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Poland

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Poland signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007. The decision concerning ratification was deferred pending an examination of the legal, social and economic consequences of the decision. The ratification was lodged with the UN on 25 September 2012.

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Update date: Mon, 2015-03-02

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

A decision concerning the signing of the Optional Protocol has not yet been taken by Poland. According to an official letter from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to decide the position of the Polish Cabinet, it would be essential to clarify the procedure for making complaints.

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Update date: Thu, 2015-05-07

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Poland made the following reservation upon signature: ‘The Republic of Poland understands that Articles 23.1 (b) and 25 (a) shall not be interpreted in a way conferring an individual right to abortion or mandating state party to provide access thereto.’

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A4. Comprehensive review

The Comprehensive Review of national legislation to determine changes necessary to achieve full consistency of national law with the Convention was completed in May 2011. The findings are subject to interdepartmental and social consultations, and as a result of these the decision concerning the ratification of the Convention may be made.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A5. Focal point

No focal point has been assigned because Poland has not yet ratified the Convention.

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A6. Coordination mechanism

No coordination mechanism within the government has yet been designated or established, because Poland has not yet ratified the Convention.

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A7. Independent mechanism

An independent mechanism pursuant to Article 33.2 of the UN Convention will be nominated by Poland at the time of ratifying the Convention.

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A8. Official reporting

Poland's initial state report was due in September 2014 and submitted according to the schedule.

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Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

No shadow reports have yet been submitted in parallel to the initial state report for Poland. A means for ensuring the involvement of civil society is in the process of being implemented.

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Update date: Wed, 2015-03-11

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Polish Constitution contains a general prohibition against discrimination. Article 32 of the Constitution states that ‘All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public authorities. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever’. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities, approved by the Parliament (Sejm) 15 on 1 August 1997 (M.P. 1997, No. 50, item 475), also prohibits discrimination. The Charter acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to an independent, active life, free from discrimination. It is, however, worth adding that the Charter was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. Specific laws counteracting discrimination are, however, mainly limited to the employment field. Although on 1 January 2011 the Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (Journal of Laws 2010, No. 254, item 1700; hereafter Act on Equal Treatment) entered into force, the law is not exhaustive and does not cover discrimination based on sexual orientation, disability, religion or age in the fields of education, health care, social protection and housing. The Act on Equal Treatment (2010) designated the existing Ombudsperson Office (Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection) as an equality body. The Act on Equal Treatment also appointed the Government Plenipotentiary, who among others is responsible for dealing with discrimination based on disability and cooperates in this with the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled Persons.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

The Act of 23 April 1964 - Civil Code (Journal of Laws 1964, No. 16, item 93, with further amendments) distinguishes between legal capacity and the capacity to undertake legal actions. ‘Legal capacity’ (in Polish ‘zdolność prawna’) is the capacity to be a subject of rights and obligations in the area of civil law. The ‘capacity to undertake legal actions’ (in Polish ‘zdolność do czynności prawnych’) means that a person has the capacity to acquire civil law rights and obligations by personal actions. In general, persons with disabilities exercise full capacity to undertake legal actions as long as a court has placed them under guardianship. The Civil Code (1964) in Poland recognises plenary guardianship and partial guardianship. A person may be placed under plenary guardianship because of mental health problems, mental deficiency or other ‘mental disorders’, particularly if due to alcoholism and drug addiction they cannot ‘control their behaviour’. If the circumstances do not warrant plenary guardianship, but a person needs assistance to manage their affairs, partial guardianship may be declared. Persons placed under plenary guardianship do not have the right to conclude any legal acts and any legal actions they take are invalid. Guardians are appointed by the court to act for such persons. The legal capacity of a person under 'partial' guardianship is partially restricted and for such a person a curator is appointed. The main role of the curator is to support or assist the person who has partially restricted legal capacity in his/her affairs. The agreement of the curator is essential for the validity of most of the legal acts made by the person.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

People with disabilities have the same voting rights as other Polish citizens. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland (1997) ensures that every Polish citizen who has attained 18 years of age has the right to participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local self-government. However, under Article 62 only persons with full legal capacity can exercise these rights. Persons placed under full or partial guardianship are excluded from political participation. Recently, several important provisions were implemented into the electoral laws improving the accessibility of voting and elections for persons with disabilities, including voting through a plenipotentiary, correspondence voting and voting using Braille overlay sheets with ballots. Old regulations, such as the Act of 12 April 2001 on Elections to the Polish Parliament, in practice deprived people with disabilities who were not able to leave their homes and turn up personally at the polling station of their right to vote because they must personally participate in elections. The Election Code (2011) which entered into force on 1 August 2011 replaced several acts governing electoral law in Poland. It contains the following regulations regarding the accessibility of voting and elections for persons with disabilities: 1) the accommodation designed as seats of electoral bodies should be easily accessible to persons with disabilities; 2) the head of a commune or mayor shall ensure access to polling stations adapted to the needs of voters with disabilities; 3) in every commune there should be at least one third of the premises adapted to the needs of persons with disabilities; 4) polling wards may be established in hospitals and welfare homes that have at least fifteen resident voters; 5) voters with disabilities may be assisted in voting by another person who is not a member of a ward electoral commission or a poll observer authorised by the candidates; 6) persons with disabilities holding a disability certificate for moderate or significant degree have the right to vote through a plenipotentiary or via the post; 7) voters with disabilities may vote in ballots using a Braille overlay sheet.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

B4. Official recognition of sign language

In 2011, Poland adopted a new law on sign language – the Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication (Journal of Law 2011, No. 209, item 1243). From the 1 April 2012 all public authorities are obliged to provide sign language translators for hearing-impaired people (this need has to be registered at least three days in advance). According to the law, from October 2011 a person with hearing impairment is allowed to take advantage of a helper (chosen by him/herself) when contacting the public authorities.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

We do not yet have information for this item

Update date: Tue, 2013-08-13

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

There is no specific law dealing with transport accessibility in Poland, but there are several regulations addressing this topic. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities (1997), acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to live in an environment free of functional barriers, including to the use of public transport. The Charter, however, was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. According to the Act of 15 November 1984 (Transportation Law) transport providers are obliged to ensure passengers’ safety, hygiene and comfort and due services as well as to take measures that will make the use of transportation easier, including for people with limited mobility and people with disabilities. Moreover, according to the regulation of the Minister of Transport and Building of 13 January 2006 timetables should specify the modes of transport that are accessible to people with disabilities and information related to concessionary fares. The Transportation Law, however, does not apply to sea and air transport. Improving transport accessibility for people with disabilities is one of the goals of the Polish Transport Development Strategy that runs until 2020.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

C2. Built environment accessibility

The 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to live in an environment free of functional barriers, including access to public offices, polling stations and public utilities. The Charter was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. The 1994 Law on Construction introduced, from 1 January 1995, the obligation to consider the needs of persons with disabilities in new construction projects and when modernising existing buildings, other public buildings and multi-family dwelling-houses. All such buildings should be accessible for people with disabilities, including people using wheelchairs. More detailed requirements are set out in the Ministry of Infrastructure Regulation of 12 April 2002 on technical standards. In accordance with the Regulation of 25 June 2002 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy, on determining county tasks that can be financed from the resources of the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons, resources are to be used for the elimination of architectural barriers in and outside the home to help people with disabilities perform daily activities. Architectural barrier removal may be granted to a person with mobility difficulties. Reimbursement is made by the county government (the person concerned has to submit a written request to the County Family Assistive Centre, CFAC). Up to 80% of the cost may be reimbursed but no more than fifteen times the average monthly remuneration. Every CFAC provides a detailed catalogue of equipment, materials and works that can be reimbursed.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

According to the Act of 6 September 2001 on access to public information, every person shall have the right to access public information; however, persons with disabilities are not specifically mentioned in this legislation. In 2010, on the basis of the amendments to the Act of 17 February 2005 on application of information technology in public sector, minimum requirements for ICT systems have been extended, taking into consideration access to information for persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities have been also included in the 125 project undertaken in the framework of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007-2013– 8.3 Counteracting Digital Exclusion – eInclusion.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

In theory, people with disabilities have the same opportunity to choose where to live as other Polish citizens, unless they are deprived or restricted of legal capacity. The Polish Constitution ensures freedom of choice of place of residence. Article 52 states that “Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone”. This freedom, however, may be subject to limitations specified by statue. Moreover, Article 75 of the Polish Constitution states that “Public authorities shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular combating homelessness, promoting the development of low-income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition of a home by each citizen”. Persons with mental health problems may however be placed involuntarily in a social welfare home. According to the provisions of the Protection of Mental Health Act of 19 August 1994 (Journal of Law 2011, No. 231, item 1375, with further amendments), a person with mental health disorders or intellectual disabilities who needs permanent care and nursing but does not need treatment in a psychiatric hospital may be placed involuntary in a social welfare home when a lack of care may endanger his or her life. The motion is submitted to the guardianship court by a social welfare unit or by a hospital director (in the case of a psychiatric hospital patient who no longer requires treatment in a hospital) and the decision is then taken by the guardianship court. The Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004 (Journal of Law 2004, No. 64 Item 593, with further amendments) also obliges the social welfare authorities to notify the relevant court or public prosecutor if a person who is considered to require support does not agree to be placed in a social welfare home.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D2. De-institutionalisation

There is no national programme concerning deinstitutionalisation in Poland. Social welfare homes are the main type of residential institution in Poland. According to the Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004 (Journal of Laws 2004, No. 64, item 593, with further amendments), these provide services for persons who need 24 hour care because of age, illness or disability. By the end of 2010 all social welfare homes in Poland were obliged to achieve new standards set in the Regulation of the Ministry of Social Policy of 19 October 2005 on social welfare homes (Journal of Laws 2005, No. 217, item 1837). According to the new standards, newly established homes cannot have more than 100 residents, the number of residents living in one room cannot exceed four persons (the area of the room has to be at least six square meters). Every home should ensure certain living, care and assistance services. In 1997, sheltered housing solution were introduced into the social welfare system by amendment to the previous Social Assistance Act (1990), however, access to this type of support is still very limited in Poland. According the Social Assistance Act (2004), a residence in sheltered apartment can be granted to a person who because of difficult life situation, age, disability or illness needs support to lead his/her daily life but does not need 24 hour services in an institution. According to the Central Statistical Office (CSO)’ data there were approximately 770 residential social welfare facilities for persons with various types of disabilities in 2009, with 63,902 residents: 20,297 (31.5%) persons chronically ill with somatic disorders, 21,480 (34%) persons with intellectual disabilities, 20,396 (31.5%) persons with chronic mental illness and 1729 (3%) persons with physical disabilities. There is a slightly decreasing tendency in the number of residents in these facilities - as compared to 2005, the number dropped by almost 3.5% in 2009. Most of the residents (98%) lived in social welfare homes, which constituted 93% of all the residential social welfare facilities for the above-mentioned groups of residents. In accordance with the CSO’ data, in 2009, the average number of residents per social welfare home in Poland was 95. Sheltered housing solutions were introduced to the social welfare system in 1997. In 2010, the number of places was 1,305 in 352 units, including 361 places for people with mental disorders in 84 units.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D3. Quality of social services

In general, Poland lacks a comprehensive and cohesive system of monitoring the quality and effectiveness of disability services.

