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Slovakia

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

The president of the Slovak Republic signed the Convention on 26 September 2007. In March 2010 the Slovak parliament announced the agreement for ratification of the Convention and on 28 April 2010 the president of the Slovak Republic ratified the Convention. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 May 2010. In accordance with Article No. 45/2 the Convention entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 25 June 2010. An announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic about adoption of the Convention in the Slovak Republic was published in the Collection under No. 317/2010 Coll.

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Update date: Thu, 2015-05-07

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

In March 2010 the Slovak parliament announced the agreement for ratification of the Optional Protocol. On 28 April 2010 the president of the Slovak Republic ratified the Optional Protocol. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 May 2010. In accordance with Article No. 13/2 the Optional Protocol entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 25 June 2010. An announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic about adoption of the Optional Protocol in the Slovak Republic was published in the Collection under No. 318/2010 Coll.

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Update date: Thu, 2015-05-07

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

In accordance with Article 46 of the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and Article 19 of the Vienna convention on the law of treaties, the Slovak Republic shall apply the provision of Article 27(1) on the condition that the implementation of the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disability in setting conditions of recruitment, hiring and employment shall not apply in the case of recruitment for service as a member of the armed forces, armed security forces, armed corps, the National Security Office, the Slovak Information Service and the Fire and Rescue Corps.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A4. Comprehensive review

In preparation for ratification and also for implementation of the UN Convention, a comprehensive review of existing legislation in all different legal areas (e.g. education, health, transport and social security) was prepared. The main aim of the legal analysis was to review the accordance of the Slovak Republic legislation with the obligations of the UN Convention.

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Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

A5. Focal point

With an aim to implement and coordinate activities related to the present CRPD the Slovak government decided to set up at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak republic the central focal point (hereinafter only the 'CFP'). Since April 2013 the CFP became an organizational part of the Ministry's Department on Integration of Persons with Disabilities. This authority cooperates with other state administration bodies (notably with secondary focal points working at other relevant ministries, e.g. Ministries for education, health issues, finance, culture, regional developments, etc.), with governmental administrations and civic society organisations in order to implement the CRPD and to coordinate preparation of the national report under Article 35 of the CRPD.

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Update date: Fri, 2016-04-22

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Slovak Government decided to set up the central focal point (hereinafter only the 'CFP') at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak republic. From March 2013 on the CFP became an organizational part of the Ministry's Department on Integration of Persons with Disabilities. This authority cooperates with other state administration bodies (notably with secondary focal points working at other relevant ministries, e.g. ministries for education, health issues, finance, culture, regional developments, etc.), with governmental administrations and civic society organizations in order to implement the CRPD; and to coordinate the preparation of the national report under Article 35 of the CRPD. Within its coordination function the central focal point issued in 2015 the interim report 'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National disability program for October 2014 – March 2015' (Odpočet plnenia časovo aktuálnych opatrení Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 (október 2014 – marec 2015). Subsequently, the comprehensive document entitled 'The Report on fulfilling the provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating' (Správa o plnení opatrení vyplývajúcich z Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 a návrh na jeho aktualizáciu) was completed in 2016.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

A7. Independent mechanism

In September 2015 the Act No. 176/2015 Coll. on commissioner for children and commissioner for persons with disabilities came into legal force (zákon o komisárovi pre deti a komisárovi pre osoby so zdravotným postihnutím a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov). In November the commissioner for persons with disability was approved in the National Council of the Slovak republic. The commissioner's office started work in March 2016.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

A8. Official reporting

The first official Slovak report to the UN Convention (Východisková správa SR k Dohovoru o právach osôb so zdravotným postihnutím) was submitted in June 2012 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic to the Permanent Mission in Geneva in due date. A preliminary meeting to evaluate the report was held in Geneva on 8 September 2015. Consequently the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities issued on 11 September 2015 the List of 33 issues in relation to the initial report of Slovakia. In November – December 2015 the process to answer the list was organised. The constructive dialogue between the Governmental representatives of the Slovak Republic and the UN Committee was held on 4-5 April 2016. As a result, the Committee issued its Concluding Observations on the initial report of Slovakia adopted by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities at its 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) which contains about 40 recommendations for the government to ensure proper implementation of the UN CRPD in Slovakia.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

A9. Shadow reporting

The Slovak National Disability Council prepared the Alternative report to identify gaps and weaknesses of the CRPD implementation in Slovakia. The Report was sent to the UN Committee on 31 July 2015. Main recommendations were formulated, including such areas as reasonable accommodation and universal design, legal capacities issues, deinstitutionalisation, early intervention services, support of employment, or social protection issues. Another Alternative report was prepared by the Slovak National Centre for Human Rights. It formulated totally 12 recommendations to enforce human rights of persons with disabilities in Slovakia, namely in area of legal capacity, independent mechanism (setting up the commissionaire for persons with disabilities), accessibility, education, employment and operation of the focal point office.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-09

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

According to the Slovak Constitution (Act No. 460/1992 Coll., as amended) 'the basic rights and freedoms are guaranteed for all in Slovakia, regardless of their gender, race, skin colour, language, belief and religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, adherence to nationality or ethnic group, property, birth or other status. Nobody can be advantaged or disadvantaged on the aforementioned bases'. There is no explicit prohibition to discriminate against somebody on the basis of disability. However, in accordance with Article 38 of the Constitution, the rights of persons with disabilities are 'extra' protected with regard to health and working conditions, labour relationships and vocational training. Specifics of how to exercise the aforementioned 'extra' rights are detailed in specific laws (e.g. Labour Code, Employment Services Act). Another important piece of anti-discriminatory legislation is Act No. 365/2004 Coll. on equal treatment in some selected areas and protection against discrimination. In the basic section 2 it is constituted that 'adherence to the equal treatment principle lies in prohibition of discrimination on the basis of ... disability...'. As a discrimination on the basic of a disability even so a discrimination based on a former disability or a discrimination related to a person with some external symptoms of a disability, is accounted. The Act in section 8 sets up so called 'admissible unequal treatment'. Concerning disability, the admissible unequal treatment refers to the area of employment and to the provision of insurance services/products. Unequal treatment in employment is not considered as discrimination where specific requirements for performing some professions are established. In the case of insurance services/products, unequal treatment is not considered as discrimination when there is some degree of risk, which is verifiable by statistical or other evidence, and conditions for insurance services are reasonable to this risk. From another side, as a discrimination some temporarily provided affirmative provisions supporting access of some disadvantaged groups of people (including people with disabilities) to employment, education, health care or housing, are not accounted.

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Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

In 2015 Slovakia has made a very significant step towards implementation of the Guardianship reform. The Slovak National Council approved in 2015 Act No. 161/2015 the Civic out-of -dispute code (Občiansky mimosporový poriadok) which will come into legal force since July 2016. Up to this date the court may restrict a person’s legal capacity according to section 10 of the Civil Code (No. 40/1964 Coll., and its amendments) so that he/she is unable to act legally due to his/her mental disorder. This relates generally to persons with intellectual disabilities and mental conditions as a result of impairment to the central nervous system (e.g. Alzheimer’s, organic psycho-syndrome) or mental conditions of uncertain cause (e.g. schizophrenia, manic-depression and autism). However, these persons are, even with full or partial restriction of legal capacity, legal subjects. This means that the Civil Code differs between the capacity to have the rights and the capacity to act independently. In deciding on deprivation of legal capacity or its restriction the court shall appoint a guardian for those who have been deprived of legal capacity or whose legal capacity has been restricted. The court monitors the guardian’s work and evaluates his/her performances at least twice a year. Since July 2016 the court may within a process only restrict his/her legal capacity (Articles No. 231-251). Within the process an active inclusion of a person whose legal capacity is in a question, is guaranteed. To complete the Guardianship reform an amendment of the Civil Code (Article 10) is necessary to adopt.

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Update date: Tue, 2016-05-03

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

National legislation concerning elections (including elections for the European Parliament) and referendum guarantees election rights for voters with disabilities. However there is a full legal barrier to the right to vote for persons with a loss of legal capacity. Such persons do not have the right to vote or to be voted. For persons with full legal capacity, in spite of disability, conditions for applying election rights are created so that the voter does not need to go to the polling station. The decision to vote from home is taken by a person with a disability. In such cases, members of the polling Electoral Committee bring the ballot card and envelope and they have to guarantee confidentiality of voting. A voter with a disability also has the right to ask another voter to adjust the ballot card according to his instructions and to place the ballot card in the envelope and into the ballot box. Such a person must not be a member of the polling Electoral Committee. Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic announced in August 2013 Basic principles of drafted acts on elections, elections campaign and political parties (Základné princípy navrhovaných právnych úprav k voľbám, volebnej kampani a politickým stranám). Consequently, a new Voting Act came into force since July 2014 which unified conditions for exercising voting rights for all types of elections.

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Update date: Fri, 2016-04-22

B4. Official recognition of sign language

Act No. 149/1995 Coll. on sign language for deaf persons includes general conditions for implementing the right of deaf persons to use sign language: to be educated in sign language; to have interpreters of sign language in certain situations (such as with a public authority, municipality, regional offices and with other legal entities or persons); to obtain information via sign language e.g. on TV. Providing interpretation for sign language is free of charge. Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services addresses conditions concerning communication for blind-deaf persons and persons with hearing disabilities; Section 44 establishes three types of interpreting services (spoken language, sign language and tactile communication). The Act on Social Services requires that any person wishing to act as an interpreter must hold certain qualifications (certification of interpretation as a minimum).

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Update date: Thu, 2014-04-17

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

In January 2014 the Slovak government approved the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020 (full title: The National Program on Improving living conditions of persons with disabilities 2014-2020; Národný program rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014-2020). The Programme consists of a set of measures elaborated in 19 areas (e.g. health care, employment, education, rehabilitation, cultural life, political and civil participation) which fulfilment is regularly evaluated. Within its coordination function the central focal point issued in 2015 the interim report 'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National Disability Programme for the period of October 2014 – March 2015' (Odpočet plnenia časovo aktuálnych opatrení Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 (október 2014 – marec 2015). Subsequently, the comprehensive document 'The Report on fulfilling provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating' (Správa o plnení opatrení vyplývajúcich z Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 a návrh na jeho aktualizáciu) was completed in 2016.

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Update date: Mon, 2017-06-26

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The regulations of the European Parliament and Council, containing obligations relating to transport, airport terminals, ports, railway and bus stations, including technical equipment for enabling access to transportation for persons with disabilities, and the building of acoustic and visual information systems for people with disabilities are implemented in the Slovak legislation (e.g. Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2006 and Regulation (EC) No. 1371/2007).
The National Disability Programme for the years 2014-2020 in Measure 4.3.6. 'Systematically improve accessibility of the public transport vehicles and transport infrastructure' sets the following actions to be taken: 'To increase number of barrier-free public transport vehicles; To ensure information systems for persons with sensorial impairments in all new vehicles (bus stop voice notification for persons with visual impairment; visual screens for persons with hearing impairments); Systematically improve accessibility of bus stations, rail stations and airports.'
Responsible authority: The Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic

Road Transport: The legislation regulating road transport (Act No. 56/2012 Coll. on Road Transport, as amended) pays special attention to people with disabilities. At first, the special rights and duties of passengers with disabilities and passengers with reduced mobility are part of the transport regulation which contains the details about the rights and duties of the transport authority and the passengers. Secondly, a passenger with disability with a guided dog or a passenger with reduced mobility has the right for a reserved place in the vehicle. Thirdly, technical standards on transportation of passengers with disabilities and passengers with reduced mobility are part of the 'Agreement on Services' signed between the customer and provider of the public transport services. Finally, the existing transport infrastructure (bus waiting rooms and bus stops) must take into account the requirements for barrier-free access for persons with disabilities. Otherwise, the owners or providers of this transport infrastructure are in a risk of a fine ranging from EUR 1,000 to EUR 15,000.

Railway Transport: According to the Railways Act, No. 513/2009 Coll. as amended, the rail infrastructure and railway cars have to be accessible for persons with disabilities and persons with reduced mobility in order to provide their barrier-free access to transportation on an equal basis with others. At the stations, stops and platform the rail provider is obliged to introduce and maintain the information system necessary for passengers' orientation, including the passengers with visual impairment and the passenger with hearing impairment. The rail provider is also obliged to ensure that the station, stops and platform are accessible to persons with physical disability. The provider who does not keep these rules can be charged a fine ranging from EUR 800 to EUR 10,000.

According to the Decree No. 351/2010 Coll. on railway transport rules, visual information about the train timetable have to be accessible via acoustic, tactile and visible elements used by persons with sensory impairments. Detailed measures for transportation of persons with disabilities are set in separate transportation rules. According to these rules, a person with disability or a person with reduced mobility can request assistance during the travel. However, he/she has to apply for assistance at least 24 hours in advance and arrive at the station no later than 30 minutes before the train's departure. The railway services provide reduced fare rates for persons with severe disabilities and free transportation for guardians/assistants of persons with disabilities.

Air transport: Act No. 143/1998 Coll. on civil aviation imposes on the carrier the obligation to mitigate the travelling of persons with disabilities.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

C2. Built environment accessibility

There are two approaches on how to ensure accessibility of the built environment for persons with disabilities:

  1. Provisions within general building conditions: Act No. 50/1976 Coll. On Land-use Planning and Building (the Building Act), as amended, incorporates, in Section 47 and the following paragraphs, the binding nature of the general technical requirements for the constructions used by persons with reduced mobility, specifying the requirements for territorial-technical design of the construction development and for the specific design of construction. Legal entities, natural persons, state administration and self-administrating bodies shall follow these requirements in the phase of positioning, designing, approving, execution, final building approval, exploitation and removal of the construction.

More detailed requirements to ensure a barrier-free environment are set up in Decree No. 532/2002 Coll., as amended laying down details on the general technical requirements for the construction and general technical requirements for the constructions used by persons with reduced mobility and orientation. The Decree is applied in the design and approval of the local field plan, during the positioning, designing, approval, execution and use of the construction and in the phase of changes of the construction (extension, super structure, construction adaptation). There are explicit requirements for making buildings useable for persons with reduced mobility, for blind and partially sighted persons and for hearing impaired persons.
  1. Individualised provisions: The individualised provisions are set up in Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments to compensate consequences of severe disabilities. This refers specifically to direct payment for dwelling and garage adaptation (Section 37 of the Act) being provided to persons with severe disabilities to adapt their apartment, house or garage to make them more friendly for free moving or communication. Provision of this type of direct payment is needs and means (income, property) tested.

Regarding the built environment accessibility the following measures have been set in the new National Disability Programme for 2014-2020:

Measure 4.3.4.: to ensure barrier-free buildings for state and local government and public institutions
Actions to be taken:

  1. To ensure in all public administration buildings (state and local government) the identification of barriers which are in conflict with barrier-free policies and laws. To elaborate a 5-year period action plan with priorities for elimination of the identified barriers.
  2. To ensure financial resources for elimination of the identified barriers in accordance with the action plan. At the end of the 5-year period to ensure regular monitoring of physical accessibility in these buildings via internal audit in the institution or via other designated authority. Schedule: 2015-2020 Responsible authority: national government institutions (Ministries) and local government in cooperation with NGOs.

Measure 4.3.5: to ensure the accessibility of new buildings and areas for public utilisation / activities.
Action to be taken: to specify requirements for application of the principles of the barrier-free environment set out in the Building Act, and of universal design as described in the European documents. Schedule: 2015 Responsible authority: Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak Technical University Proposer of the measure: Slovak Disability Council.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Under Article 26 of the Slovak Constitution (Act 460 of 1992, as amended) the right to information is guaranteed 'to everyone'. Public authorities are obliged to provide information in certain ways that are specified in Act No. 275/2006 Coll., as amended, on informational systems of public administration (Zákon o informačných systémoch verejnej správy). The Act constitutes rights and obligations of the public authorities to set up, administrate, use and develop information systems of public administration. Main responsibilities in this field are with the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic. To implement tasks in this field, the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic issued Regulation 55/2014 Coll. on standards for informational systems of public administration as amended (Výnos o štandardoch pre informačné systémy verejnej správy v znení neskorších predpisov).
Annex 1 'Standards of web accessibility' includes all standards for web accessibility corresponding with required international standards in this field.
Act No. 305/2013 on e-Government as amended regulates the public administration electronically via access points, common modules and agenda systems. Article 4 requires that all access points, common modules and agenda systems are accessible to people with disabilities.

Regarding ICT and web accessibility the following measures have been set in the National Disability Programme for the years 2014-2020:
Measure 4.3.1: To monitor and analyse the situation in web accessibility of public administration institutions, mainly in order to get evidence for further improvements in this area.
Action to be taken: To monitor the web accessibility according to WCAG 2.0 standards and their impact on the provision of the public administration services.
Schedule: continuously.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Finances of the Slovak Republic.

Measure 4.3.2: To ensure accessibility of the legislation portal.
Action to be taken: to ensure the accessibility of the legislation portal and the documents published there in accordance with the accessibility standards set out in the relevant acts.
Schedule: continuously.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic.

Measure 4.3.3: To build integrated operating places to provide assisted electronic services also to persons with disabilities.
Action to be taken: The goal of the Operational Programme on Informatization of Society is the development of the e-Government and electronic services at the local and regional levels.

