided by The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:54:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland - Census [url] => http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/shlaitasup/index_en.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Social Insurance Institution of Finland on statistics on disability benefits [url] => http://www.kela.fi/web/en/496 ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => Finnish Labour Survey is conducted by Statistics Finland. It distinguishes people with partial work incapacity. The European Labour Force Survey ad hoc module in 2002 and 2012 included Finnish disabled people. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:54:40 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics Finland - About statistics - Labour force survey [url] => http://www.stat.fi/meta/til/tyti_en.html ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There are no specific disability equality indicators available. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:54:50 [links] => Array ( ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => Assistentti-info is a nationwide network of personal assistance and information services, which produces educational materials. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which consists of civil society associations and local and nationwide public service organisations. The network is financed by the Finnish Slot Machine Association that is controlled by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The network’s main focus is on developing personal assistance. The DPO Threshold Association runs the network and its members are service providers, disability organisations and foundations. Assistentti-info is now controlled by disabled people and provides a national co-ordinating and information function, as well as raising awareness about personal assistance and independent living. Advice and legal support can also be provided to personal assistance users. The National Council of Disability (Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE) is a governmental cooperative body for the development of social and public policy considering living conditions and equality of disabled people. In addition, the Association for People with Physical Disabilities (Invalidiliitto) organizes a web portal of accessibility (Esteetön.fi), which provides information, education and social campaigns. The Finnish Disability Forum, an umbrella organization of 31 DPOs, also constantly implements its awareness raising activities. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:55:39 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Assistentti-info [url] => http://www.assistentti.info/en/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the National Council of Disability (2009/1648) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2009/20091648 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Valtakunnallinen vammaisneuvosto – VANE [url] => http://www.vane.to/ ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Esteetön.fi (a web portal of accessibility) [url] => http://www.esteeton.fi/portal/ ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Finnish Disability Forum [url] => http://www.vammaisfoorumi.fi/ ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => In Finland inclusive teacher training is not organised in disability-oriented streams. The aim is to provide to all future teachers a range of knowledge and skills that they can apply in various settings and situations to arrange inclusive educational possibilities. This training is not focused on disability awareness, but on the opportunities for participation of students with special needs. The training in university education science program includes minimum 35 credits and maximum 50 credits, as defined by the Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) in the section 14. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:56:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => European Agency - country information [url] => http://www.european-agency.org/country-information/finland/national-overview/teacher-training-basic-and-specialist-teacher-training ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on university degree on education or teacher qualifications (1995/576) [url] => http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1995/19950576 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => There is no obligation for law students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of lawyers’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training. In legal science studies, after training in the court of justice, practical training is voluntary. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:57:20 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => There is no obligation for medical students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of doctors’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training. The degree of licence of medicine includes a mandatory training from 4 to 16 weeks in clinical methods (at the University of Oulu). [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:57:25 [links] => Array ( ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => The Finnish Design for All (DfA) network is a member of the European Design for All eAccessibility Network EDeAN. It is an umbrella organisation and network, which has 39 members, including research institutions, universities and user organisations. This DfA network moved from the National Institute of Health and Welfare to the Accessibility Center (ESKE) of the Finnish Association of People with Physical Disabilities and to AVAAVA in 2015.

There is no obligation for engineer students to study disability awareness / equality issues as part of engineers’ training, let alone involvement of disabled people in the training. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:57:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Finnish Design for All Network [url] => https://www.invalidiliitto.fi/esteettomyys/esteettomyyskeskus-eske ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => AVAAVA [url] => https://avaava.fi/en/ ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Abilis Foundation and Disability Partnership Finland (DPF) are two partner organizations of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in the field of disability among 22 partner non-governmental organizations. Abilis Foundation channels project grants to groups and organizations of persons with disabilities in the Global South, while DPF coordinates the programme of nine Finnish organizations of persons with disabilities working in the field of development cooperation. The Finnish government has been active in promoting disability rights in its international and development cooperation mainly through allocation of its official development aid to non-governmental organizations and also through international policy dialogue. [update_date] => 2018-03-01 15:58:02 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Abilis Foundation [url] => http://www.abilis.fi/en/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Partnership Finland (Vammaiskumppanuus)  [url] => http://www.vammaiskumppanuus.fi/fidida/ ) ) ) ) ) ) )