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Several provisions exist in Poland as regards assistive equipment and adaptations. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities (M.P. 1997, No. 50, item 475), approved by the Parliament on 1 August 1997, calls for actions to ensure access to goods and services that enable disabled people to fully participate in social life as well as to medical treatment and rehabilitation including provision of orthopaedic and assistive devices and rehabilitation equipment. In accordance with the Act of 27 August 2004 on Health Care Services (Journal of Laws 2004, No. 210, item 2135, with further amendments), people with disabilities can apply to the National Health Fund for orthopaedic and assistive devices (medical) such as orthopaedic prosthetics, shoes, callipers, walking sticks and crutches, wheelchairs, lenses, hearing aids, etc. To apply for these services, a written order from an authorised practitioner is needed. Reimbursement for particular article or equipment is granted for a certain period (for instance 2, 3 or 5 years) and in relation to particular impairments. The Minister of Health determines the maximum reimbursement as well as providing a detailed catalogue of orthopaedic articles and means of assistance (Regulation on orthopaedic articles and assistive equipments, Journal of Laws 2009, No. 139, item 1141). The National Health Fund reimburses expenses but only up to a certain amount. Additionally, a person with disabilities who is granted reimbursement for orthopaedic articles and assistive means from the National Health Fund can apply to County Family Assistance Centres to cover the remaining sum. The applicant has to hold a disability certificate and meet income criteria. While payment is made by the County Family Assistive Centres, funding for this comes from the resources of the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons on the basis of the Act of 27 August 1997 on Rehabilitation (Journal of Laws 2011, No. 127, item 721). There is no precise data how many people with disabilities apply to the National Health Fund for orthopaedic and assistive devices (medical). As regard to expenses for rehabilitation equipment, orthopaedic articles and assistive means granted by the County Family Assistance Centres, in 2010 the county governments partially financed such services for 140,712 persons with disabilities and spent PLN92 million on this task (30% less than in 2009) and the average reimbursement per person was PLN662 (EUR165 approximately).

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Personal assistance is a rather new and developing concept in Poland. Although in recent years a new profession has been formed, an assistant to a person with disabilities to support and advise in the rehabilitation process, there is no such service in the frame of the Polish system. The services that do exist are mostly offered by non-governmental organisations and local governments and are organised in various ways. All of these services use different application procedures, eligibility criteria and payment conditions. The main forms of support provided by the public authorities to people with disabilities who want to live in their own homes are care and specialist care services. These services are forms of social assistance provided to individuals who, because of age, illness or other reasons, need human assistance. According to the Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004, care services and specialist care services are granted on the basis of an administrative decision and are free of charge only for those individuals who meet the income criteria. The social worker, in granting eligibility to both kinds of care services, defines their scope and place of provision. Care services include: help with fulfilling daily needs (tidying up, washing, shopping, cooking), hygiene, nursing care (according to the doctor's advice), and, if possible, contacts with the environment. On the other hand, specialist care services should be adjusted to particular needs resulting from specific diseases or disabilities and require specific professional skills to provide them. Specialist care services may, among other services, consist of: teaching and developing the skills necessary to live independently; interventions and help in family life; help in taking care of official errands; help in managing household finances; nursing support ; and assistance with housing matters. In 2010, care services were granted to 89,298 people and specialist care services to 14,892 persons. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) includes regulations concerning personal assistance at work for employees with disabilities, whereby an employer can be reimbursed from the State Fund for Rehabilitation for the costs of employing someone to assist a disabled employee at work. The number of hours that are used solely to help the employee with disabilities cannot exceed 20% of the monthly number of hours the employee works.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D6. Income maintenance

The Polish Constitution guarantees the right to social security for people with disabilities. Article 69 states that ‘Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with the statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence, adaptation to work and social communication.’ Financial support for persons with disabilities in Poland is available mainly through social insurance, family benefits and social assistance systems. Social assistance is meant to support those citizens and families, who, for objective reasons, are not able to fulfil their primary needs in life and enable them to live in decent conditions; disability and prolonged illness are among the reasons for granting social assistance. Social assistance consists of various categories of cash benefits and most of these services are means-tested. According to the Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance, there are three basic types of cash benefits from this system: a permanent allowance, a periodical allowance and a purpose allowance (together with special purpose allowance). A person is eligible to receive a permanent allowance if she/he meets the income criteria and is totally incapable of working due to age or disability. Periodical allowance may be granted to persons and families without sufficient income (income lower than the threshold level of income specified in the social assistance regulations, particularly due to prolonged illness, disability, unemployment, and possibility to maintain or acquire the rights to benefits on other social security systems). People with disabilities can also benefit from the family benefit system that is available to all families with children receiving a low income. According to the Act of 28 November 2003 on Family Benefits, family benefits in Poland are funded by the state budget and the eligibility depends on the concerned family’s actual financial situation but the award of them is by not dependent on whether the eligible person has been employed and insured. The income criteria for a family with a disabled child are more generous than for other families and the amount of family allowance paid depends on the child’s age. A number of supplements may be granted in addition to the family allowance. One is the supplement for the education and rehabilitation of a child with disabilities. This is granted for a child with disabilities up to the age of 16 and for a person with a moderate or significant disability between the age of 16 and 24. It covers increased spending on rehabilitation and education of the child. Additionally, the family benefits system includes two non means-tested benefits of great importance for people with disabilities and their families: nursing allowance and nursing benefit. Nursing allowance is granted to partially cover expenses related to care and support for a person with disabilities who is unable to lead an independent life. Nursing benefit is granted to one the child’s parent (or guardian) resigning from work in order to take care of a child with disabilities.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D7. Additional costs

The 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to social security - taking into account the necessity of bearing higher costs related to disability and taking these costs into account in the tax system The Charter, however, was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. According to the Act of 26 July 1991 on Personal Income Tax disabled taxpayers and non-disabled taxpayers who have disabled dependants may deduct amounts from their income expenses incurred for rehabilitation or facilitating life activities. There are numerous conditions that apply to such a relief.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D8. Retirement income

As of 1 January 1999, the reform of the old-age pension scheme has come into force in Poland. Since then, two old-age pension schemes have been operating in parallel: old pension scheme (operating under earlier rules) – compulsory for persons born before 1 January 1949, and a new pension scheme (operating under the new rules) – compulsory for persons born in 1969 and after. According to the Act of 17 December 1998 on Old Age Pensions and Other Benefits from the Social Insurance Fund, people born between 1949 and 1968 could choose the funded option. The minimum retirement age in the new system is 65 for men and 60 for women. For the minimum pension, 25 and 20 years’ contributions are required from men and women, respectively. These requirements apply also to people with disabilities, however, those receiving incapacity pension (literally ‘pensions on the grounds of inability to work’), their incapacity pension is automatically changed into old-age pension when they reach the minimum retirement age (65 for men and 60 for women). In contrast, the social pension is not automatically changed into old-age pension when the pensioner reaches the minimum retirement age. Persons with disabilities in retirement age who do not receive either incapacity pension or social pension, nor fulfil the requirements to receive old-age pension, may apply for permanent allowance from the social assistance system, According to the Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance, a person is eligible to receive a permanent allowance if s/he meets the income criteria and is totally incapable of working due to age or disability.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E. Education

E1. Special schools

Special education is an integral part of the education system in Poland and a system of separate special schools remains, within a variety of schooling options, including non-public schools, home-schooling and remedial centres (for pupils with profound intellectual disabilities). According to the Regulation of Minister of National Education of 17 November 2010 on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in special kindergartens, schools or sections schools are organised for children with the following types of disability: deaf, hard of hearing, blind, vision impaired, motor-skill impairment, intellectual disabilities, autism including Asperger Syndrome, and multiple disabilities. Children and young people with profound intellectual disabilities may be schooled in rehabilitation-educational classes. According to the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 30 January 1997 on organisation of rehabilitation-educational classes for children and youth with profound intellectual disabilities, they have the right to attend such classes between the ages of three and 25. These classes can be provided in the education system (in public kindergartens and schools), in special educational care centres, non-governmental remedial centres, social care homes, community self-help homes and medical care centres; or at the child’s family home. According to the Regulation of the Minister of National Education on assessments and opinions issued by the assessment’ teams in the public psychological-educational counseling centres of 18 September 2008, an evaluation for special educational purposes is made at the request of the child’s parent or guardian in public psychological-educational counseling centres by multidisciplinary teams. The team recommends the form of special education to be provided, for example in a mainstream school, an integrated school or class, or a special school or class. This is, however, a recommendation and parents retain the right, in theory, to send their child to the district mainstream school.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E2. Mainstream schools