Regarding print material, on 1 January 2016 the new Author’s Act No. 185/2015 Coll. came into force. According to Article 46 making publications accessible for persons with disabilities without the author’s agreement is not considered as the copyright infringement.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Persons with disabilities are not obliged to live in particular living arrangements; Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services, in section 6, guarantees the right of a person to choose the form of social service (in his/her own dwelling, community home, ambulant or institutional). This means that only the persons themselves can decide (or his/her parents or guardian, appointed by court) when and where they want to live. This act also gives preference to community-home and ambulant social services rather than institutional services. The Civil Procedure Act regulates the admission and stay of people who are placed in health care institutions. A ruling by a court of law is necessary for institutional admission against a person’s will. In case if the client is in an institution, the providers of social services are obliged to cooperate with the family, municipality or community with the aim of creating conditions that will enable the person with disabilities to return to the community. This ambition is embodied within the National priorities of social services development for 2015-2020 (Národné priority rozvoja sociálnych služieb na roky 2015-2020). Besides social services, there are other measures previewed to support/facilitate the person to live in his/her community (e.g. personal assistance).

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Update date: Mon, 2017-06-26

D2. De-institutionalisation

The Government of the Slovak Republic by regulation no. 761/2011 approved on 30 November 2011 the Strategy for deinstitutionalization of the social services system and substitute care in Slovakia (DI Strategy). Subsequently, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic approved in December 2011 the National Action Plan for the transition from institutional to community-based care in the social services system 2012-2015 (DI National Action Plan) and in September 2016 the National action plan for the years 2016-2020. The DI Strategy and the DI National Action Plans have been developed in cooperation with a broadly-based working group of experts in the field of social services and substitute care. The main vision and aim of the Slovak policy for the transition from institutional to community living arrangements is to create conditions for independent and free living in a natural community environment with an available, effective and coordinated network of services provided with respect to human rights and equal opportunities, in the context of the individual needs of all recipients (children, elderly persons, persons with disabilities) of social services. Some of the key rules for this policy are: respect for the rights of recipients and their participation in decisions; prevention of institutionalization; closing of institutions; change of legislation; holistic access; awareness raising; staff training; evaluation of the quality of social services; coordination of key actors etc. Slovakia has been planning and implementing the whole process with the resources of the European Fund for Regional Development and European Social Fund (the OP Employment and Social Inclusion, next the OP Human Resources) in accordance with the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 and UN CPRD (e.g. Article 19). It should be highlighted that both the present Act on social services and new National Priorities of the Social Services Development for the years 2015-2020 include important measures supporting changes from institutions to community living (e.g. the right to choose the form and place of the social service; obligation on providers to cooperate with the family, municipality and community to prevent long-term stay of dependent persons in residential care and to create conditions for returning to a natural family environment; preference of social facilities with a capacity lower than 40 beds that is viewed as a community-friendly principle; support for users to remain in their natural environment/community via development of community-based social interventions; development of out-patient and weekly basis social services to enable persons with disabilities to maintain relations with their family members, friends, neighbours and to support their inclusion into society in all life areas, e.g. labour market, education, leisure time). To support the implementation of all these new principles the national project 'Support of deinstitutionalisation and transformation process in social services system' was running in 2013-2015 within which seven residential care providers were included. Presently, a new phase of the national DI project is under preparation to extend the DI principles into practice on about 90 new residential care providers.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

D3. Quality of social services

In Slovakia, a mechanism for ensuring the quality of social services, in Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on social services, as amended, has been established. The Act came into legal force in January 2009, although the section referring to quality issues (including quality indicators) came into force later, in January 2014. Finally, the date for the implementation of the quality evaluation was postponed to January 2018, due to lack of funds and organisational support. In section 104, and the related Annex 2 of the Act, the rules for evaluation of social services are established. According to Annex 2, the four areas (aspects) of quality conditions are evaluated: (1) enforcement of human rights and freedoms (e.g. rules about how to respect human dignity of clients, how to protect them against discrimination and poor treatment, how to respect their individuality, natural/community based sources, relationships and needs); (2) procedural quality conditions (e.g. ways and rules about how to elaborate, implement or revise a client’s individual plan of social services, how to provide potential clients with necessary information in an accessible format, how to monitor the client's satisfaction with a provided service and harmony between the service and the client's needs); (3) personnel quality conditions (e.g. criteria/approaches for selecting staff, for further education of staff and for evaluation and rewarding staff work); and finally, (4) operational quality conditions (e.g. barrier-free environment of service, ensuring all conditions for administering service process, maintaining human dignity of recipients and providers, rules for dealing with emergency situations, securing personal data, informational strategy of the social service provider). Evaluation of the conditions for quality of social services will be provided since 2018 by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic through its state servants, in collaboration with other independent experts who must have a minimum of three years expertise in the field being evaluated. When a certain social service provider receives in its evaluation less than 60% of all points it means he does not meet quality conditions. The results of quality assessments will be announced by the Ministry in the Central register of social service providers. When the provider does not improve the situation in a set deadline, the Ministry can remove the provider from the Register. In order to support social service providers in a process of quality conditions implementation, the Ministry in collaboration with the Institute for Labour and Family Research and with a broadly grounded working group prepared in 2015 the document 'Implementation of quality conditions into social services practice – methodological backgrounds' (Implementácia podmienok kvality do praxe poskytovateľov sociálnych služieb – metodické východiská). The methodological work continued in 2016 with the aim to prepare document for future evaluators titled as 'Evaluation of quality conditions of provided social services – methodological backgrounds: draft' (Hodnotenie podmienok kvality poskytovaných sociálnych služieb – metodické východiská: návrh).

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

There are two approaches to provide disabled persons with necessary assistive devices to live at home as independently as possible:

  1. Assistive devices for disabled persons with various types and degrees of functional impairments are provided from the health insurance fund under Act No. 140/1998 Coll. on medications and medical devices (Zákon o liekoch a zdravotníckych pomôckach), as amended, and conditions are detailed in the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic on a Register of medical devices financed fully or partially from public health insurance. The Register is updated every six months (the most recent as of 1 October 2012). The health insurance fund finances, for example, crutches, mechanical and electrical wheelchairs, bathtub boards and adaptive beds.
  2. Assistive devices from the social assistance pillar are provided under Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the social consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia), in the form of: cash benefits for purchasing a device (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for training in using a device (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for device adaptation (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for repairing a device (section 32 of the Act); cash benefits for purchasing a lifting appliance (section 33 of the Act). There is a legal rule that cash benefits for purchasing, training and for adapting a device cannot be provided if the actual device is provided from the health insurance system, with the exception of second mechanical and electric wheelchairs and second hearing appliances. As a device for the purpose of compensation, a specially trained dog is also considered. The aforementioned cash benefits are provided by local state administration on the basis of a comprehensive needs assessment and means (income and property) testing.

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Update date: Tue, 2017-09-12

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

According to Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation of the social consequences of severe disability, a person with a severe disability can be provided with a direct payment for personal assistance (hereinafter ‘DPPA’). The legal system of personal assistance was set up in Slovakia in July 1999 with the objective of supporting the social inclusion of persons with severe disabilities, to encourage their independence in life and chances to make their own choices and decisions concerning their own lives, with regard to family, job, education and leisure time. The DPPA is provided directly to people older than six years and up to 65. After 65 DPPA is only provided for persons who were entitled to this social benefit before reaching the age-limit. Personal assistants are recruited primarily from adult persons beyond the family circle (‘foreign persons’). According to the law, relatives can provide personal assistance only in selected ADLs, primarily by personal hygiene or night care, where assistance by foreign persons could be problematic. The DPPA is a needs and means tested social benefit. The maximum amount for one person is 7,300 hours per calendar year. The amount for a certain person is determined by an ADL/IADL assessment process, carried out by offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (local state administration), with active involvement of the person with disability. These authorities are responsible for providing DPPAs, resourced from direct taxes (state budget). The DPPA does not cover assistance related to job performance or to education if the person with disability needs some individualised help. In these cases necessary assistance can be provided as job assistance (financed by the Act on Employment Services) or as teaching assistance for a pupil with disability (financed by the Act on Education).

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Update date: Mon, 2017-06-26

D6. Income maintenance

Generally, the income of the working age disabled people can consist of three sources: income from a job/employment, from a disability pension and from disability-related cash benefits. Because the majority (about 70%) of the working age disabled population in Slovakia belongs to an inactive population, the main source of income maintenance comes from the insurance based disability pension scheme. According to Act No. 461/2003 Coll. on Social insurance (Zákon o sociálnom poistení), as amended, a person is considered as disabled if his/her earning ability falls by more than 40% (the maximum is 100%) due to his/her long term unfavourable health conditions. The criterion of 'earning ability limitation’ (or earning ability restriction) has no relation to the previous earnings of a person with disability and a certain percentage is determined only in comparison to a non-disabled person. A disability pension cannot be claimed if a person satisfies the conditions for claiming an old age pension or asks for an early retirement pension. Only persons who have fulfilled the required period of insurance can receive a disability pension. The required period of employment depends upon the age, as follows: Up to 20 years, less than one year; 20–24 years, minimum one year; 24-28 years, minimum two years; 28-34 years, minimum five years; 34-40 years, minimum eight years; 40–45 years, minimum ten years; over 45 years, minimum 15 years. Persons over 45 years of age must have completed the employment period of 15 years prior to the occurrence of their disability. In the case of work-related injuries or occupational diseases, and for persons being disabled since childhood, no minimum period is required. According to current developments, prevalence of disabled people entitled to disability pensions corresponding with a decrease of working (earning) ability of between 41-70% (in older legal terminology as ‘persons with a partial invalidity pension’) was higher (in June 2015 a portion of 57%) in comparison to those with a decrease of working (earning) ability of more than 70% (previously, as ‘persons with a full invalidity pension’). Disabled people who were entitled until 31 December 2000 to the scheme called ‘supplement to pensions due to incapacity’ under the former legislation, still receive this. Expenditures on this special benefit are covered from the state budget, not from the Social insurance fund. In order to compensate for the social consequences of severe disabilities and to maintain an income for persons with severe disabilities and their families, some disability-related cash benefits are provided. Entitlements in this field arise under the conditions of Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia). Cash benefits are provided in four areas: the area of mobility and orientation; the area of communication; the area of increased costs; and the area of self-help (ADL/IADL areas). There are possibilities for providing persons gaining the legal status of a person with severe disability (at least 50% of functional impairment) with various cash benefits/direct payments: for personal assistance; for purchasing and adapting a device and for training in using a device; for repairing a device; for purchasing a lifting appliance; or purchasing a personal vehicle; for adaptation of a personal vehicle; for transportation; for a flat, house or garage adaptation; for compensation of disability related increased costs; for providing of informal care (care allowance). Provision of direct payments is needs and means (income and property) tested and is in the original competency of local state administrations. All expenditures are covered from the state budget.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

D7. Additional costs

The provision to compensate some additional living costs related to severe disability is set up in Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia). In Section 38 of this Act, the legal conditions for the cash benefit (direct payment) for compensation of disability related increased costs are established. The increased costs are related to: a special diet; to hygiene or clothing, linen, footwear and furnishings; to running a personal motor vehicle; to care for a specially trained dog. The abovementioned cash benefits and its components are provided in accordance with person’s needs and his/her means situation (it is needs and means tested). If the person’s income exceeds three times the threshold of the substantial minimum the entitlements are lost. Needs assessment and entitlements are implemented by local state administrations. Expenditures for this type of compensatory scheme are covered by the state budget.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

D8. Retirement income

Persons with disabilities who are recipients of disability pension (invalidity pension) after achieving retirement age (generally 62 years) are entitled to ask for retirement pension. If the amount of a person’s retirement pension is higher than the amount of invalidity pension, the Social Insurance Company will pay the higher amount. Usually the retirement pension is higher because a person with disability could be employed prior to achieving retirement age or, if not employed during this period, according to a legal condition, the required period of employment is automatically included. To apply for retirement pension is the right, not an obligation of a person with disability. The required period of employment depends on age, as follows: up to 20 years, less than one year; 20-24 years, minimum one year; 24-28 years, minimum two years; 28-34 years, minimum five years; 34-40 years, minimum eight years; 40-45 years, minimum ten years; over 45 years, minimum 15 years. Persons over 45 years of age must have completed the employment period in the 15 years prior to the occurrence of the invalidity/disability. In the case of work-related injuries or occupational diseases and for persons disabled since childhood, no minimum period is required (section 72 Act on social insurance). In 2015 the Social insurance act was amended, as an institute of a minimal pension was introduced since July 2015. Entitlements for minimal pension are accessible for disability pension recipients after reaching old age.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

E. Education

E1. Special schools

According to the Slovak Constitution everybody has the right to education and to attend school. Pupils with different types of disabilities may be educated in a mainstream school (with an individualized integration approach or a classroom integration approach) or in a special school. Regardless the educational model (track), special disability-related support provisions are only put in place if a child/pupil gains the status of special education student.
According to Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) (Zákon o výchove a vzdelávaní (Školský zákon), the status is based on the recognition of a child or pupil’s special educational needs. The status corresponds to the child's or pupil’s requirements for special conditions, content, forms, methods and approaches in education due to his/her health condition. To implement education in a segregated/specialised environment, some types of special schools are established (section 95 of the Act); kindergarten, primary schools and secondary schools for pupils with health conditions or impairments, practical schools and apprentice schools.
During the educational process special compensatory devices and special educational texts are utilized in accordance with the educational needs of the pupils. Related extra expenditures are covered by the school in which the child is educated.
On a medical recommendation the child can be exempted from the obligation to attend the school building and can fulfil his/her compulsory school attendance in two particular ways: (1) individual education, or (2) education under an individual learning plan.

According to Section 107 of the Act, “A child or a pupil whose special educational needs arise solely from the ground of his/her development in the socially disadvantaged background cannot be admitted to a special school or to a special class of pre-school, primary school or secondary school.” This provision concerns mostly those children who were diagnosed with light intellectual disability on the basis of their cultural background and anti-Roma prejudice. Attendance of a special primary school for pupils with intellectual disabilities does not allow to continue upper secondary education and to get better employment.
According to Section 144 of the Act, a guardian has the right to choose a school that best “corresponds to the child’ abilities, health conditions, interests” depending on the opportunities available in the educational system. Since the available opportunities shall also be taken into consideration, the final decision on whether a child may attend education in a chosen school depends on the school director. According to the law, the school director can suggest to the child’s guardian that he/she might benefit more from another educational setting, if they believe that educating the child with special needs in a mainstream school is not in the best interests of the child or his/her schoolmates. Before 'replacement' (removal), the public school authorities and relevant centre for educational counselling and prevention must be consulted. If parents or legal guardians do not agree with the suggested solution, a relevant court makes the decision about how to ensure that the 'ongoing education of the child continues'.
The details about education process at special schools are set by the Decree No. 322/2008 on Special Schools. It deals with the organisation of the educational process, number of pupils in a class, admissions to schools and evaluation of pupils with special educational needs at special schools.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

E2. Mainstream schools

According to the National Disability Program 2014 - 2020 (Národný program rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím), under Section 4.7 (Education) the public and private authorities have commitments to ensure the conditions under which persons with disabilities can exercise their educational rights, primarily in mainstream/inclusive settings. Act No. 245/2008 coll. School Act (Zákon o výchove a vzdelávaní /Školský zákon) states that a guardian has a right to choose a school that best "corresponds with the abilities of a child, his/her health conditions, interests"; depending on the opportunities available in the educational system.
According to the Decree No. 306/2008 on Pre-schools the class teacher creates the conditions for education of a child with special educational needs (SEN) in cooperation with the child’s parents or guardian, other teachers at the pre-school, the child’s GP and the school counselling and prevention services. Only two children with SEN can be accepted per class. Moreover, the maximum number of children in the mainstream class is reduced by two for each child with SEN (from 20 to 22 according to the age).
More details about the education of pupils with special educational needs at mainstream primary schools are set by Decree No. 320/2008 on Primary School, as amended. According to Section 5 of the Decree, the class teacher defines the conditions under which the pupil with special educational needs is educated in the mainstream class. He/she does so in cooperation with the pupil’s GP and school counselling and prevention services.
The same Decree in Section 16 sets the provision of a special type of physical education called 'the health PE'. The pupils with special educational needs participate in this type of PE on the basis of their doctor’s recommendation and the agreement of the pupil’s parent or guardian. In case the number of pupils in the 'health PE' group is lower than eight, the group is cancelled. If there is no other group at school where the rest of SEN pupils can perform the 'health PE', the pupils are partially of fully exempted from PE. They perform exercises suitable for their health status according to the GP’s recommendation. Pupils with partial exemption from PE are evaluated respecting their disability or health status.
In case the special class is established at a mainstream school the education process is provided according to the Decree No. 322/2008 on Special Schools.
According to the Act No. 317/2009 Coll. on pedagogic employees and specialists, as amended, the creation of equal opportunities in education and the provision of help to overcome architectonical, information, language, medical, social and cultural barriers is the aim of the teacher’s assistant. He/she helps the teacher or other pedagogic staff with the education of pupils with special educational needs at the pre-schools, primary schools, secondary schools (only for pupils with disabilities) and special schools.
Money for equipment and adaptation of the mainstream school environment or for any other extra support (e.g. for teacher’s assistants) come from the state budget (Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Slovak republic) via municipalities or regional offices.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