The Polish Constitution (1997) recognises the universal right to education and obliges public authorities to ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens (article 70) but there is no anti-discrimination legislation covering disability which applies specifically to education. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (hereafter Act on Equal Treatment) prohibits unequal treatment in access to education and but only based on race, ethnic origin or nationality (article 7). The main legislative framework for the school education system is the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System (hereafter Act on Education System). Education in Poland is compulsory for all children and young people from the age of 6 to 18. The duty starts with the first year of preschool education, is continuous for 6 years of primary school, and lasts until completion of 3 years of lower secondary school and/or up to the age of 18 years. The Act on Education System (1991) provides that pupils with disabilities may attend any type of school according to their individual needs and possibilities, as well as the right to individual teaching, curricula and classes, and appropriate adjustment to the content of the curricula in order to correspond to individual abilities. According to the Act on Education System (1991) mainstreams schools have the legal responsibility to enrol every child living in their districts. Even if in the evaluation for special education there is a recommendation for special schools, parents still have the right to send their child to the district mainstream school. In practice, however, although the Polish education system is steadily going into the direction of less segregated and more inclusive education, some parents may be under pressure from the school to place the child in special school. Mainstream schools are obliged to ensure that students identified as having special educational needs receive education according to the recommendations in their assessment. Since 1 September 2011, mainstream schools are also obliged to develop individual plans based on comprehensive professional multidisciplinary team evaluation for pupils with disabilities. The Regulation on conditions in mainstream or integrated schools (2010) does not impose an obligation on mainstream schools to hire specialists to work with pupils with disabilities and support regular teachers unless they have integrated or special classes. Such specialists may, however, be employed, with the permission of the governing authority.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

Poland adopted the Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication (Journal of Law 2011, No. 209, item 1243), which is fully effective from 1 April 2012. However, this legislation does not refer to the education system. The Ministry of Education provides funds for adapting school textbooks and other texts in Braille. The books are published on the official website of the Ministry and may be printed at schools in accordance with pupils’ needs. Moreover, every year, the Ministry finances are aimed at providing pupils with visual disabilities access to children’s magazines. For external assessment, which has been gradually introduced in Poland since 2002, there are test papers in Braille for blind pupils.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E4. Vocational training

In accordance with the Act on Education System (1991), adult vocational training can be provided both in school (mainstream post-secondary schools for adults) and out-of-school forms (public continuing education centres, practical centres and in-service training centres and non-public education institutions). The Regulation of the Minister of National Education on continuing education in out-of-school forms of 17 February 2012 introduced the obligation of training providers to ensure conditions enable persons with disabilities participation in training. The Act on Promotion of Employment (2004) also includes legal regulation concerning training institutions. It includes public and non-public centres offering education in out-of-school forms for the unemployed and registered as training institutions with the regional authorities. The Polish Constitution (1997) recognises the universal right to education (article 70) as well as programmes to support occupational training (article 65). The Act on Equal Treatment prohibits disability-based discrimination in the context of vocational training, including further vocational training, in-service training, vocational retraining and professional practice (article 8). Moreover, the Act on Promotion of Employment and Institutions of the Labour Market of 20 April 2004 ensures that labour market institutions shall not discriminate against unemployed persons whom they direct to training on the grounds of disability (article 40). In general, after completing obligatory levels of education, students may continue their education in non-compulsory upper secondary schools or outside school education. Organisation of the upper secondary vocational schools is regulated by the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System and its implementing regulations. The Regulation of the Ministry of National Education on educational framework programmes in public schools of 7 February 2012 establishes the basis for training at different schools within the education system (mainstream of special) leading to vocational qualifications or the Matura examination necessary for admission to higher education, or a 3-year special job-training schools for young people with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities and for pupils with multiple disabilities (a diploma confirming preparation for employment). Conditions on teaching students with disabilities in upper secondary vocational schools are established in two further regulations of 17 November 2010. According to these Regulations, students with disabilities may attend upper secondary vocational schools up to the age of 23 years. Students with disabilities may continue their vocational education in 2.5-year post-secondary schools (mainstream or special). These are based on the same legislation as upper secondary vocational schools.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E5. Higher education

There is no anti-discrimination legislation covering disability which applies specifically to higher education. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (Act on Equal Treatment) prohibits unequal treatment in access to higher education on grounds of race, ethnic origin or nationality (article 7) but not disability. The main legislative framework for the higher education system is the Law on Higher Education of 27 July 2005. Higher education is free of charge in public sector institutions for full-time day courses (a tuition fee is charged for part-time degree programmes). As institutions of higher education are autonomous, legislation does not precisely describe the content and scope of the support available to disabled students or university applicants. According to the Law on Higher Education (2005), students with disabilities have the right to apply for financial support on the same basis as other students, and additionally are entitled to a special disability scholarship. Every college or university may also implement their own disability policy, employ a disability plenipotentiary and establish an office for persons with disabilities but this is always an autonomous decision of the institution. Therefore, the scope and quality of the support varies from one institution to another. There are several institutions in Poland that deal with adult and continuing education. According to the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System, continuing education can be provided on daily, extra-mural, and distance-learning bases and may be organised in schools for adults, continuing education centres (CKU), practical training centres (CKP) and other institutions for in-service training. The Law on Higher Education (2005) includes provisions regarding post-graduate studies and training courses offered to adults by higher education institutions. The Act on Promotion of Employment of 20 April 2004 includes legal regulations concerning institutions in the labour market including public employment services and training institutions. Public employment services coordinate activities in the area of continuing education and the training of the unemployed and job-seekers.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

As a member of the European Union (EU), Poland has transposed into national legislation the provisions of the European Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000, establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (hereafter, the Employment Directive), through amendments to the Labour Code (1974), the Act on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market (2004), the Act on Rehabilitation (1997) and other legislation. The prohibition of discrimination applies to all the institutions of the labour market, such as employment agencies and employment counseling as well as training courses for the unemployed. The rules apply equally to the public and private sectors; however they do not apply to independent professions (regulated to a large extent by self-regulatory bodies, such as for lawyers, legal advisors) or to self-employment. In order to fully transpose the Employment Directive (and four other EU directives), Poland adopted the the Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment, which entered into force on 1 January 2011. The law introduced to the Act on Rehabilitation (1997) the definition of necessary reasonable improvements and obliges employers to ensure these for people with disabilities who are employed, participate in recruitment processes or undergo training, internships, etc. unless such measures would impose a disproportionate burden on the employer. However, the burden should not be regarded as disproportionate if it is sufficiently covered by public resources. Moreover, the Act on Equal Treatment (2010) prohibits disability-based discrimination in the context of: a) vocational training, including further vocational training, in-service training, vocational retraining and professional practice, b) conditions of access to employed or self-employed activities, c) membership of and involvement in trade unions, organisations of employers or workers, d) labour market instruments and services as set in the Act of Promotion of Employment (2004).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

F2. Public employment services

These tasks are fulfilled mainly by labour market institutions under the Act of 20 April 2004 on Promotion of Employment Labour Market Institutions (hereafter Act on Promotion of Employment). Among labour market institutions there are public employment services: at the state level there is a minister responsible for employment issues, at the provincial level there are provincial governors and marshals, and at a county level, county governors. Most provincial and county duties concerning labour market policy are performed by provincial and county labour offices. Public Employment Services in Poland provide a standard range of labour market programmes aimed at job-seekers and unemployed persons registered in labour offices or just as unemployed persons. In addition, there are some labour market instruments applied to unemployed persons who are in a specific situation on the labour market, among these are people with disabilities. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment ensures that labour market instruments and services as set in the Act on Promotion of Employment (2004) are to be provided on equal terms to everyone, irrespective of disability (article 8). With regard to the situation of persons with disabilities the Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons ensures that persons with disabilities, registered in labour offices as unemployed or job-seekers, have the right to use labour market instruments and services in accordance with the rules set out in the Act on Promotion of Employment (2004). Moreover, as some labour market programmes are aimed only at people registered as unemployed and persons with disabilities who are entitled to incapacity pensions cannot register as unemployed. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) ensures access to several labour market instruments and services also available to disabled job-seekers. According to Article 11, persons with disabilities registered at labour offices as job-seekers (while not employed) may use some of the services and instruments according to the same rules as unemployed persons (e.g. with regard to training, internship, a programme of intervention which provides subsidised, postgraduate courses). These are, however, financed from the resources of State Fund for Disabled Persons Rehabilitation, not from the Labour Fund as in the case of persons registered as unemployed.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

F3. Workplace adaptations

In 2010 amendment to Act on Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons introduced the concept of necessary reasonable improvements. The new regulation, in force since 1 January 2011, obliges employers to ensure necessary reasonable improvements for a person with disabilities who is employed, participates in the recruitment process or undergoes training, internship, etc. unless such measures would impose a disproportionate burden on the employer. However, the burden shall not be regarded as disproportionate if costs are covered by public resources. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) contains two main provisions for reimbursements for adapting workplaces. First, according to article 26 of the act on Rehabilitation, employers who employ persons with disabilities for at least 36 months may receive reimbursement from the State Fund for Rehabilitation for adapting existing, or creating, workplaces to meet the needs of people with disabilities, adapting or buying devices that help people with disabilities to function at work and recognising the needs of people with disabilities for medical services. Since 1 January 2009, the catalogue has been extended and employers may also be reimbursed for the purchase and authorisation of the software necessary for disabled employees as well as for assistive technologies and equipment. The reimbursement cannot exceed twenty times average remuneration. Secondly, according to article 26e of the Act on Rehabilitation, employers who employ persons with disabilities who have been unemployed or seeking jobs for at least 36 months, may apply for reimbursement of costs of up to 15 times average remuneration related to equipping workplaces.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

F4. Financial incentives

According to the Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons, employment of people with disabilities in Poland is encouraged above all through the quota system and other legislative solutions, mostly incentives for employers or measures that aim to increase the self-employment of people with disabilities such as: 1) reimbursement of expenses incurred for the adaptation of work places and enclosed spaces for people with disabilities and adaptation or purchase of equipment to facilitate their functioning, 2) reimbursement of costs related to equipping workplaces, 3) partial reimbursement of expenses for training organised by employers for employees with disabilities, 4) one-time finance to start-up business activity; 5) subsidies for payment of interest on bank loans taken to continue business activity. The State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons also subsidises disabled employees’ salaries by up to 75% of the payroll costs of commercial employers and up to 90% in the case of others.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The most important statistics on people with disabilities and their situation are published by the Central Statistical Office (CSO). Apart from data from censuses and the Labour Force Survey, disability statistics are included in various CSO publications on education, health care, social assistance, living conditions, culture, sport and tourism. In addition, data on unemployed persons with disabilities and those seeking a job and not employed can be found in the statistical reports of labour offices. Some information about the employment of people with disabilities is published also by the State Fund for Rehabilitation. An extensive list of official statistics and CSO publications referring to situation of persons with disabilities can be found on the official website of the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled Persons.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

G2. Census data

The last National Census of Population and Housing carried out in Poland took place in 2011; a few questions were included, such as whether respondents had a disability, the type and the level of disability. However, data on disability was not available at the time of writing.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

G3. Labour Force Survey

The Labour Force Survey (LFS), known as BAEL in Poland (Badanie Aktywności Ekonomicznej Ludności) has been carried out since May 1992 on a quarterly basis. It has been improved in accordance with Eurostat recommendations. The survey covers economic activity of the population, including disabled people and it covers members of the households in the sampled dwellings. The survey does not include the population living in institutional households, such as social welfare homes, therefore the large number of people with disabilities living in institutions is not included.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

G4. Disability equality indicators

Officially recognised disability equality indicators have not been identified.

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

A number of awareness raising programmes operate in Poland at local and national level. They are mostly run by non-governmental organisations and financed from public funds such as the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H2. Training for teachers

The Regulation of the Minister o Science and Higher Education of 17 January 2012 on the standards for teacher training (Journal of Laws 2012, No. 0, item 131), which entered into force 21 February 2012 provides for minimal knowledge of special educational needs issues. According to this legislation, a graduate of the teacher training programme should have knowledge about pupils with special educational needs as well as knowledge and abilities in the scope of pedagogical diagnosis taking into account the special needs of pupils with development disorders. In the basic (mandatory) study programme for teachers the following educational contents are present: physical and intellectual disabilities, psychological consequences of disability, international and national disability legislation, special educational needs psychological and educational support for pupils with special educational needs, etc.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H3. Training for lawyers

The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for lawyers’ training. This does not include specific training on disability issues. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on lawyers’ training has not been implemented yet.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H4. Training for doctors

The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for doctors’ training. This includes some specific knowledge on disability issues such as: definitions, disability as a social problem, or orthopaedic and assistive devices and rehabilitation equipment for persons with disabilities. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on doctors’ training has not been implemented yet.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H5. Training for engineers

The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for engineers’ training. This does not include specific training on disability issues. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on engineers’ training has not been implemented yet. There is, however, legislation on standards of education for architecture students that entered into force 1 October 2011. According to the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 29 September 2011 on educational standards for veterinary medicine and architecture, graduates of architecture studies should have the knowledge and skills that ensure security and the comfort of buildings, taking into account needs of persons with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

H6. International development aid

The Development Cooperation Plan for 2012 administrated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland mentions people with disabilities in the activities carried out in Belarus under Priority 2. These activities focus on support for socially marginalised groups and they should enable persons with disabilities to become vocationally and socially active and support organisations’ activities in this sphere. In the past, other projects focused on persons with disabilities have been carried out, such as the project ‘Without barriers’ – people with disabilities in Belarus’ civil society (2009) and ‘Provision of equipment for the centre for blind children in Kibeho, Nairobi (2007).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

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                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
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                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => ireland
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 20
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                    [lft] => 32
                    [rgt] => 33
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => italy
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 21
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                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => latvia
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 22
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
                    [title] => Lithuania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => luxembourg
                    [title] => Luxembourg
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 24
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 40
                    [rgt] => 41
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => malta
                    [title] => Malta
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [21] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 42
                    [rgt] => 43
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => netherlands
                    [title] => Netherlands
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 26
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 44
                    [rgt] => 45
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => poland
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 27
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 46
                    [rgt] => 47
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => portugal
                    [title] => Portugal
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 28
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 48
                    [rgt] => 49
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => romania
                    [title] => Romania
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [25] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 29
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 50
                    [rgt] => 51
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovakia
                    [title] => Slovakia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 52
                    [rgt] => 53
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovenia
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [27] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 31
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                    [lft] => 54
                    [rgt] => 55
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => spain
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [28] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 32
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                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => sweden
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 3
                    [lft] => 58
                    [rgt] => 59
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => united-kingdom
                    [title] => United Kingdom
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 4
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => candidate-acceding-countries
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => fyr-macedonia
                    [title] => FYR Macedonia
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 37
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                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
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                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => turkey
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 5
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                    [rgt] => 78
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [36] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 35
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                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => iceland
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
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                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => liechtenstein
                    [title] => Liechtenstein
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
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            [38] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 40
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                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => norway
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
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        )

    [themes] => Array
        (
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                    [id] => 2
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 1
                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
                    [title] => A. UN Convention status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 1
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [1] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 3
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                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                )

            [2] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 4
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                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                    [title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 5
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                    [lft] => 6
                    [rgt] => 7
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [created_by] => 548
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            [4] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 6
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                    [lft] => 8
                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 7
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                    [lft] => 10
                    [rgt] => 11
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
                    [title] => A5. Focal point
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                )