The rights of deaf children/students to study by using sign language are constituted in section 4, Act 149/1995 Coll. on sign language for deaf persons. According to this Act deaf persons have the right to sign language use, to education in sign language and to information in sign language on TV and libraries free of charge.
The details about how to implement these rights in education are explained in Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended. According to Section 144 of this Act, “a child/pupil with special educational needs has the right to education by utilising specific forms and methods according to his/her needs and for creating necessary conditions which are essential for the child/pupil’s education. He/she has the right to the use of special textbooks and special didactic and compensational aids... (e.g. sign language, Braille, alternative means of communication).”
In order to support the education of young persons with sensory impairments at university level, the centre for visually impaired students (Podporné centrum pre zrakovo postihnutých študentov) was set up in 1993 at Comenius University in Bratislava. Since 2009 the Centre has been operating as the Support Centre for Students with Special Needs; extending its support services to students with hearing impairments, students with mobility problems, chronical diseases, learning disorders, etc. However, there has been no research on sign language in Slovakia. There is no higher education institution offering a Bachelor or Master programme in sign language. A working group has been set up to address qualification issues of sign language interpreters coordinated by the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

E4. Vocational training

The legal framework on the right to vocational education and training of pupils and students, including pupils and students with disabilities, is embedded in Article 42 of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic and in Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education, as amended.
Students with disabilities can acquire vocational education and training in the following forms: in special classes in mainstream secondary schools; in regular classes with other students in mainstream secondary schools; in special secondary schools which are differentiated by type of disability. Pupils and students with disabilities have the right to an individual educational approach that respects their ability and health, to be taught by teachers with professional teaching experience, to a safe and healthy educational environment and to be recognized and respected as individuals.
To make education more 'oriented to labour market needs' the dual system of education for all pupils at the vocational schools has been introduced in 2015 by the new Act No. 61/2015 on vocational education and training as amended. It came into force on 1 April 2015. Pupils could start the dual system of education in September 2015. The dual system of education does not specifically mention pupils with disabilities, or any other disadvantaged groups of students. It is assumed that they are subsumed under the articles for all pupils at vocational schools. In other words, there are no specific measures to support participation of pupils at special schools in dual education.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

E5. Higher education

In Slovakia, the universities and colleges are explicitly subjected to non-discrimination laws and the implementation of the equal treatment principle. The Manifesto of the Government of the Slovak Republic declares ensuring access to tertiary education by providing 'special support to the establishment and development of assistance centres for students with disabilities'.
Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on higher education, as amended, in Section 55, guarantees for all applicants and students equal treatment in education to exercise all the rights set out under this Act: 'Discrimination on the grounds of ...disability... is explicitly prohibited'. To implement the principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination in educational practice, the Act and related legislation establish several particular arrangements for students with special needs (including students with disabilities). Firstly, there is a general obligation for universities/colleges 'to create reasonable study conditions for students with disabilities, by referring to their special study needs without declining requirements on their study performances'. Reasonable conditions include the choice to study under an individual study plan and, if necessary, to extend the study period (Section 100 of the Act). Secondly, students with special needs have a claim for support services in minimum standards consequently defined in Decree of the Ministry of Education No. 458/2012 on minimum standards of support services for students with special needs, specifically set for various types of disabilities / special needs. Thirdly, the universities are obliged to appoint a disability coordinator (legally speaking, a coordinator for students with special needs), and also appoint faculty coordinators. In Section 100 of the Higher Education Act, some of the responsibilities of disability coordinators are defined. Apart from that, two support centres (at Comenius University in Bratislava and Technical University in Kosice) have been established to provide guidance and ensure coordination for disability coordinators of all universities, and promote knowledge and innovation in providing support services for students with special needs. With regard to funding, the school must establish the so-called 'Fund for Support Students with special needs' to create reasonable study conditions for young persons with disabilities (Section 16a of the Act). In 2015, for the first time funding was allocated from the state budget to support students with special needs. In total EUR 650,000 were transferred to universities for this purpose, according to the number of students with special needs in each of them who are registered at the Central Registry of Students. Further forms of individual financial support for students with disabilities are cash benefits from compensatory policy (under Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities). Accessibility and research grants from structural funds are administered by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic.
The National Disability Program for 2014-2020 sets out the following measures in the field of higher education:

  • Measure 4.7.7: To approve the National Action Plan on Accessible Academic Environment and corresponding study conditions for students with specific needs.

Action to be taken: Approve and perform the National Action Plan.
Responsible authority: Ministry of ESRS in cooperation with the Advisory Body of the Minister of Education, Science, Research and Sport for study support of students with specific needs (Rada ministra školstva, vedy, výskumu a športu SR na podporu štúdia študentov so špeciálnymi potrebami).
Start date: 2015 and continuously.
  • Measure 4.7.8: Systematic support of networking and education of university coordinators for students with specific needs.

Action to be taken: Preparation of study materials and organization of regular meetings of disability coordinators (representing each university).
Responsible authority: Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Advisory Body of the Minister for study support of students with specific needs.
Start date: 2014 and continuously.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

The Slovak Constitution (Act No. 460/1992 Coll., as amended) guarantees, in Article 38, the general right of persons with disabilities to protection in vocational training, employment, labour relations through the creation of reasonable working conditions. Among the fundamental principles of the Labour Code (Act No. 311/2001 Coll., as amended) lies the principle of equal treatment in labour relations. Article 1 specifies that 'Everyone has the right to employment and for a free choice of work, for fair and friendly working conditions and for protection against unemployment. These rights belong to persons without any limitations; direct or indirect discrimination on the ground of... unfavourable health status or disability...'. Section 158 establishes some obligations on employers, e.g. to create reasonable working conditions for employees with disabilities to perform and retain their jobs (including conditions for gaining or increasing necessary qualifications). Details on how to exercise the aforementioned rights are laid down in specific laws. The most important is Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services, as amended, that states the right to access to employment in Section 14. Access to this right is guaranteed without any limitation in accordance with the principle of equal treatment. The prohibition of discrimination 'against somebody on the grounds of...disability...' is established. Despite the guarantee of the constitutional right to work, the right to free choice of work and the right to access to employment, Act No. 365/2004 Coll. (Anti-discrimination Act), as amended, sets up in Section 8 the so-called 'admissible unequal/different/distinct treatment' (prípustné rozdielne zaobchádzanie), relating specifically to persons with disabilities in the field of employment. In case when the nature of job requires special health abilities of a person or special conditions for performing this job, the distinct treatment is not considered discrimination on the grounds of disability.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

F2. Public employment services

Employment advice and support services for disabled people are provided by the public employment services, specifically by the Centre of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (COLSAF), as a central public employment services body in Slovakia, and by district Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (DOLSAF), as a regional public employment services body. The legal basis of advisory and information services and employment support for disabled people is in Act No. 5 /2004 Coll. on Employment Services. The information on these services is available on the website of COLSAF and on the websites of particular DOLSAF. For the purpose of providing employment advice and support services to disabled people District Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family must keep a separate administrative register of disabled people, which in addition to basic identification data, covers information on the degree of disability and a reduced capacity to work, including the legal justification for the status of a disabled person. However, there are no incentives for people with disabilities to be registered as job-seekers. At the same time, the officers are not obliged to assist with finding a job on an individual basis. In fact, persons with disabilities may benefit from active labour market measures mainly provided that they themselves find an employer, and then apply for available benefits. Another difficulty is that the job offers at the offices considered to be one of the most important ALMP instruments are rarely available in accessible formats. Among non-public providers there are also agencies of supported employment as set out in § 58 of the Act No. 5/2004 Col. On employment services, which provide support to disabled job-seekers. In current settings, these agencies are contracted by DOLSAFs in a very unpredictable way. As a result, their funding and activities seem unsustainable.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

F3. Workplace adaptations

Articles 158 - 159 of the Labour Code deal with the employment of an employee with disability. In general the Labour Code in Article 158, part 2, enables the employer to set a workshop or to make workplace adaptations for an employee with a disability who cannot be employed in regular working environments. Furthermore, employment of people with disabilities in sheltered workshops and in the open labour market is specified in Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services.
Until 2013, the legislation was not as clear concerning the difference between sheltered workshop and sheltered workplace, whose creation is a pre-condition to be eligible for any of the allowances within active labour market measures except for one (see below). In fact, it is even required that the applicants for self-employment allowance work at sheltered workplaces. Similarly, there was no legal distinction between sheltered workshops set up especially to employ people with disabilities in traditional meaning, and those set up at regular enterprises with much higher level of integration. In March 2013, the Act re-defined both terms. In sheltered workshop, more than 50% of all employees are employees with disabilities. On the other hand, sheltered workplace is typically where there is only one employee with disabilities, or more than one but in total less than 50% of all employees. The status of sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace is announced by the Office of Labour, Social affairs and Family, after the application form is submitted by the employer who intends to set up a sheltered workshop/sheltered workplace. The application form includes the description of work activities which would be performed by employees with disabilities, working conditions, the place in which the work will be performed. The approval of theb public health authority is also required.
Consequently, in order to adapt the workplace, the employer may apply for the allowance to set up a sheltered workshop or a sheltered workplace (§ 56 of the Act on Employment Services). The allowance can be used to cover the employer’s expenses related to establishing a sheltered workshop or to accommodate a sheltered workplace and to equip them with machines, facilities and work aids required for the job to be performed by a disabled employee. It is also intended to create a workplace as such, not just to adapt it in relation to one’s disability.
The employer who receives the allowance is obliged to keep the established workshop or workplace for at least two years. If a working contract with a person with disability for some reason terminates, the employer is required to recruit another person with disability for this workplace.
The level of funding to set up a sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace varies depending on the unemployment rate in each district where the workplace or workshop is set up compared to the national average unemployment rate, and can be between 4 and 5.2 fold the total labour costs, which are calculated on the basis of the national average wage including mandatory rental, social and health levies. In 2016, the monthly total labour costs were at EUR 1,161.35, i. e. the maximum level of the allowance was between EUR 4,646 for employers in districts where the unemployment rate is below the national average, and EUR 6,039 for employers in districts with the unemployment rate higher than the national average).
For those employers who do not have a status of sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace, there has been an allowance to maintain employees with disabilities at work (príspevok na udržanie osoby so zdravotným postihnutím v zamestnaní) clearly supporting employment in an open labour market. The allowance is a kind of a wage subsidy, and it may cover levy related costs of an employer. However, its provision is limited only to those employers whose total number of employees with disabilities comprises at least 25% of all employees. Another measure which is also available for employers employing people with disabilities in the open labour market is the work assistant allowance (príspevok na činnosť pracovného asistenta).
The amendment of the Act on Employment Services in 2013 brought several other significant changes. Firstly, some of the benefits are now provided without a legal claim of an applicant. The decision power has been granted to the employment committees (výbor pre otázky zamestnanosti), established by each of the district offices. The concerned benefits are the following: the allowance to establish a sheltered workshop or a sheltered workplace; the allowance to maintain an employee with disabilities at work; and the self-employment allowance. This change from obligatory to optional provision of some allowances has been highly discussed in Slovakia, and has led to a significant decrease of funding by one quarter (from EUR 40 870 000 in 2012 to EUR 30 223 061 in 2015). Consequently, the number of subsidised workplaces has decreased significantly. For more details, see European semester 2016/2017 country fiche on disability, available at the ANED website.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

F4. Financial incentives

Promoting the employment of people with disabilities in the Slovak Republic is implemented via: A. financial support for establishing the sheltered workshop or sheltered workplaces (see previous section on workplace adaptations); B. wage subsidies for disabled employees; C. financial support for self-employment; D. enforcement of employment quotas; E. tax concessions.

  • Wage subsidies (B) for disabled employees are regulated by the provisions of Article 50 of Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services. According to the legal provisions, an employer who employs a person disadvantaged in the labour market (as specified in the Act, also including people with disabilities) is entitled to a financial allowance for the salary of this employee. The allowance provision is regulated by the state aid rules and its monthly amount ranges from 25-40% of the total labour costs, calculated on the basis of the monthly national average wage. Maximum duration of the allowance ranges from 12 to 24 months, depending on how long the employee was registered at the district office as unemployed. The employer is required to maintain a job for twice as long as they receive the allowance, i.e. for another two years in case of receiving the allowance for 24 months. The responsible body for funding the allowance is the Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Funds for this purpose came in 2015 mainly from the ESF. This measure is of mainstream kind. In sheltered workshops and sheltered workplaces, more common type of support is the allowance available to partially cover operating expenses of sheltered workshops and sheltered workplaces which to some extent substitutes wage subsidies. The eligible operating expenses may include energies and rent, transportation of materials and products of the workshop, levies paid by employer for persons with disabilities and other administrative expenses. All these are eligible rather than refunded expenses, since the maximum support per one workplace is between 2.5- and 5-times of total labour costs (calculated on the monthly national average wage) annually (in 2016, between EUR 2,904 and EUR 5,807 once a year).

  • Financial support for self-employment of disabled persons (C) is provided under Article 57 of Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services, as amended. This is a lump-sum financial allowance to cover the costs associated with setting up self-employment. The level of allowance depends on the state aid rules and its amount varies between 3.2 and 4.8 fold of the total labour costs of the national average wage. Prior to receiving this allowance a disabled person is obliged to participate in entrepreneurship training and to develop a business plan. A person with disabilities who has received the allowance for self-employment is required to keep this activity for at least two years. The responsible body for the allowance is the Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Funds for this purpose come from the ESF and from the state budget.


  • Enforcement of employment quotas (D): according to Article 63 Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services, employers with more than 20 employees have an obligation to meet 3.2% employment target for disabled employees. Employers who do not directly employ persons with disabilities may perform this obligation in the following ways: by awarding the contract to the company that employs disabled employees or by awarding the contract to disabled persons who are self-employed; by buying the products or the services of sheltered workshops or sheltered workplaces, of disabled persons who are self-employed or of employers, who employ disabled employees. Employers who have not met the legal requirements must pay a financial penalty in the range of 0.9 times the total labour cost of the monthly national average wage for each employee with a disability who is missing to meet the mandatory quota that comprised EUR 1,045 in 2016. Whereas in 2012, 57.3% of employers met the quota by employing persons with disabilities, in 2015, the proportion increased up to 64.19%. However, this is also due to the decrease in the total number of employers employing more than 20 people (from 11,946 in 2012 to 11,394 in 2015). It is also worth mentioning that Slovakia is one of few countries where the financial resources of the penalty for non-compliance with the quota are not invested in the support of employment of PWD. Instead, they simply become a part of state budget (in accordance with § 65 of the Act on employment services).

  • Tax concession (E): disability compensation in the Slovak Republic is put into practice through a variety of measures, including a reduced rate of contributions to health insurance for employees with disabilities (2% of the tax base), self-employed persons with disabilities (7% of the tax base) and employers employing people with disabilities (5% of the tax base).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

In Slovakia, the co-ordination of disability related data collection at the national level remains rather limited - usually the data cannot be disaggregated by various types of disabilities. Though, there are several partial data sets, produced by the following institutions: Social Insurance Agency (data on disability pensions recipients); Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family and District Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (data on cash benefits recipients and employment services recipients with disabilities); Self-governing regional authorities, towns and municipalities (data on social services users with disabilities); Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic (data on employment within the quarterly conducted Labour Force Survey, including also persons with disabilities); The Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and its organisations (data on education of children with special educational needs); the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic and its organisations (data on health care users with disabilities). Besides that, the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic has set out a commitment in the National Disability Program for 2014-2020 (measure 4.17.1) to prepare the summarising document 'The information on developments of selected indicators related to social situation of persons with disabilities' (Informácia o vývoji vybraných ukazovateľov sociálnej situácie osôb so zdravotným postihnutím; Štatistický úrad SR). The document is supposed to be published annually to support the evaluation of the National Disability Programme. Its first issue was for the first time prepared in October 2015. In 2016, the Institute for Labour and Family Research as a body established by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family has prepared an analytical report based on these data, entitled Developments of social situation of persons with disabilities and their families: The report consists of four chapters dealing with the following agendas: health issues, social protection, education and employment of persons with disabilities.

There is a similar situation in the research field. There are several universities, public and private research institutions and civic society organisations conducting disability-related research and ad-hoc surveys, but without any coordination. One of the public institutions focusing on disability research is the Institute for Labour and Family Research. Since 2004 the Institute has carried out several disability-related research projects focused on the employment of persons with disabilities, living conditions of families with disabled members, work and care (work life balance), social rights and quality of life of informal carers and long term care for care dependent persons. By conducting this research, an intensive co-operation with civic society (mainly with the Slovak Disability Council) has been established.
Some disability-related research projects were also conducted by the Slovak National Centre for Human Rights as a national equality body. The Centre publishes annually a Report on the observance of human rights including the observance of the principle of equal treatment in the Slovak Republic. The Report focuses primarily on the adherence to human and social rights for various target groups, including persons with disabilities, in the context of anti-discrimination commitments in various living areas (e.g. in employment, education).
The complex research into the psychological aspects of child and youth development has been conducted by the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology. A key area of this research, among others, is mental development of children with disabilities.
Finally, since September 2015, Act No. 176/2015 Coll. on commissioner for children and commissioner for persons with disabilities has come into force. The commissioners are independent bodies whose task is to protect human rights of these people which are guaranteed to them by international treaties legally binding for the Slovak Republic (such as the UN CRPD). In its first annual report to the Parliament, the commissioner for persons with disabilities has also presented her findings from monitoring the observance of human rights of persons with disabilities in penal institutions.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

G2. Census data

The Census is one of the most important and most extensive surveys, carried out every ten years in the Slovak Republic. The latest Census took place in the period between 13 May and 6 June 2011. Persons with disabilities have not specifically been reported in the Census and the questionnaire did not include a specific question concerning health or disability.