            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 8
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                    [lft] => 12
                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 9
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                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                    [title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
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                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
                    [title] => A8. Official reporting
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 18
                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                    [title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [10] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 12
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 21
                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
                    [title] => B. General legal framework
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                    [title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [12] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 14
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                    [title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [13] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 16
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                    [title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
                    [title] => C. Accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 3
                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
                    [parent_id] => 18
                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
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                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => g1-official-research
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [46] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [48] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 100
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [26] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Poland
                    [location_id] => 26
                    [location_slug] => poland
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Poland signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March 2007. The decision concerning ratification was deferred pending an examination of the legal, social and economic consequences of the decision. The ratification was lodged with the UN on 25 September 2012.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-02 13:46:29
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Information concerning tasks undertaken in 2009 for carrying out the resolution of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland from 1 August 1997, Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability, Document of the Cabinet, 2010:
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/68E584CA6383410CC1257769002D81E7/$file/3280.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => A decision concerning the signing of the Optional Protocol has not yet been taken by Poland. According to an official letter from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to decide the position of the Polish Cabinet, it would be essential to clarify the procedure for making complaints.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-05-07 16:30:47
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Resolutions 63/150 of 18 December 2008 and 64/131 of 18 December 2009 by the Republic of Poland
                                                    [url] => http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/EPoverty/socialprotection/Poland.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Poland made the following reservation upon signature: ‘The Republic of Poland understands that Articles 23.1 (b) and 25 (a) shall not be interpreted in a way conferring an individual right to abortion or mandating state party to provide access thereto.’
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => UNenable – Declarations and Reservations
                                                    [url] => http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=475
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => The Comprehensive Review of national legislation to determine changes necessary to achieve full consistency of national law with the Convention was completed in May 2011. The findings are subject to interdepartmental and social consultations, and as a result of these the decision concerning the ratification of the Convention may be made.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Information concerning tasks undertaken in 2009 for carrying out the resolution of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland from 1 August 1997, Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability, Document of the Cabinet, 2010
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/68E584CA6383410CC1257769002D81E7/$file/3280.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => No focal point has been assigned because Poland has not yet ratified the Convention.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => No coordination mechanism within the government has yet been designated or established,  because Poland has not yet ratified the Convention.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => An independent mechanism pursuant to Article 33.2 of the UN Convention will be nominated by Poland at the time of ratifying the Convention.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => Poland's initial state report was due in September 2014 and submitted according to the schedule.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-03 14:22:48
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=138&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation:	
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=138
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => No shadow reports have yet been submitted in parallel to the initial state report for Poland. A means for ensuring the involvement of civil society is in the process of being implemented.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-03-11 12:18:00
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=138&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => The Polish Constitution contains a general prohibition against discrimination. Article 32 of the Constitution states that ‘All persons shall be equal before the law. All persons shall have the right to equal treatment by public authorities. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever’. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities, approved by the Parliament (Sejm) 15 on 1 August 1997 (M.P. 1997, No. 50, item 475), also prohibits discrimination. The Charter acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to an independent, active life, free from discrimination. It is, however, worth adding that the Charter was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. Specific laws counteracting discrimination are, however, mainly limited to the employment field. Although on 1 January 2011 the Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (Journal of Laws 2010, No. 254, item 1700; hereafter Act on Equal Treatment) entered into force, the law is not exhaustive and does not cover discrimination based on sexual orientation, disability, religion or age in the fields of education, health care, social protection and housing. The Act on Equal Treatment (2010) designated the existing Ombudsperson Office (Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection) as an equality body. The Act on Equal Treatment also appointed the Government Plenipotentiary, who among others is responsible for dealing with discrimination based on disability and cooperates in this with the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled Persons.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Constitution of the Republic of Poland 1997
                                                    [url] => http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WMP19970500475
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102541700
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => The Act of 23 April 1964 - Civil Code (Journal of Laws 1964, No. 16, item 93, with further amendments) distinguishes between legal capacity and the capacity to undertake legal actions. ‘Legal capacity’ (in Polish ‘zdolność prawna’) is the capacity to be a subject of rights and obligations in the area of civil law. The ‘capacity to undertake legal actions’ (in Polish ‘zdolność do czynności prawnych’) means that a person has the capacity to acquire civil law rights and obligations by personal actions. In general, persons with disabilities exercise full capacity to undertake legal actions as long as a court has placed them under guardianship. The Civil Code (1964) in Poland recognises plenary guardianship and partial guardianship. A person may be placed under plenary guardianship because of mental health problems, mental deficiency or other ‘mental disorders’, particularly if due to alcoholism and drug addiction they cannot ‘control their behaviour’. If the circumstances do not warrant plenary guardianship, but a person needs assistance to manage their affairs, partial guardianship may be declared. Persons placed under plenary guardianship do not have the right to conclude any legal acts and any legal actions they take are invalid. Guardians are appointed by the court to act for such persons. The legal capacity of a person under 'partial' guardianship is partially restricted and for such a person a curator is appointed. The main role of the curator is to support or assist the person who has partially restricted legal capacity in his/her affairs. The agreement of the curator is essential for the validity of most of the legal acts made by the person.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Civil Code, 23 April 1964
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19640160093
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 7 March 2007 (K 28/05)
                                                    [url] => http://www.trybunal.gov.pl/eng/summaries/documents/K_28_05_GB.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Polish way to the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (2008)
                                                    [url] => http://psouu.org.pl/sites/default/files/publikacje/polska_droga_do_konwencji_www.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [15] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                                    [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                                    [theme_id] => 15
                                    [contents] => People with disabilities have the same voting rights as other Polish citizens. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland (1997) ensures that every Polish citizen who has attained 18 years of age has the right to participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local self-government. However, under Article 62 only persons with full legal capacity can exercise these rights. Persons placed under full or partial guardianship are excluded from political participation. Recently, several important provisions were implemented into the electoral laws improving the accessibility of voting and elections for persons with disabilities, including voting through a plenipotentiary, correspondence voting and voting using Braille overlay sheets with ballots. Old regulations, such as the Act of 12 April 2001 on Elections to the Polish Parliament, in practice deprived people with disabilities who were not able to leave their homes and turn up personally at the polling station of their right to vote because they must personally participate in elections. The Election Code (2011) which entered into force on 1 August 2011 replaced several acts governing electoral law in Poland. It contains the following regulations regarding the accessibility of voting and elections for persons with disabilities: 1) the accommodation designed as seats of electoral bodies should be easily accessible to persons with disabilities; 2) the head of a commune or mayor shall ensure access to polling stations adapted to the needs of voters with disabilities; 3) in every commune there should be at least one third of the premises adapted to the needs of persons with disabilities; 4) polling wards may be established in hospitals and welfare homes that have at least fifteen resident voters; 5) voters with disabilities may be assisted in voting by another person who is not a member of a ward electoral commission or a poll observer authorised by the candidates; 6) persons with disabilities holding a disability certificate for moderate or significant degree have the right to vote through a plenipotentiary or via the post; 7) voters with disabilities may vote in ballots using a Braille overlay sheet.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Electoral Commission (Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza)
                                                    [url] => http://pkw.gov.pl/prawo-wyborcze/prawo-wyborcze.html
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Election Code (2011)
                                                    [url] => http://pkw.gov.pl/ustawy-wyborcze
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Constitution of the Republic of Poland 1997
                                                    [url] => http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [16] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                                    [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                                    [theme_id] => 16
                                    [contents] => In 2011, Poland adopted a new law on sign language – the Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication (Journal of Law 2011, No. 209, item 1243). From the 1 April 2012 all public authorities are obliged to provide sign language translators for hearing-impaired people (this need has to be registered at least three days in advance). According to the law, from October 2011 a person with hearing impairment is allowed to take advantage of a helper (chosen by him/herself) when contacting the public authorities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20112091243
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled People (BiuroPełnomocnika Rządu ds. Osób Niepełnosprawnych)
                                                    [url] => http://www.niepelnosprawni.gov.pl/prawo/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [17] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                                    [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                                    [theme_id] => 17
                                    [contents] => We do not yet have information for this item
                                    [update_date] => 2013-08-13 10:34:25
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [19] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 19
                                    [contents] => There is no specific law dealing with transport accessibility in Poland, but there are several regulations addressing this topic. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities (1997), acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to live in an environment free of functional barriers, including to the use of public transport.  The Charter, however, was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. According to the Act of 15 November 1984 (Transportation Law) transport providers are obliged to ensure passengers’ safety, hygiene and comfort and due services as well as to take measures that will make the use of transportation easier, including for people with limited mobility and people with disabilities. Moreover, according to the regulation of the Minister of Transport and Building of  13 January 2006 timetables should specify the modes of transport that are accessible to people with disabilities and information related to concessionary fares. The Transportation Law, however, does not apply to sea and air transport. Improving transport accessibility for people with disabilities is one of the goals of the Polish Transport Development Strategy that runs until 2020.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:37
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Transportation Law (Act of 15 November 1984)
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19840530272
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WMP19970500475
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report on the State of the Accessibility of Public Transport Systems for People with Disabilities in Poland
                                                    [url] => http://www.ptaccess.eu/Downloads/PTaccess_D13_ReportWP1_PL.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks undertaken in 2010 to implement the Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Supreme Chamber of Control (P/07/070)
                                                    [url] => http://www.nik.gov.pl/kontrole/wyniki-kontroli-nik/kontrole,3638.html
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (2010 transport activity results)
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_til_transport_wyniki_dzialalnosci_2010.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [20] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 20
                                    [contents] => The 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to live in an environment free of functional barriers, including access to public offices, polling stations and public utilities. The Charter was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. The 1994 Law on Construction introduced, from 1 January 1995, the obligation to consider the needs of persons with disabilities in new construction projects and when modernising existing buildings, other public buildings and multi-family dwelling-houses. All such buildings should be accessible for people with disabilities, including people using wheelchairs. More detailed requirements are set out in the Ministry of Infrastructure Regulation of 12 April 2002 on technical standards. In accordance with the Regulation of 25 June 2002 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy, on determining county tasks that can be financed from the resources of the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons, resources are to be used for the elimination of architectural barriers in and outside the home to help people with disabilities perform daily activities. Architectural barrier removal may be granted to a person with mobility difficulties. Reimbursement is made by the county government (the person concerned has to submit a written request to the County Family Assistive Centre, CFAC). Up to 80% of the cost may be reimbursed but no more than fifteen times the average monthly remuneration. Every CFAC provides a detailed catalogue of equipment, materials and works that can be reimbursed.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 7 July 1994 – the Law on Construction
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19940890414
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Infrastructure Regulation on the technical conditions