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Update date: Tue, 2017-06-27

G3. Labour Force Survey

The Labour Force Survey has been carried out in Slovakia since 1994 by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Persons with disabilities are identified based upon the respondent response to the question concerning the granted status of disabled persons (question number 77 of the questionnaire type B for the members of the household). LFS results, including results related to disabled people, are processed quarterly and are published on the website of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. LFS provides employment and unemployment data for disabled people, disaggregated by gender. In 2011 the LFS Ad-hoc module on Employment of Disabled People was implemented.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-27

G4. Disability equality indicators

There is currently no system of indicators based on public data sources to monitor equality for persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to social services, transport and social inclusion. The development of equality indicators for people with disabilities is the responsibility of several ministries: the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Construction. The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family presently monitors the indicators of employment and unemployment for people with disabilities and publishes them in the annual Report on the Social Situation of the Population in the Slovak Republic.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-06-27

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

Several measures regarding awareness raising have been proposed in the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020:

Measure 4.1.1: to raise awareness about the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Action to be taken: to prepare information activities, presentations, conferences and campaigns focused on the UN CRPD; to ensure the distribution of information brochures to public administration authorities and the general public; to raise awareness among representatives of all ministries; develop cooperation among authorities to identify the target groups of the campaigns; and to present the best practice examples.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Government Office of the SR, Ministries, regional governments and NGOs.
Implementation date: continuously.

Measure 4.1.2: To raise awareness among professionals and the general public about the lives, rights and abilities of persons with disabilities
Action to be taken: To raise awareness among professionals and general public about the life of persons with disabilities via the public TV station, the Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS)
Responsible authority: RTVS in cooperation with the Council of RTVS.
Implementation date: continuously.
Proposer of the measure: Slovak Disability Council.

Measure 4.1.4: To raise awareness among professionals and general public about lives, rights and abilities of persons with disabilities via the libraries of the Ministry of Culture of the SR as an established authority. The goal is to eliminate barriers, to ensure equality of opportunities and to avoid discrimination and all forms of violence in this context.
Action to be taken: To provide the acquisitions of the disability topic study literature and elaborate a literature search on this topic. To organise discussions, exhibitions and other events raising public awareness about the lives of persons with disabilities, e.g. on the occasion of the International Day of People with Disability.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Culture of the SR in cooperation with the libraries established by the Ministry of Culture and regional government.
Implementation date: continuously.

Measure 4.1.5: To ensure accessibility of towns and villages for persons with disabilities
Action to be taken: To award towns and villages that ensure the comprehensive accessibility for persons with disabilities in all areas, including buildings, transportation and information and services.
Responsible authority: Association of Towns and Communities from Slovakia, The Union of Towns and Cities of Slovakia in cooperation with the selected Ministries (Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development).
Implementation date: annually.
Proposer of the measure: Institute for Labour and Family Research (IVPR).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-09-12

H2. Training for teachers

At many universities that prepare students for a teaching profession, disability issues are included in the general curriculum via such courses, as for instance, the integration of pupils/students with disabilities. There are also study programmes on special pedagogy addressing concrete types of disabilities, i. e. education of pupils with visual impairment, with intellectual disabilities, etc. Further training/lifelong learning for teachers as well as guidelines which support disability awareness of teachers are provided especially by Slovak Institute of Pedagogy. These programs include training concerning integration of pupils with special needs in regular schools, special pedagogy, school integration, conditions, starting points and basic processes of integration and education towards human rights. The trainers are from different fields (e.g. universities, NGOs, schools).
The issue of awareness raising in schools is discussed in the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020 in Measure 4.1.3: to focus the school policy and practice on the issues of anti-discrimination, diversity, equal treatment and to implement it into the educational programmes at all levels of educational system.
Action to be taken: To support and implement educational programmes and presentations focused on the issue of disability and respect for human rights.
Responsible authority: the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the relevant public research institutions and regional government.
Schedule: continuously.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

H3. Training for lawyers

At the majority of universities that prepare legal professionals, disability issues, especially the UNCRPD, are included in the general curriculum via the topics of International law and European law. Further training is provided for judges, prosecutors, officers of justice and other court staff, who are trained in the field of International law (including the UNCRPD), European law, the relationship between international and European law (including regulations and recommendations), the examples of relevant judgements of the European court of human rights and practical and implementation problems, in connection with practice of the courts. Disabled peoples organisations are not involved in the process of further education.
The training of lawyers has also been addressed by the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in its Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Slovakia which were adopted at its 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) in a following way:
„42. The Committee further recommends that the State party provide mandatory training to all personnel in the justice, administration and law enforcement sectors on:
(a) The rights enshrined in the Convention, including participation on an equal basis with others regardless of legal capacity status;
(b) Procedural accommodation in the legal process;
(c) Reasonable accommodation;
(d) The combating of harmful gender and disability stereotypes."

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

H4. Training for doctors

Training for doctors is provided only in the frame of their postgraduate study (called specialised division), especially for general practitioners and assessment doctors. An important part of their training is information concerning Slovak and international legislation in the field of disability issues, including the UN CRPD. Organisations of persons with disabilities are not involved as trainers. The Medical Faculty in Bratislava within its Institute of social medicine provides training for doctors with different specialisation in the area of disability issues.
Likewise, the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has also emphasised the need to promote training on disability related issues for medical staff, in the Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Slovakia which were adopted at the 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) in a following way: "70. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party provide training for all health and social care personnel on the rights enshrined in the Convention."

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-08-16

H5. Training for engineers

Students of architecture and urban planning at the Faculty of Architecture, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava get knowledge and skills about the principles of barrier-free design and requirements on their safe and barrier-free usage within the specific courses, e.g. 'Residential Buildings'; 'Public Buildings'.
In June 2007, CEDA (Centre of Design for All) has been founded at the same faculty. Its main mission is to:

  • Participate in relevant standardization work with national, European and international standard bodies;
  • Provide research by collaborating, conducting and commissioning national and international projects and by active attending conferences, seminars and workshops;
  • Encourage compliance with national and international standards in Design for All;
  • Ensure the development of appropriate Design for All - Universal Design courses in cooperation with academic, professional and relevant state bodies;
  • Promote the introduction and integration of the principles of Universal Design in university curricula at each level of study (bachelor, master and postgraduate level);
  • Offer a professional consultancy to the people in difficulties caused by built-environment barriers;
  • Promote understanding of Design for All by organizing the courses for professionals involved in accomplishment of built-environment.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-26

H6. International development aid

Priorities in the international co-operation are set out in the new National Disability Programme 2014-2020. The Slovak Republic and the member states should enforce the rights of persons with disabilities in the external activities. Slovakia will support the initiatives to tackle disability issues in the dialogues with non-member states. Where it is appropriate the disability issues and the UN Convention implementation will be included. The Akkra commitments on the effective help will be taken into account. The commitment on the disability issues will be supported at the international forums (UN, Council of Europe, OECD).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-06-26

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                    [level] => 2
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                    [path] => 
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 22
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
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            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 24
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 25
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
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            [22] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [level] => 2
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                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
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                    [path] => 
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            [25] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [ordering] => 28
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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        )

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                    [access] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 3
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                    [ordering] => 4
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
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                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 16
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                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 18
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                    [lft] => 33
                    [rgt] => 40
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 19
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                    [lft] => 34
                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [lft] => 36
                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 21
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                    [lft] => 38
                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [title] => D. Independent living
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [children] => 0
                )

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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
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                    [children] => 0
                )

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                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => e-education
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 5
                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [lft] => 60
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 33
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 62
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [32] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 34
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 35
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [29] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Slovakia
                    [location_id] => 29
                    [location_slug] => slovakia
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => The president of the Slovak Republic signed the Convention on 26 September 2007. In March 2010 the Slovak parliament announced the agreement for ratification of the Convention and on 28 April 2010 the president of the Slovak Republic ratified the Convention. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 May 2010. In accordance with Article No. 45/2 the Convention entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 25 June 2010. An announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic about adoption of the Convention in the Slovak Republic was published in the Collection under No. 317/2010 Coll.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-05-07 16:15:18
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => No. 317/2010 Coll. Announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                                    [url] => http://www.olaf.vlada.gov.sk/data/files/6636.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => In March 2010 the Slovak parliament announced the agreement for ratification of the Optional Protocol. On 28 April 2010 the president of the Slovak Republic ratified the Optional Protocol. The ratification deed was deposited by the Secretary-General of the UN on 26 May 2010. In accordance with Article No. 13/2 the Optional Protocol entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 25 June 2010. An announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic about adoption of the Optional Protocol in the Slovak Republic was published in the Collection under No. 318/2010 Coll.
                                    [update_date] => 2015-05-07 16:31:18
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => No. 317/2010 Coll. Announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                                    [url] => http://www.olaf.vlada.gov.sk/data/files/6636.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => In accordance with Article 46 of the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and Article 19 of the Vienna convention on the law of treaties, the Slovak Republic shall apply the provision of Article 27(1) on the condition that the implementation of the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disability in setting conditions of recruitment, hiring and employment shall not apply in the case of recruitment for service as a member of the armed forces, armed security forces, armed corps, the National Security Office, the Slovak Information Service and the Fire and Rescue Corps.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => No. 317/2010 Coll. Announcement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                                    [url] => http://www.olaf.vlada.gov.sk/data/files/6636.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => In preparation for ratification and also for implementation of the UN Convention, a comprehensive review of existing legislation in all different legal areas (e.g. education, health, transport and social security) was prepared. The main aim of the legal analysis was to review the accordance of the Slovak Republic legislation with the obligations of the UN Convention.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:20:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.nrsr.sk/Default.aspx?sid=zakony/cpt&ZakZborID=13&CisObdobia=4&ID=1494
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => With an aim to implement and coordinate activities related to the present CRPD the Slovak government decided to set up at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak republic the central focal point (hereinafter only the 'CFP'). Since April 2013 the CFP became an organizational part of the Ministry's Department on Integration of Persons with Disabilities. This authority cooperates with other state administration bodies (notably with secondary focal points working at other relevant ministries, e.g. Ministries for education, health issues, finance, culture, regional developments, etc.), with governmental administrations and civic society organisations in order to implement the CRPD and to coordinate preparation of the national report under Article 35 of the CRPD.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-22 15:43:28
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Third Disability High Level Group report on the implementation of the UNCRPD in the Member States (2010)
                                                    [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=5070&langId=en
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The main focal point for the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/kontaktne-miesto-prava-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Contacts, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/zoznam-sekundarnych-kontaktnych-miest.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The Slovak Government decided to set up the central focal point (hereinafter only the 'CFP') at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak republic. From March 2013 on the CFP became an organizational part of the Ministry's Department on Integration of Persons with Disabilities. This authority cooperates with other state administration bodies (notably with secondary focal points working at other relevant ministries, e.g. ministries for education, health issues, finance, culture, regional developments, etc.), with governmental administrations and civic society organizations in order to implement the CRPD; and to coordinate the preparation of the national report under Article 35 of the CRPD. Within its coordination function the central focal point issued in 2015 the interim report 'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National disability program for October 2014 – March 2015' (Odpočet plnenia časovo aktuálnych opatrení Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 (október 2014 – marec 2015). Subsequently, the comprehensive document entitled 'The Report on fulfilling the provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating' (Správa o plnení opatrení vyplývajúcich z Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 a návrh na jeho aktualizáciu) was completed in 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-16 13:47:43
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The main focal point for the implementation of the UN CRPD
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/kontaktne-miesto-prava-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Interim Report 'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National disability program for October 2014 – March 2015'
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/odpocet-plnenia-casovo-aktualnych-opatreni-narodneho-programu-k-marcu-2015.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Third Disability High Level Group report on the implementation of the UNCRPD in the Member States (2010)
                                                    [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=5070&langId=en
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report on fulfilling the provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating
                                                    [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/sprava-plneni-opatreni-vyplyvajucich-z-nprzpozp-2014-2016-navrhom-jeho-aktualizaciu.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => In September 2015 the Act No. 176/2015 Coll. on commissioner for children and commissioner for persons with disabilities came into legal force (zákon o komisárovi pre deti a komisárovi pre osoby so zdravotným postihnutím a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov). In November the commissioner for persons with disability was approved in the National Council of the Slovak republic. The commissioner's office started work in March 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-16 13:50:08
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 176/2015 Coll.
                                                    [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2015-176
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Commissioner for persons with disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.komisarprezdravotnepostihnutych.sk/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The first official Slovak report to the UN Convention (Východisková správa SR k Dohovoru o právach osôb so zdravotným postihnutím) was submitted in June 2012 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic to the Permanent Mission in Geneva in due date. A preliminary meeting to evaluate the report was held in Geneva on 8 September 2015. Consequently the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities issued on 11 September 2015 the List of 33 issues in relation to the initial report of Slovakia. In November – December 2015 the process to answer the list was organised. The constructive dialogue between the Governmental representatives of the Slovak Republic and the UN Committee was held on 4-5 April 2016. As a result, the Committee issued its Concluding Observations on the initial report of Slovakia adopted by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities at its 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) which contains about 40 recommendations for the government to ensure proper implementation of the UN CRPD in Slovakia.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-16 13:56:08
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=158&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The UN Convention and Alternative Report
                                                    [url] => http://dohovor.nrozp.sk/dohovor/dohovor-osn-a-alternativna-sprava.html
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=158
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Announcement by Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Oznámenie Ministerstva zahraničných vecí Slovenskej republiky)
                                                    [url] => http://www.zbierka.sk/zz/predpisy/default.aspx?PredpisID=209801&FileName=zz2010-00317-0209801&Rocnik=2010
                                                )

                                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => 'Slovakia on the agenda of the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities'
                                                    [url] => https://www.slovenskypacient.sk/slovensko-na-programe-vyboru-osn-pre-prava-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim/
                                                )

                                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => First report to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/files/vychodiskova-sprava-sr-k-dohovoru-pravach-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim.pdf
                                                )

                                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Concluding observations on the initial report of Slovakia
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC%2fSVK%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => The Slovak National Disability Council prepared the Alternative report to identify gaps and weaknesses of the CRPD implementation in Slovakia. The Report was sent to the UN Committee on 31 July 2015. Main recommendations were formulated, including such areas as reasonable accommodation and universal design, legal capacities issues, deinstitutionalisation, early intervention services, support of employment, or social protection issues. Another Alternative report was prepared by the Slovak National Centre for Human Rights. It formulated totally 12 recommendations to enforce human rights of persons with disabilities in Slovakia, namely in area of legal capacity, independent mechanism (setting up the commissionaire for persons with disabilities), accessibility, education, employment and operation of the focal point office.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-09 17:09:19
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=158&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Alternative Report of Non-Governmental and Disability Persons Organisations
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCRPD%2fICO%2fSVK%2f21305&Lang=en
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => According to the Slovak Constitution (Act No. 460/1992 Coll., as amended) 'the basic rights and freedoms are guaranteed for all in Slovakia, regardless of their gender, race, skin colour, language, belief and religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, adherence to nationality or ethnic group, property, birth or other status. Nobody can be advantaged or disadvantaged on the aforementioned bases'. There is no explicit prohibition to discriminate against somebody on the basis of disability. However, in accordance with Article 38 of the Constitution, the rights of persons with disabilities are 'extra' protected with regard to health and working conditions, labour relationships and vocational training. Specifics of how to exercise the aforementioned 'extra' rights are detailed in specific laws (e.g. Labour Code, Employment Services Act). Another important piece of anti-discriminatory legislation is Act No. 365/2004 Coll. on equal treatment in some selected areas and protection against discrimination. In the basic section 2 it is constituted that 'adherence to the equal treatment principle lies in prohibition of discrimination on the basis of ... disability...'. As a discrimination on the basic of a disability even so a discrimination based on a former disability or a discrimination related to a person with some external symptoms of a disability, is accounted. The Act in section 8 sets up so called 'admissible unequal treatment'. Concerning disability, the admissible unequal treatment refers to the area of employment and to the provision of insurance services/products. Unequal treatment in employment is not considered as discrimination where specific requirements for performing some professions are established. In the case of insurance services/products, unequal treatment is not considered as discrimination when there is some degree of risk, which is verifiable by statistical or other evidence, and conditions for insurance services are reasonable to this risk. From another side, as a discrimination some temporarily provided affirmative provisions supporting access of some disadvantaged groups of people (including people with disabilities) to employment, education, health care or housing, are not accounted.
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-17 19:37:03
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 460/1992 Coll. Constitution of the Slovak Republic (Ústava Slovenskej republiky)
                                                    [url] => http://www.zbierka.sk/zz/predpisy/default.aspx?PredpisID=12045&FileName=92-z460&Rocnik=1992
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 365/2004 Coll. on equal treatment in some selected areas and protection against discrimination (Antidiscrimination Act) (Zákon č. 365/2004 Z.z. o rovnakom zaobchádzaní v niektorých oblastiach a o ochrane pred diskrimináciou (Antidiskriminačný zákon)) 
                                                    [url] => http://jaspi.justice.gov.sk/jaspiw1/htm_zak/jaspiw_mini_zak_zobraz_clanok1.asp?kotva=k1&skupina=1
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => In 2015 Slovakia has made a very significant step towards implementation of the Guardianship reform. The Slovak National Council approved in 2015 Act No. 161/2015 the Civic out-of -dispute code (Občiansky mimosporový poriadok) which will come into legal force since July 2016. Up to this date the court may restrict a person’s legal capacity according to section 10 of the Civil Code (No. 40/1964 Coll., and its amendments) so that he/she is unable to act legally due to his/her mental disorder. This relates generally to persons with intellectual disabilities and mental conditions as a result of impairment to the central nervous system (e.g. Alzheimer’s, organic psycho-syndrome) or mental conditions of uncertain cause (e.g. schizophrenia, manic-depression and autism). However, these persons are, even with full or partial restriction of legal capacity, legal subjects. This means that the Civil Code differs between the capacity to have the rights and the capacity to act independently. In deciding on deprivation of legal capacity or its restriction the court shall appoint a guardian for those who have been deprived of legal capacity or whose legal capacity has been restricted. The court monitors the guardian’s work and evaluates his/her performances at least twice a year. Since July 2016 the court may within a process only restrict his/her legal capacity (Articles No. 231-251). Within the process an active inclusion of a person whose legal capacity is in a question, is guaranteed. To complete the Guardianship reform an amendment of the Civil Code (Article 10) is necessary to adopt.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-03 14:45:03
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => No. 40/1964 Coll. Civil Code (Občiansky zákonník)
                                                    [url] => http://www.vyvlastnenie.sk/predpisy/obciansky-zakonnik/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => No. 161/2015 the Civic out -of - dispute code (Občiansky mimosporový poriadok):
                                                    [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2015-161
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [15] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                                    [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                                    [theme_id] => 15
                                    [contents] => National legislation concerning elections (including elections for the European Parliament) and referendum guarantees election rights for voters with disabilities. However there is a full legal barrier to the right to vote for persons with a loss of legal capacity. Such persons do not have the right to vote or to be voted. For persons with full legal capacity, in spite of disability, conditions for applying election rights are created so that the voter does not need to go to the polling station. The decision to vote from home is taken by a person with a disability. In such cases, members of the polling Electoral Committee bring the ballot card and envelope and they have to guarantee confidentiality of voting. A voter with a disability also has the right to ask another voter to adjust the ballot card according to his instructions and to place the ballot card in the envelope and into the ballot box. Such a person must not be a member of the polling Electoral Committee. Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic announced in August 2013 Basic principles of drafted acts on elections, elections campaign and political parties (Základné princípy navrhovaných právnych úprav k voľbám, volebnej kampani a politickým stranám). Consequently, a new Voting Act came into force since July 2014 which unified conditions for exercising voting rights for all types of elections.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-04-22 16:42:29
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 180/2014 Coll. on conditions to exercise voting right (Zákon o podmienkach výkonu volebného práva a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov) 
                                                    [url] => http://jaspi.justice.gov.sk/jaspiw1/htm_zak/jaspiw_mini_zak_zobraz_clanok1.asp?kotva=k3&skupina=1
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Basic principles of drafted acts on elections, elections campaign and political parties (Základné princípy navrhovaných právnych úprav k voľbám, volebnej kampani a politickým stranám): 
                                                    [url] => http://www.minv.sk/?tlacove-spravy&sprava=zakladne-principy-navrhovanych-pravnych-uprav-k-volbam-volebnej-kampani-a-politickym-stranam
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [16] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                                    [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                                    [theme_id] => 16
                                    [contents] => Act No. 149/1995 Coll. on sign language for deaf persons includes general conditions for implementing the right of deaf persons to use sign language: to be educated in sign language; to have interpreters of sign language in certain situations (such as with a public authority, municipality, regional offices and with other legal entities or persons); to obtain information via sign language e.g. on TV. Providing interpretation for sign language is free of charge. Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services addresses conditions concerning communication for blind-deaf persons and persons with hearing disabilities; Section 44 establishes three types of interpreting services (spoken language, sign language and tactile communication). The Act on Social Services requires that any person wishing to act as an interpreter must hold certain qualifications (certification of interpretation as a minimum).
                                    [update_date] => 2014-04-17 19:38:24
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 149/1995 Coll. on the Sign Language of the Deaf (Zákon o posunkovej reči nepočujúcich osôb)
                                                    [url] => http://www.minedu.sk/data/USERDATA/Legislativa/Zakony/1995_149.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services (Zákon o sociálnych službách) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/index.php?SMC=1&id=15429
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [17] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                                    [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                                    [theme_id] => 17
                                    [contents] => In January 2014 the Slovak government approved the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020 (full title: The National Program on Improving living conditions of persons with disabilities 2014-2020; Národný program rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014-2020). The Programme consists of a set of measures elaborated in 19 areas (e.g. health care, employment, education, rehabilitation, cultural life, political and civil participation) which fulfilment is regularly evaluated. Within its coordination function the central focal point issued in 2015 the interim report 'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National Disability Programme for the period of October 2014 – March 2015' (Odpočet plnenia časovo aktuálnych opatrení Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 (október 2014 – marec 2015). Subsequently, the comprehensive document 'The Report on fulfilling provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating' (Správa o plnení opatrení vyplývajúcich z Národného programu rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014 – 2020 a návrh na jeho aktualizáciu) was completed in 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-06-26 11:56:18
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The National Programme on Improving living conditions of persons with disabilities 2014-2020 (Národný program rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2014-2020)
                                                    [url] => http://www.rokovania.sk/File.aspx/ViewDocumentHtml/Mater-Dokum-162002?prefixFile=m_
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The main focal point for the implementation of the UN CRPD
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/kontaktne-miesto-prava-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] =>  'Deduction of fulfilling the time-scheduled provisions of the National disability program for the period of October 2014 – March 2015'
                                                    [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/odpocet-plnenia-casovo-aktualnych-opatreni-narodneho-programu-k-marcu-2015.pdf
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Report on fulfilling provisions of the National disability program for 2014-2015 and a draft for its updating
                                                    [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/sprava-plneni-opatreni-vyplyvajucich-z-nprzpozp-2014-2016-navrhom-jeho-aktualizaciu.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [19] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 19
                                    [contents] => The regulations of the European Parliament and Council, containing obligations relating to transport, airport terminals, ports, railway and bus stations, including technical equipment for enabling access to transportation for persons with disabilities, and the building of acoustic and visual information systems for people with disabilities are implemented in the Slovak legislation (e.g. Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2006 and Regulation (EC) No. 1371/2007). 
The National Disability Programme for the years 2014-2020 in Measure 4.3.6. 'Systematically improve accessibility of the public transport vehicles and transport infrastructure' sets the following actions to be taken: 'To increase number of barrier-free public transport vehicles; To ensure information systems for persons with sensorial impairments in all new vehicles (bus stop voice notification for persons with visual impairment; visual screens for persons with hearing impairments); Systematically improve accessibility of bus stations, rail stations and airports.'
Responsible authority: The Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic

Road Transport: The legislation regulating road transport (Act No. 56/2012 Coll. on Road Transport, as amended) pays special attention to people with disabilities. At first, the special rights and duties of passengers with disabilities and passengers with reduced mobility are part of the transport regulation which contains the details about the rights and duties of the transport authority and the passengers. Secondly, a passenger with disability with a guided dog or a passenger with reduced mobility has the right for a reserved place in the vehicle. Thirdly, technical standards on transportation of passengers with disabilities and passengers with reduced mobility are part of the 'Agreement on Services' signed between the customer and provider of the public transport services. Finally, the existing transport infrastructure (bus waiting rooms and bus stops) must take into account the requirements for barrier-free access for persons with disabilities. Otherwise, the owners or providers of this transport infrastructure are in a risk of a fine ranging from EUR 1,000 to EUR 15,000.

Railway Transport: According to the Railways Act, No. 513/2009 Coll. as amended, the rail infrastructure and railway cars have to be accessible for persons with disabilities and persons with reduced mobility in order to provide their barrier-free access to transportation on an equal basis with others. At the stations, stops and platform the rail provider is obliged to introduce and maintain the information system necessary for passengers' orientation, including the passengers with visual impairment and the passenger with hearing impairment. The rail provider is also obliged to ensure that the station, stops and platform are accessible to persons with physical disability. The provider who does not keep these rules can be charged a fine ranging from EUR 800 to EUR 10,000.

According to the Decree No. 351/2010 Coll. on railway transport rules, visual information about the train timetable have to be accessible via acoustic, tactile and visible elements used by persons with sensory impairments. Detailed measures for transportation of persons with disabilities are set in separate transportation rules. According to these rules, a person with disability or a person with reduced mobility can request assistance during the travel. However, he/she has to apply for assistance at least 24 hours in advance and arrive at the station no later than 30 minutes before the train's departure. The railway services provide reduced fare rates for persons with severe disabilities and free transportation for guardians/assistants of persons with disabilities.

Air transport: Act No. 143/1998 Coll. on civil aviation imposes on the carrier the obligation to mitigate the travelling of persons with disabilities. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:04:42 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving the Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 56/2012 Coll. on Road Transport, as amended [Zákon č. 56/2012 Z. z. o cestnej doprave] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2012-56 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Railways Act, No. 513/2009 Coll. as amended [Zákon č. 513/2009 Z. z. o dráhach a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2009-513 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 351/2010 Coll. on railway transport rules [Vyhláška č. 351/2010 Z. z. o o dopravnom poriadku dráh] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2010-351 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Transport rules of the Railway company Slovakia [Prepravný poriadok Železničnej spoločnosti Slovensko a.s.] [url] => http://www.slovakrail.sk/uploads/tx_main/2016/07/01/PP_ZSSK_vydanie_7_so_zaprac_zmenou_3_od_2016-07-01_zvyraznene_zmeny.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 143/1998 Coll. on civil aviation as amended [Zákon č. 143/1998 Z. z. o civilnom letectve (letecký zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/1998-143 ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => There are two approaches on how to ensure accessibility of the built environment for persons with disabilities:

  1. Provisions within general building conditions: Act No. 50/1976 Coll. On Land-use Planning and Building (the Building Act), as amended, incorporates, in Section 47 and the following paragraphs, the binding nature of the general technical requirements for the constructions used by persons with reduced mobility, specifying the requirements for territorial-technical design of the construction development and for the specific design of construction. Legal entities, natural persons, state administration and self-administrating bodies shall follow these requirements in the phase of positioning, designing, approving, execution, final building approval, exploitation and removal of the construction.

More detailed requirements to ensure a barrier-free environment are set up in Decree No. 532/2002 Coll., as amended laying down details on the general technical requirements for the construction and general technical requirements for the constructions used by persons with reduced mobility and orientation. The Decree is applied in the design and approval of the local field plan, during the positioning, designing, approval, execution and use of the construction and in the phase of changes of the construction (extension, super structure, construction adaptation). There are explicit requirements for making buildings useable for persons with reduced mobility, for blind and partially sighted persons and for hearing impaired persons.
  1. Individualised provisions: The individualised provisions are set up in Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments to compensate consequences of severe disabilities. This refers specifically to direct payment for dwelling and garage adaptation (Section 37 of the Act) being provided to persons with severe disabilities to adapt their apartment, house or garage to make them more friendly for free moving or communication. Provision of this type of direct payment is needs and means (income, property) tested.

Regarding the built environment accessibility the following measures have been set in the new National Disability Programme for 2014-2020:

Measure 4.3.4.: to ensure barrier-free buildings for state and local government and public institutions
Actions to be taken:

  1. To ensure in all public administration buildings (state and local government) the identification of barriers which are in conflict with barrier-free policies and laws. To elaborate a 5-year period action plan with priorities for elimination of the identified barriers.
  2. To ensure financial resources for elimination of the identified barriers in accordance with the action plan. At the end of the 5-year period to ensure regular monitoring of physical accessibility in these buildings via internal audit in the institution or via other designated authority. Schedule: 2015-2020 Responsible authority: national government institutions (Ministries) and local government in cooperation with NGOs.

Measure 4.3.5: to ensure the accessibility of new buildings and areas for public utilisation / activities.
Action to be taken: to specify requirements for application of the principles of the barrier-free environment set out in the Building Act, and of universal design as described in the European documents. Schedule: 2015 Responsible authority: Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak Technical University Proposer of the measure: Slovak Disability Council. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:08:23 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving the Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 50/1976 Coll. On Land-use Planning and Building (the Building Act) [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/1976-50 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 532/2002 Coll., as amended [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2002-532 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments to compensate consequences of severe disabilities [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-447#cl1-cast3 ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => Under Article 26 of the Slovak Constitution (Act 460 of 1992, as amended) the right to information is guaranteed 'to everyone'. Public authorities are obliged to provide information in certain ways that are specified in Act No. 275/2006 Coll., as amended, on informational systems of public administration (Zákon o informačných systémoch verejnej správy). The Act constitutes rights and obligations of the public authorities to set up, administrate, use and develop information systems of public administration. Main responsibilities in this field are with the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic. To implement tasks in this field, the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic issued Regulation 55/2014 Coll. on standards for informational systems of public administration as amended (Výnos o štandardoch pre informačné systémy verejnej správy v znení neskorších predpisov).
Annex 1 'Standards of web accessibility' includes all standards for web accessibility corresponding with required international standards in this field.
Act No. 305/2013 on e-Government as amended regulates the public administration electronically via access points, common modules and agenda systems. Article 4 requires that all access points, common modules and agenda systems are accessible to people with disabilities.

Regarding ICT and web accessibility the following measures have been set in the National Disability Programme for the years 2014-2020:
Measure 4.3.1: To monitor and analyse the situation in web accessibility of public administration institutions, mainly in order to get evidence for further improvements in this area.
Action to be taken: To monitor the web accessibility according to WCAG 2.0 standards and their impact on the provision of the public administration services.
Schedule: continuously.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Finances of the Slovak Republic.

Measure 4.3.2: To ensure accessibility of the legislation portal.
Action to be taken: to ensure the accessibility of the legislation portal and the documents published there in accordance with the accessibility standards set out in the relevant acts.
Schedule: continuously.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic.

Measure 4.3.3: To build integrated operating places to provide assisted electronic services also to persons with disabilities.
Action to be taken: The goal of the Operational Programme on Informatization of Society is the development of the e-Government and electronic services at the local and regional levels.