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20020750690
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WMP19970500475
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Minister of Labour and Social Policy Regulation determining county tasks that can be financed from the resources of the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20020960861
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks undertaken in 2010 to implement the 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [21] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 21
                                    [contents] => According to the Act of 6 September 2001 on access to public information, every person shall have the right to access public information; however, persons with disabilities are not specifically mentioned in this legislation.  In 2010, on the basis of the amendments to the Act of 17 February 2005 on application of information technology in public sector,   minimum requirements for ICT systems have been extended, taking into consideration access to information for persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities have been also included in the 125 project undertaken in the framework of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007-2013– 8.3 Counteracting Digital Exclusion – eInclusion.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks undertaken in 2010 to implement the 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => eInclusion country Factsheet
                                                    [url] => http://www.epractice.eu/en/document/5270455
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007-2013 – List of Beneficiaries
                                                    [url] => http://www.poig.gov.pl/Strony/lista_beneficjentow_POIG.aspx
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (ICT in 2010) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/5840_wykorzystanie_ict_PLK_HTML.htm
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [23] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                                    [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                                    [theme_id] => 23
                                    [contents] => In theory, people with disabilities have the same opportunity to choose where to live as other Polish citizens, unless they are deprived or restricted of legal capacity. The Polish Constitution ensures freedom of choice of place of residence. Article 52 states that “Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone”. This freedom, however, may be subject to limitations specified by statue. Moreover, Article 75 of the Polish Constitution states that “Public authorities shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular combating homelessness, promoting the development of low-income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition of a home by each citizen”. Persons with mental health problems may however be placed involuntarily in a social welfare home. According to the provisions of the Protection of Mental Health Act of 19 August 1994 (Journal of Law 2011, No. 231, item 1375, with further amendments), a person with mental health disorders or intellectual disabilities who needs permanent care and nursing but does not need treatment in a psychiatric hospital may be placed involuntary in a social welfare home when a lack of care may endanger his or her life. The motion is submitted to the guardianship court by a social welfare unit or by a hospital director (in the case of a psychiatric hospital patient who no longer requires treatment in a hospital) and the decision is then taken by the guardianship court. The Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004 (Journal of Law 2004, No. 64 Item 593, with further amendments) also obliges the social welfare authorities to notify the relevant court or public prosecutor if a person who is considered to require support does not agree to be placed in a social welfare home.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Constitution of the Republic of Poland
                                                    [url] => http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/polski/kon1.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040640593
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Protection of Mental Health Act of 19 August 1994
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19941110535
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [24] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_id] => 24
                                    [contents] => There is no national programme concerning deinstitutionalisation in Poland. Social welfare homes are the main type of residential institution in Poland. According to the Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004 (Journal of Laws 2004, No. 64, item 593, with further amendments), these provide services for persons who need 24 hour care because of age, illness or disability. By the end of 2010 all social welfare homes in Poland were obliged to achieve new standards set in the Regulation of the Ministry of Social Policy of 19 October 2005 on social welfare homes (Journal of Laws 2005, No. 217, item 1837). According to the new standards, newly established homes cannot have more than 100 residents, the number of residents living in one room cannot exceed four persons (the area of the room has to be at least six square meters). Every home should ensure certain living, care and assistance services. In 1997, sheltered housing solution were introduced into the social welfare system by amendment to the previous Social Assistance Act (1990), however, access to this type of support is still very limited in Poland. According the Social Assistance Act (2004), a residence in sheltered apartment can be granted to a person who because of difficult life situation, age, disability or illness needs support to lead his/her daily life but does not need 24 hour services in an institution. According to the Central Statistical Office (CSO)’ data there were approximately 770 residential social welfare facilities for persons with various types of disabilities in 2009, with 63,902 residents: 20,297 (31.5%) persons chronically ill with somatic disorders, 21,480 (34%) persons with intellectual disabilities, 20,396 (31.5%) persons with chronic mental illness and 1729 (3%) persons with physical disabilities. There is a slightly decreasing tendency in the number of residents in these facilities - as compared to 2005, the number dropped by almost 3.5% in 2009. Most of the residents (98%) lived in social welfare homes, which constituted 93% of all the residential social welfare facilities for the above-mentioned groups of residents. In accordance with the CSO’ data, in 2009, the average number of residents per social welfare home in Poland was 95. Sheltered housing solutions were introduced to the social welfare system in 1997. In 2010, the number of places was 1,305 in 352 units, including 361 places for people with mental disorders in 84 units.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Labour and Social Policy
                                                    [url] => http://www.mpips.gov.pl/pomoc-spoleczna/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Ministry of Social Policy of 19 October 2005 on social welfare homes
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20052171837&min=1
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004 
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040640593
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (Social Assistance – Infrastructure, Beneficiaries, Benefits in 2009)
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_ZOS_pomoc_spol_benef_infla_2009.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [25] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services
                                    [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                                    [theme_id] => 25
                                    [contents] => In general, Poland lacks a comprehensive and cohesive system of monitoring the quality and effectiveness of disability services.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [26] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                                    [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                                    [theme_id] => 26
                                    [contents] => Several provisions exist in Poland as regards assistive equipment and adaptations. The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities (M.P. 1997, No. 50, item 475), approved by the Parliament  on 1 August 1997, calls for actions to ensure access to goods and services that enable disabled people to fully participate in social life as well as to medical treatment and rehabilitation including provision of orthopaedic and assistive devices and rehabilitation equipment. In accordance with the Act of 27 August 2004 on Health Care Services (Journal of Laws 2004, No. 210, item 2135, with further amendments), people with disabilities can apply to the National Health Fund for orthopaedic and assistive devices (medical) such as orthopaedic prosthetics, shoes, callipers, walking sticks and crutches, wheelchairs, lenses, hearing aids, etc. To apply for these services, a written order from an authorised practitioner is needed. Reimbursement for particular article or equipment is granted for a certain period (for instance 2, 3 or 5 years) and in relation to particular impairments. The Minister of Health determines the maximum reimbursement as well as providing a detailed catalogue of orthopaedic articles and means of assistance (Regulation on orthopaedic articles and assistive equipments, Journal of Laws 2009, No. 139, item 1141). The National Health Fund reimburses expenses but only up to a certain amount. Additionally, a person with disabilities who is granted reimbursement for orthopaedic articles and assistive means from the National Health Fund can apply to County Family Assistance Centres to cover the remaining sum. The applicant has to hold a disability certificate and meet income criteria. While payment is made by the County Family Assistive Centres, funding for this comes from the resources of the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons on the basis of the Act of 27 August 1997 on Rehabilitation (Journal of Laws 2011, No. 127, item 721). There is no precise data how many people with disabilities apply to the National Health Fund for orthopaedic and assistive devices (medical). As regard to expenses for rehabilitation equipment, orthopaedic articles and assistive means granted by the County Family Assistance Centres, in 2010 the county governments partially financed such services for 140,712 persons with disabilities and spent PLN92 million on this task (30% less than in 2009) and the average reimbursement per person was PLN662 (EUR165 approximately).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation on orthopaedic articles and assistive equipments
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20091391141
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled
                                                    [url] => http://www.niepelnosprawni.gov.pl/rehabilitacja/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WMP19970500475
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Task undertaken in 2010 for implementing the Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 2004 on Health Care Services
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20042102135
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 1997 on Rehabilitation
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971230776
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [27] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                                    [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                                    [theme_id] => 27
                                    [contents] => Personal assistance is a rather new and developing concept in Poland. Although in recent years a new profession has been formed, an assistant to a person with disabilities to support and advise in the rehabilitation process, there is no such service in the frame of the Polish system. The services that do exist are mostly offered by non-governmental organisations and local governments and are organised in various ways. All of these services use different application procedures, eligibility criteria and payment conditions. The main forms of support provided by the public authorities to people with disabilities who want to live in their own homes are care and specialist care services. These services are forms of social assistance provided to individuals who, because of age, illness or other reasons, need human assistance. According to the Social Assistance Act of 12 March 2004, care services and specialist care services are granted on the basis of an administrative decision and are free of charge only for those individuals who meet the income criteria. The social worker, in granting eligibility to both kinds of care services, defines their scope and place of provision. Care services include: help with fulfilling daily needs (tidying up, washing, shopping, cooking), hygiene, nursing care (according to the doctor's advice), and, if possible, contacts with the environment. On the other hand, specialist care services should be adjusted to particular needs resulting from specific diseases or disabilities and require specific professional skills to provide them. Specialist care services may, among other services, consist of: teaching and developing the skills necessary to live independently; interventions and help in family life; help in taking care of official errands; help in managing household finances; nursing support ; and assistance with housing matters. In 2010, care services were granted to 89,298 people and specialist care services to 14,892 persons. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) includes regulations concerning personal assistance at work for employees with disabilities, whereby an employer can be reimbursed from the State Fund for Rehabilitation for the costs of employing someone to assist a disabled employee at work. The number of hours that are used solely to help the employee with disabilities cannot exceed 20% of the monthly number of hours the employee works.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040640593
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks  undertaken in 2010 for implementing the Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [28] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance
                                    [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                                    [theme_id] => 28
                                    [contents] => The Polish Constitution guarantees the right to social security for people with disabilities. Article 69 states that ‘Public authorities shall provide, in accordance with the statute, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence, adaptation to work and social communication.’ Financial support for persons with disabilities in Poland is available mainly through social insurance, family benefits and social assistance systems. Social assistance is meant to support those citizens and families, who, for objective reasons, are not able to fulfil their primary needs in life and enable them to live in decent conditions; disability and prolonged illness are among the reasons for granting social assistance. Social assistance consists of various categories of cash benefits and most of these services are means-tested. According to the Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance, there are three basic types of cash benefits from this system: a permanent allowance, a periodical allowance and a purpose allowance (together with special purpose allowance). A person is eligible to receive a permanent allowance if she/he meets the income criteria and is totally incapable of working due to age or disability. Periodical allowance may be granted to persons and families without sufficient income (income lower than the threshold level of income specified in the social assistance regulations, particularly due to prolonged illness, disability, unemployment, and possibility to maintain or acquire the rights to benefits on other social security systems). People with disabilities can also benefit from the family benefit system that is available to all families with children receiving a low income. According to the Act of 28 November 2003 on Family Benefits, family benefits in Poland are funded by the state budget and the eligibility depends on the concerned family’s actual financial situation but the award of them is by not dependent on whether the eligible person has been employed and insured. The income criteria for a family with a disabled child are more generous than for other families and the amount of family allowance paid depends on the child’s age. A number of supplements may be granted in addition to the family allowance. One is the supplement for the education and rehabilitation of a child with disabilities. This is granted for a child with disabilities up to the age of 16 and for a person with a moderate or significant disability between the age of 16 and 24. It covers increased spending on rehabilitation and education of the child. Additionally, the family benefits system includes two non means-tested benefits of great importance for people with disabilities and their families: nursing allowance and nursing benefit. Nursing allowance is granted to partially cover expenses related to care and support for a person with disabilities who is unable to lead an independent life. Nursing benefit is granted to one the child’s parent (or guardian) resigning from work in order to take care of a child with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Social Assistance)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mpips.gov.pl/pomoc-spoleczna/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040640593
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Family Benefits System)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mpips.gov.pl/wsparcie-dla-rodzin-z-dziecmi/swiadczenia-rodzinne/informacje-statystyczne/
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 1997 on Rehabilitation
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971230776
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [29] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs
                                    [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs
                                    [theme_id] => 29
                                    [contents] => The 1997 Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities acknowledges that people with disabilities have the right to social security - taking into account the necessity of bearing higher costs related to disability and taking these costs into account in the tax system The Charter, however, was approved in the form of a resolution, so it is not binding, but rather represents the will of Parliament. Legislation adopted after 1 August 1997 cannot contradict the terms of the Charter. The Charter also imposes an obligation on the Polish Government to provide information concerning implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. According to the Act of 26 July 1991 on Personal Income Tax disabled taxpayers and non-disabled taxpayers who have disabled dependants may deduct amounts from their income expenses incurred for rehabilitation or facilitating life activities. There are numerous conditions that apply to such a relief.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Charter of Rights for Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WMP19970500475