Regarding print material, on 1 January 2016 the new Author’s Act No. 185/2015 Coll. came into force. According to Article 46 making publications accessible for persons with disabilities without the author’s agreement is not considered as the copyright infringement. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:14:16 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 275/2006 Coll. on informational systems of public administration as amended [Zákon č. 275/2006 Z. z. Zákon o informačných systémoch verejnej správy a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2006-275/znenie-20170401 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regulation No. 55/2014 Coll. on standards for informational systems of public administration as amended [Výnos č. 55/2014 Z. z. Výnos Ministerstva financií Slovenskej republiky o štandardoch pre informačné systémy verejnej správy] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2014-55/znenie-20160701 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 305/2013 on e-Government as amended [Zákon č. 305/2013 Z. z. Zákon o elektronickej podobe výkonu pôsobnosti orgánov verejnej moci a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov (zákon o e-Governmente)] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2013-305/znenie-20170301 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 185/2015 Coll. (the Author’s Act) [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2015-185/znenie-20160701#cast2-hlava4 ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => Persons with disabilities are not obliged to live in particular living arrangements; Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services, in section 6, guarantees the right of a person to choose the form of social service (in his/her own dwelling, community home, ambulant or institutional). This means that only the persons themselves can decide (or his/her parents or guardian, appointed by court) when and where they want to live. This act also gives preference to community-home and ambulant social services rather than institutional services. The Civil Procedure Act regulates the admission and stay of people who are placed in health care institutions. A ruling by a court of law is necessary for institutional admission against a person’s will. In case if the client is in an institution, the providers of social services are obliged to cooperate with the family, municipality or community with the aim of creating conditions that will enable the person with disabilities to return to the community. This ambition is embodied within the National priorities of social services development for 2015-2020 (Národné priority rozvoja sociálnych služieb na roky 2015-2020). Besides social services, there are other measures previewed to support/facilitate the person to live in his/her community (e.g. personal assistance). [update_date] => 2017-06-26 12:48:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Social Services [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2008-448 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National priorities of social services development for 2015-2020 (Národné priority rozvoja sociálnych služieb na roky 2015-2020) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/rodina-socialna-pomoc/socialne-sluzby/narodne-priority-rozvoja-socialnych-sluzieb.html ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => The Government of the Slovak Republic by regulation no. 761/2011 approved on 30 November 2011 the Strategy for deinstitutionalization of the social services system and substitute care in Slovakia (DI Strategy). Subsequently, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic approved in December 2011 the National Action Plan for the transition from institutional to community-based care in the social services system 2012-2015 (DI National Action Plan) and in September 2016 the National action plan for the years 2016-2020. The DI Strategy and the DI National Action Plans have been developed in cooperation with a broadly-based working group of experts in the field of social services and substitute care. The main vision and aim of the Slovak policy for the transition from institutional to community living arrangements is to create conditions for independent and free living in a natural community environment with an available, effective and coordinated network of services provided with respect to human rights and equal opportunities, in the context of the individual needs of all recipients (children, elderly persons, persons with disabilities) of social services. Some of the key rules for this policy are: respect for the rights of recipients and their participation in decisions; prevention of institutionalization; closing of institutions; change of legislation; holistic access; awareness raising; staff training; evaluation of the quality of social services; coordination of key actors etc. Slovakia has been planning and implementing the whole process with the resources of the European Fund for Regional Development and European Social Fund (the OP Employment and Social Inclusion, next the OP Human Resources) in accordance with the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 and UN CPRD (e.g. Article 19). It should be highlighted that both the present Act on social services and new National Priorities of the Social Services Development for the years 2015-2020 include important measures supporting changes from institutions to community living (e.g. the right to choose the form and place of the social service; obligation on providers to cooperate with the family, municipality and community to prevent long-term stay of dependent persons in residential care and to create conditions for returning to a natural family environment; preference of social facilities with a capacity lower than 40 beds that is viewed as a community-friendly principle; support for users to remain in their natural environment/community via development of community-based social interventions; development of out-patient and weekly basis social services to enable persons with disabilities to maintain relations with their family members, friends, neighbours and to support their inclusion into society in all life areas, e.g. labour market, education, leisure time). To support the implementation of all these new principles the national project 'Support of deinstitutionalisation and transformation process in social services system' was running in 2013-2015 within which seven residential care providers were included. Presently, a new phase of the national DI project is under preparation to extend the DI principles into practice on about 90 new residential care providers. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:18:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on social services (No. 448/2008 Coll.), as amended [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2008-448 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Priorities of the Social Services Development for 2015-2020 (Národné priority rozvoja sociálnych služieb na roky 2015-2020) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/socialne-sluzby/nprss-2015-2020.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National project 'Support of deinstitutionalisation and tranformation process in social services system' (Podpora procesu deinštitucionalizácie a transformácie systému sociálnych služieb) [url] => https://www.ia.gov.sk/sk/narodne-projekty/programove-obdobie-2007-2013/narodny-projekt-di/zakladne-informacie-npdi ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan for the transition from institutional to community-based care in the social services system for 2012–2015 [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/files/legislativa/dokumenty-zoznamy-pod/narodny-plan-deinstitucionalizacie_en.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Operational Program Human Resources [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/esf/programove-obdobie-2014-2020/operacny-program-ludske-zdroje/ ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan for the transition from institutional to community-based care in the social services system for 2016-2020 [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/files/rodina-soc-pomoc/soc-sluzby/narodny-akcny-plan-prechodu-z-institucionalnej-komunitnu-starostlivost-systeme-socialnych-sluzieb-roky-2016-2020.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => In Slovakia, a mechanism for ensuring the quality of social services, in Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on social services, as amended, has been established. The Act came into legal force in January 2009, although the section referring to quality issues (including quality indicators) came into force later, in January 2014. Finally, the date for the implementation of the quality evaluation was postponed to January 2018, due to lack of funds and organisational support. In section 104, and the related Annex 2 of the Act, the rules for evaluation of social services are established. According to Annex 2, the four areas (aspects) of quality conditions are evaluated: (1) enforcement of human rights and freedoms (e.g. rules about how to respect human dignity of clients, how to protect them against discrimination and poor treatment, how to respect their individuality, natural/community based sources, relationships and needs); (2) procedural quality conditions (e.g. ways and rules about how to elaborate, implement or revise a client’s individual plan of social services, how to provide potential clients with necessary information in an accessible format, how to monitor the client's satisfaction with a provided service and harmony between the service and the client's needs); (3) personnel quality conditions (e.g. criteria/approaches for selecting staff, for further education of staff and for evaluation and rewarding staff work); and finally, (4) operational quality conditions (e.g. barrier-free environment of service, ensuring all conditions for administering service process, maintaining human dignity of recipients and providers, rules for dealing with emergency situations, securing personal data, informational strategy of the social service provider). Evaluation of the conditions for quality of social services will be provided since 2018 by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic through its state servants, in collaboration with other independent experts who must have a minimum of three years expertise in the field being evaluated. When a certain social service provider receives in its evaluation less than 60% of all points it means he does not meet quality conditions. The results of quality assessments will be announced by the Ministry in the Central register of social service providers. When the provider does not improve the situation in a set deadline, the Ministry can remove the provider from the Register. In order to support social service providers in a process of quality conditions implementation, the Ministry in collaboration with the Institute for Labour and Family Research and with a broadly grounded working group prepared in 2015 the document 'Implementation of quality conditions into social services practice – methodological backgrounds' (Implementácia podmienok kvality do praxe poskytovateľov sociálnych služieb – metodické východiská). The methodological work continued in 2016 with the aim to prepare document for future evaluators titled as 'Evaluation of quality conditions of provided social services – methodological backgrounds: draft' (Hodnotenie podmienok kvality poskytovaných sociálnych služieb – metodické východiská: návrh). [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:21:08 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on social services (Zákon o sociálnych službách) [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2008-448 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => 'Implementation of quality conditions into social services practice – methodological backgrounds' [url] => http://www.ceit.sk/IVPR/images/IVPR/vyskum/2015/Repkova/repkova_implementacia_podmienok_kvality_2015.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => 'Evaluation of quality conditions of provided social services – methodological backgrounds draft' [url] => http://www.ceit.sk/IVPR/images/IVPR/vyskum/2016/Repkova/repkova_hodnotenie_podmienok_kvality.pdf ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => There are two approaches to provide disabled persons with necessary assistive devices to live at home as independently as possible:

  1. Assistive devices for disabled persons with various types and degrees of functional impairments are provided from the health insurance fund under Act No. 140/1998 Coll. on medications and medical devices (Zákon o liekoch a zdravotníckych pomôckach), as amended, and conditions are detailed in the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic on a Register of medical devices financed fully or partially from public health insurance. The Register is updated every six months (the most recent as of 1 October 2012). The health insurance fund finances, for example, crutches, mechanical and electrical wheelchairs, bathtub boards and adaptive beds.
  2. Assistive devices from the social assistance pillar are provided under Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the social consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia), in the form of: cash benefits for purchasing a device (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for training in using a device (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for device adaptation (sections 24-28 of the Act); cash benefits for repairing a device (section 32 of the Act); cash benefits for purchasing a lifting appliance (section 33 of the Act). There is a legal rule that cash benefits for purchasing, training and for adapting a device cannot be provided if the actual device is provided from the health insurance system, with the exception of second mechanical and electric wheelchairs and second hearing appliances. As a device for the purpose of compensation, a specially trained dog is also considered. The aforementioned cash benefits are provided by local state administration on the basis of a comprehensive needs assessment and means (income and property) testing.
[update_date] => 2017-09-12 17:48:42 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 140/1998 Coll. on medications and medical devices [url] => http://www.noveaspi.sk/products/lawText/1/46672/1/2 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/SSVaR/zakony/zakon-447_2008zz.pdf ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => According to Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation of the social consequences of severe disability, a person with a severe disability can be provided with a direct payment for personal assistance (hereinafter ‘DPPA’). The legal system of personal assistance was set up in Slovakia in July 1999 with the objective of supporting the social inclusion of persons with severe disabilities, to encourage their independence in life and chances to make their own choices and decisions concerning their own lives, with regard to family, job, education and leisure time. The DPPA is provided directly to people older than six years and up to 65. After 65 DPPA is only provided for persons who were entitled to this social benefit before reaching the age-limit. Personal assistants are recruited primarily from adult persons beyond the family circle (‘foreign persons’). According to the law, relatives can provide personal assistance only in selected ADLs, primarily by personal hygiene or night care, where assistance by foreign persons could be problematic. The DPPA is a needs and means tested social benefit. The maximum amount for one person is 7,300 hours per calendar year. The amount for a certain person is determined by an ADL/IADL assessment process, carried out by offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (local state administration), with active involvement of the person with disability. These authorities are responsible for providing DPPAs, resourced from direct taxes (state budget). The DPPA does not cover assistance related to job performance or to education if the person with disability needs some individualised help. In these cases necessary assistance can be provided as job assistance (financed by the Act on Employment Services) or as teaching assistance for a pupil with disability (financed by the Act on Education). [update_date] => 2017-06-26 13:40:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia) [url] => http://szsm.szm.sk/download/Zakon_c_447_-_2008_o_penaznych_prispevkoch_na_kompenzacie.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services, as amended (Zákon o službách zamestnanosti) [url] => http://jaspi.justice.gov.sk/jaspiw1/htm_zak/jaspiw_mini_zak_zobraz_skup1.asp?skupina=1 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on education, as amended (Zákon o výchove a vzdelávaní – školský zákon) [url] => http://jaspi.justice.gov.sk/jaspiw1/htm_zak/jaspiw_mini_zak_zobraz_skup1.asp?skupina=1 ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => Generally, the income of the working age disabled people can consist of three sources: income from a job/employment, from a disability pension and from disability-related cash benefits. Because the majority (about 70%) of the working age disabled population in Slovakia belongs to an inactive population, the main source of income maintenance comes from the insurance based disability pension scheme. According to Act No. 461/2003 Coll. on Social insurance (Zákon o sociálnom poistení), as amended, a person is considered as disabled if his/her earning ability falls by more than 40% (the maximum is 100%) due to his/her long term unfavourable health conditions. The criterion of 'earning ability limitation’ (or earning ability restriction) has no relation to the previous earnings of a person with disability and a certain percentage is determined only in comparison to a non-disabled person. A disability pension cannot be claimed if a person satisfies the conditions for claiming an old age pension or asks for an early retirement pension. Only persons who have fulfilled the required period of insurance can receive a disability pension. The required period of employment depends upon the age, as follows: Up to 20 years, less than one year; 20–24 years, minimum one year; 24-28 years, minimum two years; 28-34 years, minimum five years; 34-40 years, minimum eight years; 40–45 years, minimum ten years; over 45 years, minimum 15 years. Persons over 45 years of age must have completed the employment period of 15 years prior to the occurrence of their disability. In the case of work-related injuries or occupational diseases, and for persons being disabled since childhood, no minimum period is required. According to current developments, prevalence of disabled people entitled to disability pensions corresponding with a decrease of working (earning) ability of between 41-70% (in older legal terminology as ‘persons with a partial invalidity pension’) was higher (in June 2015 a portion of 57%) in comparison to those with a decrease of working (earning) ability of more than 70% (previously, as ‘persons with a full invalidity pension’). Disabled people who were entitled until 31 December 2000 to the scheme called ‘supplement to pensions due to incapacity’ under the former legislation, still receive this. Expenditures on this special benefit are covered from the state budget, not from the Social insurance fund. In order to compensate for the social consequences of severe disabilities and to maintain an income for persons with severe disabilities and their families, some disability-related cash benefits are provided. Entitlements in this field arise under the conditions of Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia). Cash benefits are provided in four areas: the area of mobility and orientation; the area of communication; the area of increased costs; and the area of self-help (ADL/IADL areas). There are possibilities for providing persons gaining the legal status of a person with severe disability (at least 50% of functional impairment) with various cash benefits/direct payments: for personal assistance; for purchasing and adapting a device and for training in using a device; for repairing a device; for purchasing a lifting appliance; or purchasing a personal vehicle; for adaptation of a personal vehicle; for transportation; for a flat, house or garage adaptation; for compensation of disability related increased costs; for providing of informal care (care allowance). Provision of direct payments is needs and means (income and property) tested and is in the original competency of local state administrations. All expenditures are covered from the state budget. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:32:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 461/2003 Coll. on Social insurance [url] => http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2003-461 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/SSVaR/zakony/zakon-447_2008zz.pdf ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => The provision to compensate some additional living costs related to severe disability is set up in Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments on compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities (Zákon o peňažných príspevkoch na kompenzáciu ťažkého zdravotného postihnutia). In Section 38 of this Act, the legal conditions for the cash benefit (direct payment) for compensation of disability related increased costs are established. The increased costs are related to: a special diet; to hygiene or clothing, linen, footwear and furnishings; to running a personal motor vehicle; to care for a specially trained dog. The abovementioned cash benefits and its components are provided in accordance with person’s needs and his/her means situation (it is needs and means tested). If the person’s income exceeds three times the threshold of the substantial minimum the entitlements are lost. Needs assessment and entitlements are implemented by local state administrations. Expenditures for this type of compensatory scheme are covered by the state budget. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:33:56 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/SSVaR/zakony/zakon-447_2008zz.pdf ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => Persons with disabilities who are recipients of disability pension (invalidity pension) after achieving retirement age (generally 62 years) are entitled to ask for retirement pension. If the amount of a person’s retirement pension is higher than the amount of invalidity pension, the Social Insurance Company will pay the higher amount. Usually the retirement pension is higher because a person with disability could be employed prior to achieving retirement age or, if not employed during this period, according to a legal condition, the required period of employment is automatically included. To apply for retirement pension is the right, not an obligation of a person with disability. The required period of employment depends on age, as follows: up to 20 years, less than one year; 20-24 years, minimum one year; 24-28 years, minimum two years; 28-34 years, minimum five years; 34-40 years, minimum eight years; 40-45 years, minimum ten years; over 45 years, minimum 15 years. Persons over 45 years of age must have completed the employment period in the 15 years prior to the occurrence of the invalidity/disability. In the case of work-related injuries or occupational diseases and for persons disabled since childhood, no minimum period is required (section 72 Act on social insurance). In 2015 the Social insurance act was amended, as an institute of a minimal pension was introduced since July 2015. Entitlements for minimal pension are accessible for disability pension recipients after reaching old age. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:39:10 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Social Insurance (Zákon o sociálnom poistení) [url] => http://www.noveaspi.sk/products/lawText/1/56345/1/2 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Minimum pension [url] => http://www.socpoist.sk/minimalny-dochodok/60217s ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => According to the Slovak Constitution everybody has the right to education and to attend school. Pupils with different types of disabilities may be educated in a mainstream school (with an individualized integration approach or a classroom integration approach) or in a special school. Regardless the educational model (track), special disability-related support provisions are only put in place if a child/pupil gains the status of special education student.
According to Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) (Zákon o výchove a vzdelávaní (Školský zákon), the status is based on the recognition of a child or pupil’s special educational needs. The status corresponds to the child's or pupil’s requirements for special conditions, content, forms, methods and approaches in education due to his/her health condition. To implement education in a segregated/specialised environment, some types of special schools are established (section 95 of the Act); kindergarten, primary schools and secondary schools for pupils with health conditions or impairments, practical schools and apprentice schools.
During the educational process special compensatory devices and special educational texts are utilized in accordance with the educational needs of the pupils. Related extra expenditures are covered by the school in which the child is educated.
On a medical recommendation the child can be exempted from the obligation to attend the school building and can fulfil his/her compulsory school attendance in two particular ways: (1) individual education, or (2) education under an individual learning plan.

According to Section 107 of the Act, “A child or a pupil whose special educational needs arise solely from the ground of his/her development in the socially disadvantaged background cannot be admitted to a special school or to a special class of pre-school, primary school or secondary school.” This provision concerns mostly those children who were diagnosed with light intellectual disability on the basis of their cultural background and anti-Roma prejudice. Attendance of a special primary school for pupils with intellectual disabilities does not allow to continue upper secondary education and to get better employment.
According to Section 144 of the Act, a guardian has the right to choose a school that best “corresponds to the child’ abilities, health conditions, interests” depending on the opportunities available in the educational system. Since the available opportunities shall also be taken into consideration, the final decision on whether a child may attend education in a chosen school depends on the school director. According to the law, the school director can suggest to the child’s guardian that he/she might benefit more from another educational setting, if they believe that educating the child with special needs in a mainstream school is not in the best interests of the child or his/her schoolmates. Before 'replacement' (removal), the public school authorities and relevant centre for educational counselling and prevention must be consulted. If parents or legal guardians do not agree with the suggested solution, a relevant court makes the decision about how to ensure that the 'ongoing education of the child continues'.
The details about education process at special schools are set by the Decree No. 322/2008 on Special Schools. It deals with the organisation of the educational process, number of pupils in a class, admissions to schools and evaluation of pupils with special educational needs at special schools. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:46:23 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended [Zákon č. 245/2008 Z. z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-245/znenie-20160901 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 322/2008 Coll. on Special Schools as amended [Vyhláška č. 322/2008 Z. z. o špeciálnych školách v znení neskorších predpisov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-322/znenie-20161001 ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => According to the National Disability Program 2014 - 2020 (Národný program rozvoja životných podmienok osôb so zdravotným postihnutím), under Section 4.7 (Education) the public and private authorities have commitments to ensure the conditions under which persons with disabilities can exercise their educational rights, primarily in mainstream/inclusive settings. Act No. 245/2008 coll. School Act (Zákon o výchove a vzdelávaní /Školský zákon) states that a guardian has a right to choose a school that best "corresponds with the abilities of a child, his/her health conditions, interests"; depending on the opportunities available in the educational system.
According to the Decree No. 306/2008 on Pre-schools the class teacher creates the conditions for education of a child with special educational needs (SEN) in cooperation with the child’s parents or guardian, other teachers at the pre-school, the child’s GP and the school counselling and prevention services. Only two children with SEN can be accepted per class. Moreover, the maximum number of children in the mainstream class is reduced by two for each child with SEN (from 20 to 22 according to the age).
More details about the education of pupils with special educational needs at mainstream primary schools are set by Decree No. 320/2008 on Primary School, as amended. According to Section 5 of the Decree, the class teacher defines the conditions under which the pupil with special educational needs is educated in the mainstream class. He/she does so in cooperation with the pupil’s GP and school counselling and prevention services.
The same Decree in Section 16 sets the provision of a special type of physical education called 'the health PE'. The pupils with special educational needs participate in this type of PE on the basis of their doctor’s recommendation and the agreement of the pupil’s parent or guardian. In case the number of pupils in the 'health PE' group is lower than eight, the group is cancelled. If there is no other group at school where the rest of SEN pupils can perform the 'health PE', the pupils are partially of fully exempted from PE. They perform exercises suitable for their health status according to the GP’s recommendation. Pupils with partial exemption from PE are evaluated respecting their disability or health status.
In case the special class is established at a mainstream school the education process is provided according to the Decree No. 322/2008 on Special Schools.
According to the Act No. 317/2009 Coll. on pedagogic employees and specialists, as amended, the creation of equal opportunities in education and the provision of help to overcome architectonical, information, language, medical, social and cultural barriers is the aim of the teacher’s assistant. He/she helps the teacher or other pedagogic staff with the education of pupils with special educational needs at the pre-schools, primary schools, secondary schools (only for pupils with disabilities) and special schools.
Money for equipment and adaptation of the mainstream school environment or for any other extra support (e.g. for teacher’s assistants) come from the state budget (Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Slovak republic) via municipalities or regional offices. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 14:56:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended [Zákon č. 245/2008 Z. z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-245/znenie-20160901 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 317/2009 Coll. on pedagogic employees and specialists as amended [Zákon č. 317/2009 Z. z. o pedagogických zamestnancoch a odborných zamestnancoch a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2009-317/znenie-20160701 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 306/2008 Coll. on Pre-schools as amended [Vyhláška č. 306/2008 Z. z. o materskej škole v znení neskorších predpisov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-306/znenie-20090901 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 320/2008 Coll. on Primary School as amened [Vyhláška č. 320/2008 Z. z. o základnej škole v znení neskorších predpisov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-320/znenie-20150901 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree No. 322/2008 Coll. on Special Schools as amended [Vyhláška č. 322/2008 Z. z. o špeciálnych školách v znení neskorších predpisov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-322/znenie-20161001 ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Disability Programme 2014-2020 [url] => https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/7770.pdf ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => The rights of deaf children/students to study by using sign language are constituted in section 4, Act 149/1995 Coll. on sign language for deaf persons. According to this Act deaf persons have the right to sign language use, to education in sign language and to information in sign language on TV and libraries free of charge.
The details about how to implement these rights in education are explained in Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended. According to Section 144 of this Act, “a child/pupil with special educational needs has the right to education by utilising specific forms and methods according to his/her needs and for creating necessary conditions which are essential for the child/pupil’s education. He/she has the right to the use of special textbooks and special didactic and compensational aids... (e.g. sign language, Braille, alternative means of communication).”
In order to support the education of young persons with sensory impairments at university level, the centre for visually impaired students (Podporné centrum pre zrakovo postihnutých študentov) was set up in 1993 at Comenius University in Bratislava. Since 2009 the Centre has been operating as the Support Centre for Students with Special Needs; extending its support services to students with hearing impairments, students with mobility problems, chronical diseases, learning disorders, etc. However, there has been no research on sign language in Slovakia. There is no higher education institution offering a Bachelor or Master programme in sign language. A working group has been set up to address qualification issues of sign language interpreters coordinated by the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 15:00:23 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended [Zákon č. 245/2008 Z. z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-245/znenie-20160901 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 149/1995 Coll. on sign language of deaf persons [Zákon č. 149/1995 Z. z. o posunkovej reči nepočujúcich osôb] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/1995-149/znenie-19950720 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Sign language interpretation: problems and experience of an interpreter [url] => http://nrozp-mosty.sk/zo-zivota-6/item/1212-tlmo%C4%8Denie-v-posunkovej-re%C4%8Di-nepo%C4%8Duj%C3%BAcich-%E2%80%93-sk%C3%BAsenosti-postrehy-a-probl%C3%A9my-z-poh%C4%BEadu-tlmo%C4%8Dn%C3%AD%C4%8Dky-posunkovej-re%C4%8Di-nepo%C4%8Duj%C3%BAcich.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Support Centre for Students with Special Needs [url] => http://cezap.sk/ ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => The legal framework on the right to vocational education and training of pupils and students, including pupils and students with disabilities, is embedded in Article 42 of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic and in Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education, as amended.
Students with disabilities can acquire vocational education and training in the following forms: in special classes in mainstream secondary schools; in regular classes with other students in mainstream secondary schools; in special secondary schools which are differentiated by type of disability. Pupils and students with disabilities have the right to an individual educational approach that respects their ability and health, to be taught by teachers with professional teaching experience, to a safe and healthy educational environment and to be recognized and respected as individuals.
To make education more 'oriented to labour market needs' the dual system of education for all pupils at the vocational schools has been introduced in 2015 by the new Act No. 61/2015 on vocational education and training as amended. It came into force on 1 April 2015. Pupils could start the dual system of education in September 2015. The dual system of education does not specifically mention pupils with disabilities, or any other disadvantaged groups of students. It is assumed that they are subsumed under the articles for all pupils at vocational schools. In other words, there are no specific measures to support participation of pupils at special schools in dual education. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 15:03:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 245/2008 Coll. on Education (the School Act) as amended [Zákon č. 245/2008 Z. z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2008-245/znenie-20160901 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 61/2015 Coll. on Vocational Education and Training [Zákon č. 61/2015 Z. z. o odbornom vzdelávaní a príprave a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2015-61/znenie-20160101 ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => In Slovakia, the universities and colleges are explicitly subjected to non-discrimination laws and the implementation of the equal treatment principle. The Manifesto of the Government of the Slovak Republic declares ensuring access to tertiary education by providing 'special support to the establishment and development of assistance centres for students with disabilities'.
Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on higher education, as amended, in Section 55, guarantees for all applicants and students equal treatment in education to exercise all the rights set out under this Act: 'Discrimination on the grounds of ...disability... is explicitly prohibited'. To implement the principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination in educational practice, the Act and related legislation establish several particular arrangements for students with special needs (including students with disabilities). Firstly, there is a general obligation for universities/colleges 'to create reasonable study conditions for students with disabilities, by referring to their special study needs without declining requirements on their study performances'. Reasonable conditions include the choice to study under an individual study plan and, if necessary, to extend the study period (Section 100 of the Act). Secondly, students with special needs have a claim for support services in minimum standards consequently defined in Decree of the Ministry of Education No. 458/2012 on minimum standards of support services for students with special needs, specifically set for various types of disabilities / special needs. Thirdly, the universities are obliged to appoint a disability coordinator (legally speaking, a coordinator for students with special needs), and also appoint faculty coordinators. In Section 100 of the Higher Education Act, some of the responsibilities of disability coordinators are defined. Apart from that, two support centres (at Comenius University in Bratislava and Technical University in Kosice) have been established to provide guidance and ensure coordination for disability coordinators of all universities, and promote knowledge and innovation in providing support services for students with special needs. With regard to funding, the school must establish the so-called 'Fund for Support Students with special needs' to create reasonable study conditions for young persons with disabilities (Section 16a of the Act). In 2015, for the first time funding was allocated from the state budget to support students with special needs. In total EUR 650,000 were transferred to universities for this purpose, according to the number of students with special needs in each of them who are registered at the Central Registry of Students. Further forms of individual financial support for students with disabilities are cash benefits from compensatory policy (under Act No. 447/2008 Coll. on direct payments for compensation for the consequences of severe disabilities). Accessibility and research grants from structural funds are administered by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic.
The National Disability Program for 2014-2020 sets out the following measures in the field of higher education:

  • Measure 4.7.7: To approve the National Action Plan on Accessible Academic Environment and corresponding study conditions for students with specific needs.

Action to be taken: Approve and perform the National Action Plan.
Responsible authority: Ministry of ESRS in cooperation with the Advisory Body of the Minister of Education, Science, Research and Sport for study support of students with specific needs (Rada ministra školstva, vedy, výskumu a športu SR na podporu štúdia študentov so špeciálnymi potrebami).
Start date: 2015 and continuously.
  • Measure 4.7.8: Systematic support of networking and education of university coordinators for students with specific needs.

Action to be taken: Preparation of study materials and organization of regular meetings of disability coordinators (representing each university).
Responsible authority: Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Advisory Body of the Minister for study support of students with specific needs.
Start date: 2014 and continuously. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 15:07:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Manifesto of the Government of the Slovak Republic [Programové vyhlásenie vlády Slovenskej republiky] [url] => http://www.vlada.gov.sk/data/files/6489.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on Higher Education [Zákon č. 131/2002 Z. z. o vysokých školácha o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2002-131/znenie-20160101 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree of the Ministry of Education No. 458/2012 Coll. on minimum standards of support services for students with special needs [Vyhláška č. 458/2012 Z. z. o minimálnych nárokoch študenta so špecifickými potrebami] [url] => http://www.epi.sk/zz/2012-458/znenie-20130901 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guidelines for the subsidies from the state budget for universities in 2015 [url] => https://www.minedu.sk/rozpis-dotacii-zo-statneho-rozpoctu-verejnym-vysokym-skolam-na-rok-2015/ ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Disability Programme 2014-2020 [url] => https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/7770.pdf ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => The Slovak Constitution (Act No. 460/1992 Coll., as amended) guarantees, in Article 38, the general right of persons with disabilities to protection in vocational training, employment, labour relations through the creation of reasonable working conditions. Among the fundamental principles of the Labour Code (Act No. 311/2001 Coll., as amended) lies the principle of equal treatment in labour relations. Article 1 specifies that 'Everyone has the right to employment and for a free choice of work, for fair and friendly working conditions and for protection against unemployment. These rights belong to persons without any limitations; direct or indirect discrimination on the ground of... unfavourable health status or disability...'. Section 158 establishes some obligations on employers, e.g. to create reasonable working conditions for employees with disabilities to perform and retain their jobs (including conditions for gaining or increasing necessary qualifications). Details on how to exercise the aforementioned rights are laid down in specific laws. The most important is Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services, as amended, that states the right to access to employment in Section 14. Access to this right is guaranteed without any limitation in accordance with the principle of equal treatment. The prohibition of discrimination 'against somebody on the grounds of...disability...' is established. Despite the guarantee of the constitutional right to work, the right to free choice of work and the right to access to employment, Act No. 365/2004 Coll. (Anti-discrimination Act), as amended, sets up in Section 8 the so-called 'admissible unequal/different/distinct treatment' (prípustné rozdielne zaobchádzanie), relating specifically to persons with disabilities in the field of employment. In case when the nature of job requires special health abilities of a person or special conditions for performing this job, the distinct treatment is not considered discrimination on the grounds of disability. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 15:32:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 365/2004 Coll. on equal treatment in certain areas and protection against discrimination (Antidiscrimination Act) [url] => http://www.pravovzdravotnictve.sk/sk/legislativa/predpisy/zakon-c-365-2004-z-z-o-rovnakom-zaobchadzani-v-niektorych-oblastiach-a-o-ochrane-pred-diskriminaciou-antidiskriminacny-zakon-v-zneni-neskorsich-predpisov.p-68.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Code (Act No. 311/2001 Coll., as amended) [url] => https://www.employment.gov.sk/sk/praca-zamestnanost/vztah-zamestnanca-zamestnavatela/zakonnik-prace/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Labour Code in English, full wording in 2011 [url] => http://www.ilo.org/dyn/eplex/docs/50/labour-code-full-wording-january-2012.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services [url] => https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2004/5/ ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => Employment advice and support services for disabled people are provided by the public employment services, specifically by the Centre of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (COLSAF), as a central public employment services body in Slovakia, and by district Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (DOLSAF), as a regional public employment services body. The legal basis of advisory and information services and employment support for disabled people is in Act No. 5 /2004 Coll. on Employment Services. The information on these services is available on the website of COLSAF and on the websites of particular DOLSAF. For the purpose of providing employment advice and support services to disabled people District Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family must keep a separate administrative register of disabled people, which in addition to basic identification data, covers information on the degree of disability and a reduced capacity to work, including the legal justification for the status of a disabled person. However, there are no incentives for people with disabilities to be registered as job-seekers. At the same time, the officers are not obliged to assist with finding a job on an individual basis. In fact, persons with disabilities may benefit from active labour market measures mainly provided that they themselves find an employer, and then apply for available benefits. Another difficulty is that the job offers at the offices considered to be one of the most important ALMP instruments are rarely available in accessible formats. Among non-public providers there are also agencies of supported employment as set out in § 58 of the Act No. 5/2004 Col. On employment services, which provide support to disabled job-seekers. In current settings, these agencies are contracted by DOLSAFs in a very unpredictable way. As a result, their funding and activities seem unsustainable. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 15:34:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services, as amended (Zákon č.5/2004 Z.z. o službách zamestnanosti v znení neskorších predpisov) [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/Zakon_o_sluzbach_zamestnanosti.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 96/2013 Coll., amending the Act No. 5/2004 Coll. On Employment Services [url] => http://www.zbierka.sk/sk/predpisy/96-2013-z-z.p-35175.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family [url] => http://www.supz.sk/ ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => Articles 158 - 159 of the Labour Code deal with the employment of an employee with disability. In general the Labour Code in Article 158, part 2, enables the employer to set a workshop or to make workplace adaptations for an employee with a disability who cannot be employed in regular working environments. Furthermore, employment of people with disabilities in sheltered workshops and in the open labour market is specified in Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services.
Until 2013, the legislation was not as clear concerning the difference between sheltered workshop and sheltered workplace, whose creation is a pre-condition to be eligible for any of the allowances within active labour market measures except for one (see below). In fact, it is even required that the applicants for self-employment allowance work at sheltered workplaces. Similarly, there was no legal distinction between sheltered workshops set up especially to employ people with disabilities in traditional meaning, and those set up at regular enterprises with much higher level of integration. In March 2013, the Act re-defined both terms. In sheltered workshop, more than 50% of all employees are employees with disabilities. On the other hand, sheltered workplace is typically where there is only one employee with disabilities, or more than one but in total less than 50% of all employees. The status of sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace is announced by the Office of Labour, Social affairs and Family, after the application form is submitted by the employer who intends to set up a sheltered workshop/sheltered workplace. The application form includes the description of work activities which would be performed by employees with disabilities, working conditions, the place in which the work will be performed. The approval of theb public health authority is also required.
Consequently, in order to adapt the workplace, the employer may apply for the allowance to set up a sheltered workshop or a sheltered workplace (§ 56 of the Act on Employment Services). The allowance can be used to cover the employer’s expenses related to establishing a sheltered workshop or to accommodate a sheltered workplace and to equip them with machines, facilities and work aids required for the job to be performed by a disabled employee. It is also intended to create a workplace as such, not just to adapt it in relation to one’s disability.
The employer who receives the allowance is obliged to keep the established workshop or workplace for at least two years. If a working contract with a person with disability for some reason terminates, the employer is required to recruit another person with disability for this workplace.
The level of funding to set up a sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace varies depending on the unemployment rate in each district where the workplace or workshop is set up compared to the national average unemployment rate, and can be between 4 and 5.2 fold the total labour costs, which are calculated on the basis of the national average wage including mandatory rental, social and health levies. In 2016, the monthly total labour costs were at EUR 1,161.35, i. e. the maximum level of the allowance was between EUR 4,646 for employers in districts where the unemployment rate is below the national average, and EUR 6,039 for employers in districts with the unemployment rate higher than the national average).
For those employers who do not have a status of sheltered workshop or sheltered workplace, there has been an allowance to maintain employees with disabilities at work (príspevok na udržanie osoby so zdravotným postihnutím v zamestnaní) clearly supporting employment in an open labour market. The allowance is a kind of a wage subsidy, and it may cover levy related costs of an employer. However, its provision is limited only to those employers whose total number of employees with disabilities comprises at least 25% of all employees. Another measure which is also available for employers employing people with disabilities in the open labour market is the work assistant allowance (príspevok na činnosť pracovného asistenta).
The amendment of the Act on Employment Services in 2013 brought several other significant changes. Firstly, some of the benefits are now provided without a legal claim of an applicant. The decision power has been granted to the employment committees (výbor pre otázky zamestnanosti), established by each of the district offices. The concerned benefits are the following: the allowance to establish a sheltered workshop or a sheltered workplace; the allowance to maintain an employee with disabilities at work; and the self-employment allowance. This change from obligatory to optional provision of some allowances has been highly discussed in Slovakia, and has led to a significant decrease of funding by one quarter (from EUR 40 870 000 in 2012 to EUR 30 223 061 in 2015). Consequently, the number of subsidised workplaces has decreased significantly. For more details, see European semester 2016/2017 country fiche on disability, available at the ANED website. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:01:03 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/Zakon_o_sluzbach_zamestnanosti.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Entitlement conditions, Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/sluzby-zamestnanosti/nastroje-aktivnych-opatreni-trhu-prace/podpora-zamestnavania-obcanov-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim.html?page_id=13317 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Entitlement conditions, Central Public Administration Portal (Ústredný portál verejnej správy) [url] => https://www.slovensko.sk/sk/titulna-stranka ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => Promoting the employment of people with disabilities in the Slovak Republic is implemented via: A. financial support for establishing the sheltered workshop or sheltered workplaces (see previous section on workplace adaptations); B. wage subsidies for disabled employees; C. financial support for self-employment; D. enforcement of employment quotas; E. tax concessions.