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Finance (Rehabilitation relief)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mf.gov.pl/dokument.php?const=3&dzial=2082&id=234649&typ=news
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Finance (Statistics)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mf.gov.pl/_files_/podatki/statystyki/za_2010/rozl-pit2010-internet_.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 26 July 1991 on Personal Income Tax
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19910800350
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [30] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income
                                    [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income
                                    [theme_id] => 30
                                    [contents] => As of 1 January 1999, the reform of the old-age pension scheme has come into force in Poland. Since then, two old-age pension schemes have been operating in parallel: old pension scheme (operating under earlier rules) – compulsory for persons born before 1 January 1949, and a new pension scheme (operating under the new rules) – compulsory for persons born in 1969 and after. According to the Act of 17 December 1998 on Old Age Pensions and Other Benefits from the Social Insurance Fund, people born between 1949 and 1968 could choose the funded option.  The minimum retirement age in the new system is 65 for men and 60 for women. For the minimum pension, 25 and 20 years’ contributions are required from men and women, respectively. These requirements apply also to people with disabilities, however, those receiving incapacity pension (literally ‘pensions on the grounds of inability to work’), their incapacity pension is automatically changed into old-age pension when they   reach the minimum retirement age (65 for men and 60 for women). In contrast, the social pension is not automatically changed into old-age pension when the pensioner reaches the minimum retirement age. Persons with disabilities in retirement age who do not receive either incapacity pension or social pension, nor fulfil the requirements to receive old-age pension, may apply for permanent allowance from the social assistance system,  According to the Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance, a person is eligible to receive a permanent allowance if s/he meets the income criteria and is totally incapable of working due to age or disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Social Insurance Institution
                                                    [url] => http://www.zus.pl/pliki/ulotki/Ubezpieczenia%20spoleczne%20informacje%20fakty%20wer%20angielska.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 17 December 1998 on Old Age Pensions and Other Benefits from the Social Insurance Fund
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19981621118
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 23 June 2003 on Social Pension
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20031351268
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 12 March 2004 on Social Assistance
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040640593
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [32] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E1. Special schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 32
                                    [contents] => Special education is an integral part of the education system in Poland and a system of separate special schools remains, within a variety of schooling options, including non-public schools, home-schooling and remedial centres (for pupils with profound intellectual disabilities). According to the Regulation of Minister of National Education of 17 November 2010 on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in special kindergartens, schools or sections schools are organised for children with the following types of disability: deaf, hard of hearing, blind, vision impaired, motor-skill impairment, intellectual disabilities, autism including Asperger Syndrome, and multiple disabilities. Children and young people with profound intellectual disabilities may be schooled in rehabilitation-educational classes. According to the Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 30 January 1997 on organisation of rehabilitation-educational classes for children and youth with profound intellectual disabilities, they have the right to attend such classes between the ages of three and 25. These classes can be provided in the education system (in public kindergartens and schools), in special educational care centres, non-governmental remedial centres, social care homes, community self-help homes and medical care centres; or at the child’s family home. According to the Regulation of the Minister of National Education on assessments and opinions issued by the assessment’ teams in the public psychological-educational counseling centres of 18 September 2008, an evaluation for special educational purposes is made at the request of the child’s parent or guardian in public psychological-educational counseling centres by multidisciplinary teams. The team recommends the form of special education to be provided, for example in a mainstream school, an integrated school or class, or a special school or class. This is, however, a recommendation and parents retain the right, in theory, to send their child to the district mainstream school.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19910950425
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of National Education on assessments and opinions issued by the assessment’ teams in the public psychological-educational counseling centres of 18 September 2008
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20081731072
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of Minister of National Education on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in special kindergartens, schools or sections of 17 November 2010
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102281489
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 30 January 1997 on organisation of rehabilitation-educational classes for children and youth with profound intellectual disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19970140076
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [33] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 33
                                    [contents] => The Polish Constitution (1997) recognises the universal right to education and obliges public authorities to ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens (article 70) but there is no anti-discrimination legislation covering disability which applies specifically to education. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (hereafter Act on Equal Treatment) prohibits unequal treatment in access to education and but only based on race, ethnic origin or nationality (article 7). The main legislative framework for the school education system is the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System (hereafter Act on Education System). Education in Poland is compulsory for all children and young people from the age of 6 to 18. The duty starts with the first year of preschool education, is continuous for 6 years of primary school, and lasts until completion of 3 years of lower secondary school and/or up to the age of 18 years. The Act on Education System (1991) provides that pupils with disabilities may attend any type of school according to their individual needs and possibilities, as well as the right to individual teaching, curricula and classes, and appropriate adjustment to the content of the curricula in order to correspond to individual abilities. According to the Act on Education System (1991) mainstreams schools have the legal responsibility to enrol every child living in their districts. Even if in the evaluation for special education there is a recommendation for special schools, parents still have the right to send their child to the district mainstream school. In practice, however, although the Polish education system is steadily going into the direction of less segregated and more inclusive education, some parents may be under pressure from the school to place the child in special school. Mainstream schools are obliged to ensure that students identified as having special educational needs receive education according to the recommendations in their assessment. Since 1 September 2011, mainstream schools are also obliged to develop individual plans based on comprehensive professional multidisciplinary team evaluation for pupils with disabilities. The Regulation on conditions in mainstream or integrated schools (2010) does not impose an obligation on mainstream schools to hire specialists to work with pupils with disabilities and support regular teachers unless they have integrated or special classes. Such specialists may, however, be employed, with the permission of the governing authority.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102541700
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19910950425
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Ministry of National Education of 17 November 2010 on rules and organisation of educational-psychological support in kindergartens and schools
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102281487
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of Minister of National Education of 17 November 2010 on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in mainstream or integrated kindergartens, schools or sections
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102281490
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [34] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                                    [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                                    [theme_id] => 34
                                    [contents] => Poland adopted the Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication (Journal of Law 2011, No. 209, item 1243), which is fully effective from 1 April 2012. However, this legislation does not refer to the education system. The Ministry of Education provides funds for adapting school textbooks and other texts in Braille. The books are published on the official website of the Ministry and may be printed at schools in accordance with pupils’ needs. Moreover, every year, the Ministry finances are aimed at providing pupils with visual disabilities access to children’s magazines. For external assessment, which has been gradually introduced in Poland since 2002, there are test papers in Braille for blind pupils.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:39
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 19 August 2011 on sign language and other means of communication
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20112091243
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks undertaken in 2010 for implementation  of the Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [35] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training
                                    [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training
                                    [theme_id] => 35
                                    [contents] => In accordance with the Act on Education System (1991), adult vocational training can be provided both in school (mainstream post-secondary schools for adults) and out-of-school forms (public continuing education centres, practical centres and in-service training centres and non-public education institutions). The Regulation of the Minister of National Education on continuing education in out-of-school forms of 17 February 2012 introduced the obligation of training providers to ensure conditions enable persons with disabilities participation in training. The Act on Promotion of Employment (2004) also includes legal regulation concerning training institutions. It includes public and non-public centres offering education in out-of-school forms for the unemployed and registered as training institutions with the regional authorities. The Polish Constitution (1997) recognises the universal right to education (article 70) as well as programmes to support occupational training (article 65). The Act on Equal Treatment prohibits disability-based discrimination in the context of vocational training, including further vocational training, in-service training, vocational retraining and professional practice (article 8). Moreover, the Act on Promotion of Employment and Institutions of the Labour Market of 20 April 2004 ensures that labour market institutions shall not discriminate against unemployed persons whom they direct to training on the grounds of disability (article 40). In general, after completing obligatory levels of education, students may continue their education in non-compulsory upper secondary schools or outside school education. Organisation of the upper secondary vocational schools is regulated by the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System and its implementing regulations. The Regulation of the Ministry of National Education on educational framework programmes in public schools of 7 February 2012 establishes the basis for training at different schools within the education system (mainstream of special) leading to vocational qualifications or the Matura examination necessary for admission to higher education, or a 3-year special job-training schools for young people with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities and for pupils with multiple disabilities (a diploma confirming preparation for employment). Conditions on teaching students with disabilities in upper secondary vocational schools are established in two further regulations of 17 November 2010. According to these Regulations, students with disabilities may attend upper secondary vocational schools up to the age of 23 years. Students with disabilities may continue their vocational education in 2.5-year post-secondary schools (mainstream or special). These are based on the same legislation as upper secondary vocational schools.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:40
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19910950425
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of Minister of National Education of 17 November 2010 on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in special kindergartens, schools or sections
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102281489
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of Minister of National Education of 17 November 2010 on conditions of organising education and care for children and young persons with disabilities and socially maladjusted in mainstream or integrated kindergartens, schools or sections
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102281490
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of National Education on educational framework programmes in public schools of 7 February 2012
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20120000204
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of National Education on continuing education in out-of-school forms of 17 February 2012
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20120000186
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market 
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040991001
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [36] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E5. Higher education
                                    [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education
                                    [theme_id] => 36
                                    [contents] => There is no anti-discrimination legislation covering disability which applies specifically to higher education. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment (Act on Equal Treatment) prohibits unequal treatment in access to higher education on grounds of race, ethnic origin or nationality (article 7) but not disability. The main legislative framework for the higher education system is the Law on Higher Education of 27 July 2005. Higher education is free of charge in public sector institutions for full-time day courses (a tuition fee is charged for part-time degree programmes). As institutions of higher education are autonomous, legislation does not precisely describe the content and scope of the support available to disabled students or university applicants. According to the Law on Higher Education (2005), students with disabilities have the right to apply for financial support on the same basis as other students, and additionally are entitled to a special disability scholarship. Every college or university may also implement their own disability policy, employ a disability plenipotentiary and establish an office for persons with disabilities but this is always an autonomous decision of the institution. Therefore, the scope and quality of the support varies from one institution to another. There are several institutions in Poland that deal with adult and continuing education. According to the Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System, continuing education can be provided on daily, extra-mural, and distance-learning bases and may be organised in schools for adults, continuing education centres (CKU), practical training centres (CKP) and other institutions for in-service training. The Law on Higher Education (2005) includes provisions regarding post-graduate studies and training courses offered to adults by higher education institutions. The Act on Promotion of Employment of 20 April 2004  includes legal regulations concerning institutions in the labour market including public employment services and training institutions. Public employment services coordinate activities in the area of continuing education and the training of the unemployed and job-seekers.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:40
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Higher Education of 27 July 2005
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20051641365
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market (2004)
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040991001
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 7 September 1991 on Education System
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19910950425
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [38] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                                    [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                                    [theme_id] => 38
                                    [contents] => As a member of the European Union (EU), Poland has transposed into national legislation the provisions of the European Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000, establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (hereafter, the Employment Directive), through amendments to the Labour Code (1974), the Act on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market (2004), the Act on Rehabilitation (1997) and other legislation. The prohibition of discrimination applies to all the institutions of the labour market, such as employment agencies and employment counseling as well as training courses for the unemployed. The rules apply equally to the public and private sectors; however they do not apply to independent professions (regulated to a large extent by self-regulatory bodies, such as for lawyers, legal advisors) or to self-employment. In order to fully transpose the Employment Directive (and four other EU directives), Poland adopted the the Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment, which entered into force on 1 January 2011. The law introduced to the Act on Rehabilitation (1997) the definition of necessary reasonable improvements and obliges employers to ensure these for people with disabilities who are employed, participate in recruitment processes or undergo training, internships, etc. unless such measures would impose a disproportionate burden on the employer. However, the burden should not be regarded as disproportionate if it is sufficiently covered by public resources. Moreover, the Act on Equal Treatment (2010) prohibits disability-based discrimination in the context of: a) vocational training, including further vocational training, in-service training, vocational retraining and professional practice, b) conditions of access to employed or self-employed activities, c) membership of and involvement in trade unions, organisations of employers or workers, d) labour market instruments and services as set in the Act of Promotion of Employment (2004).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:40
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of  3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20102541700
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment
                                                    [url] => http://rownetraktowanie.gov.pl
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971230776
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 26 June 1974 – Labour Code
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19740240141
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market 
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040991001
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [39] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services
                                    [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                                    [theme_id] => 39
                                    [contents] => These tasks are fulfilled mainly by labour market institutions under the Act of 20 April 2004 on Promotion of Employment Labour Market Institutions (hereafter Act on Promotion of Employment). Among labour market institutions there are public employment services: at the state level there is a minister responsible for employment issues, at the provincial level there are provincial governors and marshals, and at a county level, county governors. Most provincial and county duties concerning labour market policy are performed by provincial and county labour offices. Public Employment Services in Poland provide a standard range of labour market programmes aimed at job-seekers and unemployed persons registered in labour offices or just as unemployed persons. In addition, there are some labour market instruments applied to unemployed persons who are in a specific situation on the labour market, among these are people with disabilities. The Act of 3 December 2010 on the Implementation of Certain Provisions of the European Union in the Field of Equal Treatment ensures that labour market instruments and services as set in the Act on Promotion of Employment (2004) are to be provided on equal terms to everyone, irrespective of disability (article 8). With regard to the situation of persons with disabilities the Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons ensures that persons with disabilities, registered in labour offices as unemployed or job-seekers, have the right to use labour market instruments and services in accordance with the rules set out in the Act on Promotion of Employment (2004). Moreover, as some labour market programmes are aimed only at people registered as unemployed and persons with disabilities who are entitled to incapacity pensions cannot register as unemployed. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) ensures access to several labour market instruments and services also available to disabled job-seekers. According to Article 11, persons with disabilities registered at labour offices as job-seekers (while not employed) may use some of the services and instruments according to the same rules as unemployed persons (e.g. with regard to training, internship, a programme of intervention which provides subsidised, postgraduate courses). These are, however, financed from the resources of State Fund for Disabled Persons Rehabilitation, not from the Labour Fund as in the case of persons registered as unemployed.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:40
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Public Employment Services
                                                    [url] => http://www.psz.praca.gov.pl./
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971230776
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of on Promotion of Employment and the Institutions of the Labour Market
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20040991001
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [40] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                                    [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                                    [theme_id] => 40
                                    [contents] => In 2010 amendment to Act on Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons introduced the concept of necessary reasonable improvements.  The new regulation, in force since 1 January 2011, obliges employers to ensure necessary reasonable improvements for a person with disabilities who is employed, participates in the recruitment process or undergoes training, internship, etc. unless such measures would impose a disproportionate burden on the employer. However, the burden shall not be regarded as disproportionate if costs are covered by public resources. The Act on Rehabilitation (1997) contains two main provisions for reimbursements for adapting workplaces. First, according to article 26 of the act on Rehabilitation, employers who employ persons with disabilities for at least 36 months may receive reimbursement from the State Fund for Rehabilitation for adapting existing, or creating, workplaces to meet the needs of people with disabilities, adapting or buying devices that help people with disabilities to function at work and recognising the needs of people with disabilities for medical services. Since 1 January 2009, the catalogue has been extended and employers may also be reimbursed for the purchase and authorisation of the software necessary for disabled employees as well as for assistive technologies and equipment. The reimbursement cannot exceed twenty times average remuneration.  Secondly, according to article 26e of the Act on Rehabilitation, employers who employ persons with disabilities who have been unemployed or seeking jobs for at least 36 months, may apply for reimbursement of costs of up to 15 times average remuneration related to equipping workplaces.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
                                                    [url] => http://www.pfron.org.pl
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [41] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives
                                    [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                                    [theme_id] => 41
                                    [contents] => According to the Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons, employment of people with disabilities in Poland is encouraged above all through the quota system and other legislative solutions, mostly incentives for employers or measures that aim to increase the self-employment of people with disabilities such as: 1) reimbursement of expenses incurred for the adaptation of work places and enclosed spaces for people with disabilities and adaptation or purchase of equipment to facilitate their functioning, 2) reimbursement of costs related to equipping workplaces, 3) partial reimbursement of expenses for training organised by employers for employees with disabilities, 4) one-time finance to start-up business activity; 5) subsidies for payment of interest on bank loans taken to continue business activity. The State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons also subsidises disabled employees’ salaries by up to 75% of the payroll costs of commercial employers and up to 90% in the case of others.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act of 27 August 1997 on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971230776
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons
                                                    [url] => http://www.pfron.org.pl
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [43] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G1. Official research
                                    [theme_slug] => g1-official-research
                                    [theme_id] => 43
                                    [contents] => The most important statistics on people with disabilities and their situation are published by the Central Statistical Office (CSO). Apart from data from censuses and the Labour Force Survey, disability statistics are included in various CSO publications on education, health care, social assistance, living conditions, culture, sport and tourism. In addition, data on unemployed persons with disabilities and those seeking a job and not employed can be found in the statistical reports of labour offices. Some information about the employment of people with disabilities is published also by the State Fund for Rehabilitation. An extensive list of official statistics and CSO publications referring to situation of persons with disabilities can be found on the official website of the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled Persons.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Government Plenipotentiary of Disabled Persons (Infostat)
                                                    [url] => http://www.niepelnosprawni.gov.pl/niepelnosprawnosc-w-liczbach/infostat/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [44] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G2. Census data
                                    [theme_slug] => g2-census-data
                                    [theme_id] => 44
                                    [contents] => The last National Census of Population and Housing carried out in Poland took place in 2011; a few questions were included, such as whether respondents had a disability, the type and the level of disability. However, data on disability was not available at the time of writing.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (National census 2011)
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/nsp_PLK_HTML.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (National census 2002)
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/8179_PLK_HTML.htm
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [45] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                                    [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                                    [theme_id] => 45
                                    [contents] => The Labour Force Survey (LFS), known as BAEL in Poland (Badanie Aktywności Ekonomicznej Ludności) has been carried out since May 1992 on a quarterly basis. It has been improved in accordance with Eurostat recommendations. The survey covers economic activity of the population, including disabled people and it covers members of the households in the sampled dwellings. The survey does not include the population living in institutional households, such as social welfare homes, therefore the large number of people with disabilities living in institutions is not included.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Central Statistical Office (LFS in Poland)
                                                    [url] => http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/5840_2189_ENG_HTML.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Disabled People
                                                    [url] => http://www.niepelnosprawni.gov.pl/tablice/bael/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [46] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                                    [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                                    [theme_id] => 46
                                    [contents] => Officially recognised disability equality indicators have not been identified.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [48] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                                    [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                                    [theme_id] => 48
                                    [contents] => A number of awareness raising programmes operate in Poland at local and national level. They are mostly run by non-governmental organisations and financed from public funds such as the State Fund for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Tasks undertaken in 2010 for implementation of the Charter of Rights for Persons with Disability
                                                    [url] => http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/Druki6ka.nsf/0/90DE856A6080F5ECC12579200029505F/$file/4696.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [49] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers
                                    [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                                    [theme_id] => 49
                                    [contents] => The Regulation of the Minister o Science and Higher Education of 17 January 2012 on the standards for teacher training (Journal of Laws 2012, No. 0, item 131), which entered into force 21 February 2012 provides for minimal knowledge of special educational needs issues. According to this legislation, a graduate of the teacher training programme should have knowledge about pupils with special educational needs as well as knowledge and abilities in the scope of pedagogical diagnosis taking into account the special needs of pupils with development disorders. In the basic (mandatory) study programme for teachers the following educational contents are present: physical and intellectual disabilities, psychological consequences of disability, international and national disability legislation, special educational needs psychological and educational support for pupils with special educational needs, etc.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister o Science and Higher Education of 17 January 2012 on the standards for teacher training
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20120000131
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [50] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                                    [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                                    [theme_id] => 50
                                    [contents] => The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for lawyers’ training. This does not include specific training on disability issues. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on lawyers’ training has not been implemented yet.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 (Journals of Laws 2007 No. 164, item 1166).
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20071641166
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [51] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors
                                    [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                                    [theme_id] => 51
                                    [contents] => The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for doctors’ training. This includes some specific knowledge on disability issues such as: definitions, disability as a social problem, or orthopaedic and assistive devices and rehabilitation equipment for persons with disabilities. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on doctors’ training has not been implemented yet.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 (Journals of Laws 2007 No. 164, item 1166).
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20071641166
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [52] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers
                                    [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                                    [theme_id] => 52
                                    [contents] => The Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 defines minimum standards for engineers’ training. This does not include specific training on disability issues. Although this regulation was repealed in 2011, a new regulation on engineers’ training has not been implemented yet. There is, however, legislation on standards of education for architecture students that entered into force 1 October 2011. According to the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 29 September 2011 on educational standards for veterinary medicine and architecture, graduates of architecture studies should have the knowledge and skills that ensure security and the comfort of buildings, taking into account needs of persons with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:43
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 12 July 2007 (Journals of Laws 2007 No. 164, item 1166).
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20071641166
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 29 September 2011 on educational standards for veterinary medicine and architecture
                                                    [url] => http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20112071233
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [53] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H6. International development aid
                                    [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                                    [theme_id] => 53
                                    [contents] => The Development Cooperation Plan for 2012 administrated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland mentions people with disabilities in the activities carried out in Belarus under Priority 2. These activities focus on support for socially marginalised groups and they should enable persons with disabilities to become vocationally and socially active and support organisations’ activities in this sphere. In the past, other projects focused on persons with disabilities have been carried out, such as the project ‘Without barriers’ – people with disabilities in Belarus’ civil society (2009) and ‘Provision of equipment for the centre for blind children in Kibeho, Nairobi (2007).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:43
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Development Cooperation Plan for 2012
                                                    [url] => http://www.polskapomoc.gov.pl/files/inne%20dokumenty%20PDF/Wspolpraca%20rozwojowa%202012/Dev_coop_plan_PL2012.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                        )

                )

        )

)