  • Wage subsidies (B) for disabled employees are regulated by the provisions of Article 50 of Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services. According to the legal provisions, an employer who employs a person disadvantaged in the labour market (as specified in the Act, also including people with disabilities) is entitled to a financial allowance for the salary of this employee. The allowance provision is regulated by the state aid rules and its monthly amount ranges from 25-40% of the total labour costs, calculated on the basis of the monthly national average wage. Maximum duration of the allowance ranges from 12 to 24 months, depending on how long the employee was registered at the district office as unemployed. The employer is required to maintain a job for twice as long as they receive the allowance, i.e. for another two years in case of receiving the allowance for 24 months. The responsible body for funding the allowance is the Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Funds for this purpose came in 2015 mainly from the ESF. This measure is of mainstream kind. In sheltered workshops and sheltered workplaces, more common type of support is the allowance available to partially cover operating expenses of sheltered workshops and sheltered workplaces which to some extent substitutes wage subsidies. The eligible operating expenses may include energies and rent, transportation of materials and products of the workshop, levies paid by employer for persons with disabilities and other administrative expenses. All these are eligible rather than refunded expenses, since the maximum support per one workplace is between 2.5- and 5-times of total labour costs (calculated on the monthly national average wage) annually (in 2016, between EUR 2,904 and EUR 5,807 once a year).

  • Financial support for self-employment of disabled persons (C) is provided under Article 57 of Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on employment services, as amended. This is a lump-sum financial allowance to cover the costs associated with setting up self-employment. The level of allowance depends on the state aid rules and its amount varies between 3.2 and 4.8 fold of the total labour costs of the national average wage. Prior to receiving this allowance a disabled person is obliged to participate in entrepreneurship training and to develop a business plan. A person with disabilities who has received the allowance for self-employment is required to keep this activity for at least two years. The responsible body for the allowance is the Centre for Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Funds for this purpose come from the ESF and from the state budget.


  • Enforcement of employment quotas (D): according to Article 63 Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services, employers with more than 20 employees have an obligation to meet 3.2% employment target for disabled employees. Employers who do not directly employ persons with disabilities may perform this obligation in the following ways: by awarding the contract to the company that employs disabled employees or by awarding the contract to disabled persons who are self-employed; by buying the products or the services of sheltered workshops or sheltered workplaces, of disabled persons who are self-employed or of employers, who employ disabled employees. Employers who have not met the legal requirements must pay a financial penalty in the range of 0.9 times the total labour cost of the monthly national average wage for each employee with a disability who is missing to meet the mandatory quota that comprised EUR 1,045 in 2016. Whereas in 2012, 57.3% of employers met the quota by employing persons with disabilities, in 2015, the proportion increased up to 64.19%. However, this is also due to the decrease in the total number of employers employing more than 20 people (from 11,946 in 2012 to 11,394 in 2015). It is also worth mentioning that Slovakia is one of few countries where the financial resources of the penalty for non-compliance with the quota are not invested in the support of employment of PWD. Instead, they simply become a part of state budget (in accordance with § 65 of the Act on employment services).

  • Tax concession (E): disability compensation in the Slovak Republic is put into practice through a variety of measures, including a reduced rate of contributions to health insurance for employees with disabilities (2% of the tax base), self-employed persons with disabilities (7% of the tax base) and employers employing people with disabilities (5% of the tax base).
[update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:20:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act No. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/buxus/docs/Zakon_o_sluzbach_zamestnanosti.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => COLSAF – disability quota [Povinný podiel zamestnávania občanov so zdravotným postihnutím] [url] => http://www.upsvar.sk/sluzby-zamestnanosti/informacie-pre-zamestnavatela/povinnosti-zamestnavatelov-a-moznosti-pri-zamestnavani-obcanov-so-zp.html?page_id=13012 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability quota [url] => https://www.podnikajte.sk/pravo-a-legislativa/c/1978/category/zakonne-povinnosti-podnikatela/article/zamestnavanie-zdravotne-postihnutych.xhtml ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => In Slovakia, the co-ordination of disability related data collection at the national level remains rather limited - usually the data cannot be disaggregated by various types of disabilities. Though, there are several partial data sets, produced by the following institutions: Social Insurance Agency (data on disability pensions recipients); Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family and District Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (data on cash benefits recipients and employment services recipients with disabilities); Self-governing regional authorities, towns and municipalities (data on social services users with disabilities); Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic (data on employment within the quarterly conducted Labour Force Survey, including also persons with disabilities); The Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and its organisations (data on education of children with special educational needs); the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic and its organisations (data on health care users with disabilities). Besides that, the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic has set out a commitment in the National Disability Program for 2014-2020 (measure 4.17.1) to prepare the summarising document 'The information on developments of selected indicators related to social situation of persons with disabilities' (Informácia o vývoji vybraných ukazovateľov sociálnej situácie osôb so zdravotným postihnutím; Štatistický úrad SR). The document is supposed to be published annually to support the evaluation of the National Disability Programme. Its first issue was for the first time prepared in October 2015. In 2016, the Institute for Labour and Family Research as a body established by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family has prepared an analytical report based on these data, entitled Developments of social situation of persons with disabilities and their families: The report consists of four chapters dealing with the following agendas: health issues, social protection, education and employment of persons with disabilities.

There is a similar situation in the research field. There are several universities, public and private research institutions and civic society organisations conducting disability-related research and ad-hoc surveys, but without any coordination. One of the public institutions focusing on disability research is the Institute for Labour and Family Research. Since 2004 the Institute has carried out several disability-related research projects focused on the employment of persons with disabilities, living conditions of families with disabled members, work and care (work life balance), social rights and quality of life of informal carers and long term care for care dependent persons. By conducting this research, an intensive co-operation with civic society (mainly with the Slovak Disability Council) has been established.
Some disability-related research projects were also conducted by the Slovak National Centre for Human Rights as a national equality body. The Centre publishes annually a Report on the observance of human rights including the observance of the principle of equal treatment in the Slovak Republic. The Report focuses primarily on the adherence to human and social rights for various target groups, including persons with disabilities, in the context of anti-discrimination commitments in various living areas (e.g. in employment, education).
The complex research into the psychological aspects of child and youth development has been conducted by the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology. A key area of this research, among others, is mental development of children with disabilities.
Finally, since September 2015, Act No. 176/2015 Coll. on commissioner for children and commissioner for persons with disabilities has come into force. The commissioners are independent bodies whose task is to protect human rights of these people which are guaranteed to them by international treaties legally binding for the Slovak Republic (such as the UN CRPD). In its first annual report to the Parliament, the commissioner for persons with disabilities has also presented her findings from monitoring the observance of human rights of persons with disabilities in penal institutions. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:25:49 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Developments of social situation of persons with disabilities and their families – secondary research analysis [url] => http://www.ceit.sk/IVPR/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=465%3Avyvoj-socialnej-situacie-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-a-ich-rodin-tudia&catid=2%3Anovinky&lang=sk ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute for Labour and Family Research [url] => http://www.ceit.sk/IVPR/index.php?lang=en ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the observance of human rights including the observance of the principle of equal treatment in the Slovak Republic for 2015 - Slovak National Centre for Human Rights [url] => http://www.snslp.sk/#actual=1 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology [url] => http://www.vudpap.sk ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Annual Report of Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities to the Parliament of the Slovak Republic [url] => http://www.komisarprezdravotnepostihnutych.sk/Zverejnovanie/Spravy-o-cinnosti ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => The Census is one of the most important and most extensive surveys, carried out every ten years in the Slovak Republic. The latest Census took place in the period between 13 May and 6 June 2011. Persons with disabilities have not specifically been reported in the Census and the questionnaire did not include a specific question concerning health or disability. [update_date] => 2017-06-27 11:45:26 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Statistics Office of the Slovak Republic [url] => http://portal.statistics.sk/showdoc.do?docid=4 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The 2011 Population and Housing Census, facts about changes in the life of the Slovak population [url] => https://slovak.statistics.sk/PortalTraffic/fileServlet?Dokument=cc3158d4-f87a-473e-8adf-ddb0a6607f3b ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => The Labour Force Survey has been carried out in Slovakia since 1994 by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Persons with disabilities are identified based upon the respondent response to the question concerning the granted status of disabled persons (question number 77 of the questionnaire type B for the members of the household). LFS results, including results related to disabled people, are processed quarterly and are published on the website of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. LFS provides employment and unemployment data for disabled people, disaggregated by gender. In 2011 the LFS Ad-hoc module on Employment of Disabled People was implemented. [update_date] => 2017-06-27 11:50:10 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Statistics Office of the Slovak Republic (Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky) [url] => http://portal.statistics.sk/showdoc.do?docid=16714 ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => There is currently no system of indicators based on public data sources to monitor equality for persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to social services, transport and social inclusion. The development of equality indicators for people with disabilities is the responsibility of several ministries: the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Construction. The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family presently monitors the indicators of employment and unemployment for people with disabilities and publishes them in the annual Report on the Social Situation of the Population in the Slovak Republic. [update_date] => 2017-06-27 11:51:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/index.php?SMC=1 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Annual Report on Social Situation of the Population in the Slovak Republic [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/index.php?SMC=1&id=19195 ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => Several measures regarding awareness raising have been proposed in the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020:

Measure 4.1.1: to raise awareness about the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Action to be taken: to prepare information activities, presentations, conferences and campaigns focused on the UN CRPD; to ensure the distribution of information brochures to public administration authorities and the general public; to raise awareness among representatives of all ministries; develop cooperation among authorities to identify the target groups of the campaigns; and to present the best practice examples.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Government Office of the SR, Ministries, regional governments and NGOs.
Implementation date: continuously.

Measure 4.1.2: To raise awareness among professionals and the general public about the lives, rights and abilities of persons with disabilities
Action to be taken: To raise awareness among professionals and general public about the life of persons with disabilities via the public TV station, the Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS)
Responsible authority: RTVS in cooperation with the Council of RTVS.
Implementation date: continuously.
Proposer of the measure: Slovak Disability Council.

Measure 4.1.4: To raise awareness among professionals and general public about lives, rights and abilities of persons with disabilities via the libraries of the Ministry of Culture of the SR as an established authority. The goal is to eliminate barriers, to ensure equality of opportunities and to avoid discrimination and all forms of violence in this context.
Action to be taken: To provide the acquisitions of the disability topic study literature and elaborate a literature search on this topic. To organise discussions, exhibitions and other events raising public awareness about the lives of persons with disabilities, e.g. on the occasion of the International Day of People with Disability.
Responsible authority: Ministry of Culture of the SR in cooperation with the libraries established by the Ministry of Culture and regional government.
Implementation date: continuously.

Measure 4.1.5: To ensure accessibility of towns and villages for persons with disabilities
Action to be taken: To award towns and villages that ensure the comprehensive accessibility for persons with disabilities in all areas, including buildings, transportation and information and services.
Responsible authority: Association of Towns and Communities from Slovakia, The Union of Towns and Cities of Slovakia in cooperation with the selected Ministries (Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development).
Implementation date: annually.
Proposer of the measure: Institute for Labour and Family Research (IVPR). [update_date] => 2017-09-12 17:50:44 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving the Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for years 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => At many universities that prepare students for a teaching profession, disability issues are included in the general curriculum via such courses, as for instance, the integration of pupils/students with disabilities. There are also study programmes on special pedagogy addressing concrete types of disabilities, i. e. education of pupils with visual impairment, with intellectual disabilities, etc. Further training/lifelong learning for teachers as well as guidelines which support disability awareness of teachers are provided especially by Slovak Institute of Pedagogy. These programs include training concerning integration of pupils with special needs in regular schools, special pedagogy, school integration, conditions, starting points and basic processes of integration and education towards human rights. The trainers are from different fields (e.g. universities, NGOs, schools).
The issue of awareness raising in schools is discussed in the National Disability Programme for 2014-2020 in Measure 4.1.3: to focus the school policy and practice on the issues of anti-discrimination, diversity, equal treatment and to implement it into the educational programmes at all levels of educational system.
Action to be taken: To support and implement educational programmes and presentations focused on the issue of disability and respect for human rights.
Responsible authority: the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the relevant public research institutions and regional government.
Schedule: continuously. [update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:38:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving the Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Creation of individual education programs for pupils with special needs [url] => http://www.pppknm.sk/data/pdf/materialy/ako_tvorit_ivp.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Slovak Institute of Pedagogy – pupils with special needs [url] => http://www.statpedu.sk/clanky/deti-ziaci-so-zdravotnym-znevyhodnenim/konferencie-seminare ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Department of Special Pedagogy, Comenius University in Bratislava [url] => https://www.fedu.uniba.sk/sucasti/katedry/katedra-specialnej-pedagogiky/ ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => At the majority of universities that prepare legal professionals, disability issues, especially the UNCRPD, are included in the general curriculum via the topics of International law and European law. Further training is provided for judges, prosecutors, officers of justice and other court staff, who are trained in the field of International law (including the UNCRPD), European law, the relationship between international and European law (including regulations and recommendations), the examples of relevant judgements of the European court of human rights and practical and implementation problems, in connection with practice of the courts. Disabled peoples organisations are not involved in the process of further education.
The training of lawyers has also been addressed by the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in its Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Slovakia which were adopted at its 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) in a following way:
„42. The Committee further recommends that the State party provide mandatory training to all personnel in the justice, administration and law enforcement sectors on:
(a) The rights enshrined in the Convention, including participation on an equal basis with others regardless of legal capacity status;
(b) Procedural accommodation in the legal process;
(c) Reasonable accommodation;
(d) The combating of harmful gender and disability stereotypes." [update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:39:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Conception of education in judicial academies [url] => http://www.ja-sr.sk/files/Koncepcia_vzdelavania_01_02_2014_0.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for Slovakia [url] => http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Countries/ENACARegion/Pages/SKIndex.aspx ) ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Training for doctors is provided only in the frame of their postgraduate study (called specialised division), especially for general practitioners and assessment doctors. An important part of their training is information concerning Slovak and international legislation in the field of disability issues, including the UN CRPD. Organisations of persons with disabilities are not involved as trainers. The Medical Faculty in Bratislava within its Institute of social medicine provides training for doctors with different specialisation in the area of disability issues.
Likewise, the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has also emphasised the need to promote training on disability related issues for medical staff, in the Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Slovakia which were adopted at the 15th session (29 March - 21 April 2016) in a following way: "70. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party provide training for all health and social care personnel on the rights enshrined in the Convention." [update_date] => 2017-08-16 16:42:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for Slovakia [url] => http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Countries/ENACARegion/Pages/SKIndex.aspx ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Institute of Social Medicine and Ethics, Medical Faculty, Comenius University in Bratislava [url] => https://www.fmed.uniba.sk/pracoviska/teoreticke-ustavy/ustav-socialneho-lekarstva-a-lekarskej-etiky-lf-uk/ ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => Students of architecture and urban planning at the Faculty of Architecture, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava get knowledge and skills about the principles of barrier-free design and requirements on their safe and barrier-free usage within the specific courses, e.g. 'Residential Buildings'; 'Public Buildings'.
In June 2007, CEDA (Centre of Design for All) has been founded at the same faculty. Its main mission is to:

  • Participate in relevant standardization work with national, European and international standard bodies;
  • Provide research by collaborating, conducting and commissioning national and international projects and by active attending conferences, seminars and workshops;
  • Encourage compliance with national and international standards in Design for All;
  • Ensure the development of appropriate Design for All - Universal Design courses in cooperation with academic, professional and relevant state bodies;
  • Promote the introduction and integration of the principles of Universal Design in university curricula at each level of study (bachelor, master and postgraduate level);
  • Offer a professional consultancy to the people in difficulties caused by built-environment barriers;
  • Promote understanding of Design for All by organizing the courses for professionals involved in accomplishment of built-environment.
[update_date] => 2017-06-26 17:07:36 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Subject Syllabus 1_OBB_AU – Residential Buildings (FA – Summer semester 2015/2016) [url] => http://is.stuba.sk/katalog/syllabus.pl?predmet=292829;lang=sk ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Subject Syllabus 1_OBC1_AU – Public Buildings I (FA – Summer semester 2015/2016) [url] => http://is.stuba.sk/katalog/syllabus.pl?predmet=292825;lang=sk ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Centre of Design for All [url] => http://www.stuba.sk/english/science-and-research/centre-of-design-for-all-ceda.html?page_id=10615 ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Priorities in the international co-operation are set out in the new National Disability Programme 2014-2020. The Slovak Republic and the member states should enforce the rights of persons with disabilities in the external activities. Slovakia will support the initiatives to tackle disability issues in the dialogues with non-member states. Where it is appropriate the disability issues and the UN Convention implementation will be included. The Akkra commitments on the effective help will be taken into account. The commitment on the disability issues will be supported at the international forums (UN, Council of Europe, OECD). [update_date] => 2017-06-26 17:09:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Programme on Improving the Living Conditions of Persons with Disabilities for 2014-2020 (the National Disability Programme) [url] => http://www.employment.gov.sk/files/slovensky/rodina-socialna-pomoc/tazke-zdravotne-postihnutie/narodny-program-rozvoja-zivotnych-podmienok-osob-so-zdravotnym-postihnutim-roky-2014-2020.pdf ) ) ) ) ) ) )