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Spain

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Spain signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention on 3 December 2007. It was published on 21 April 2008 (BOE), and the UNCRPD entered into force on 3 May that year.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Spain signed the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on 3 December 2007. It was published on 21 April 2008 (BOE) and the instrument entered into force on 3 May that year.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Spain has not made any Declarations, Reservations or Objections. However, there have been several amendments to the Bill of normative adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities UNCRPD.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A4. Comprehensive review

On 15 June 2011, the Parliament approved the Bill of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, previously discussed at the 225 plenary session of the Congress of Deputies on 31 March 2011. Moreover, the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) asked the Autonomous Communities to adapt their legislation to the Convention. CERMI has also developed a study of the impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities into Law 39/2006 December 14. On August 2011 it was proclaimed Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad. (Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities).

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A5. Focal point

The focal point established for matters relating to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, via the Directorate General for Disability Support Policies. The Commission on Integral Policies on Disabilities was also created in the Congress of Deputies with this purpose.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A6. Coordination mechanism

The government coordination mechanism to protect, promote and monitor compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the National Disability Council (Consejo Nacional de la Discapacidad). This is a consulting body made up equally of representatives of all of the ministries and representatives of persons with disabilities. It was created in 2004 by Royal Decree 1865/2004 (Disability High Level Group Report, 2010, p. 83).The National Disability Council is regulated by Royal Decree 1855/2009. It is under the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, and works in collaboration with associations of people with disabilities and their families for the definition and coordination of social policies.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A7. Independent mechanism

The Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) is the Spanish umbrella organization representing the interests of more than 3.5 million women and men with disabilities in Spain. The mission of CERMI is to guarantee equal opportunities of women and men with disabilities and to protect their human rights, ensuring they are fully included in society. CERMI is an independent civil society organization.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2012-12-06

A8. Official reporting

The initial Spanish state report was due in June 2010 and finalised in May 2010. It was deposited at the UN on 1 July 2010.

The UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities considered the initial report of Spain (CRPD/C/ESP/1) at its 56th and 57th meetings, held on 20 September 2011, and adopted concluding observations at its 62nd meeting, held on 23 September 2011, that constitute a framework to continue with the labour of implementing CRPD in Spain. There is an inter-ministerial work group that was created to draw up an integral study of Spanish law, with the objective of adapting it to the Convention;s provisions. This group was approved by the Council of Ministers on 10 July 2009. It is presided over by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and includes all the ministries. It is advised by the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI). This work group prepared the first comprehensive report to the UN Convention Committee for submission. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (currently the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality), CERMI and the ONCE Foundation signed a Declaration to support the UNCRPD (Disability High Level Group report, 2010, p. 84). On 30 March 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Services published a Report on measures to adapt the legislation to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

No civil society reports were submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report or the List of Issues. There is participation of the academic sector through Madrid’s Carlos III University, in the elaboration of reports relative to Spanish legislation that needs to be adapted to the provisions of the UNCRPD. The Human Rights Institute ‘Bartolome de las Casas’, University Carlos III of Madrid, has developed a report on ’The Impact of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Law for Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for People in a situation of dependency (Law 39/2006)’, commissioned by CERMI. There is another report written by an Independent Living Association (SOLCOM) that examines UNCRPD violations.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2015-03-11

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

In Spanish Law, the evolution in the treatment of disability towards a social model had already occurred before the passing and the coming into effect on 3 May 2008 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This evolution started with the passing of the important Law 13/1982, of 7 April, of Social Integration of Disabled Persons (LISMI) and culminated with the passing of Law 51/2003, of 2 December, of equal opportunities, non- discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (LIONDAU) and its implementing rules. Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution states that 'Spanish people are equal before the law without any discrimination on grounds of birth, race, sex, religion, or any other condition or personal or social circumstance'. Articles 38, 49 and 50 of Law 13/1982 on Social Integration of Disabled People use the word discrimination but do not include relevant measures. In Spain, non-discrimination measures were promoted with the passing of the Law 51/2003, 2 December, on equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (LIONDAU) and its implementing rules. On August 2011, Law 26/2011, of 1 August, proclaimed the Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad), that affected Law 51/2003.
In the field of employment, Spain has the Royal Legislative Decree 2/2015, of 23 October, which approves the consolidated text of the Workers' Statute Act. This regulation includes the prohibition of discrimination in labour matters.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

In Spain there is a traditional guardianship orientation, which runs counter to Article 12 of the UN Convention, concerning equal recognition before the law and support to exercise legal capacity. There is also a lack of state regulation concerning support for decision making. Supports for self-determination mainly come from organizations of people with disabilities. In Spain, a procedure of legal incapacitation begins with a written request by the family of the mentally disabled person to a judge (Court of 1st Instance), which states that he/she is incapable and needs the designation of a guardian. The assistance of a lawyer and a solicitor is required for starting this procedure. That letter must be forwarded to the disabled individual who may answer the letter in 20 days. After 20 days without a reply, a barrister is appointed to represent the person who is allegedly incapable. The trial period, where it must be proven that the disabled person is incapable, begins at this point. This is done in various ways, such as: a) hearing the relatives and/or other close family members who are involved, examining documentary evidence, medical reports, psychological assessments, etc.; b) forensic examination usually performed by medical specialists in neurology or psychiatry or by the coroner’s court; c) consideration of the person presumed incapable by the court itself (Verdugo, Jenaro, & Campo, 2009, p.3). The decision of legal incapacitation can be either total, where people deemed incapable cannot manage their property or themselves, or in part, where there is an inability to perform certain acts without the assistance of another person. The decision also determines who will be the guardian; whether it be the parents, if an adult still lives with them or another appointed person.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-12-07

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

According to Article 3 of the Organic Law 5/1985, of June 19, the General Electoral Regime, establishes that the following do not have the right to vote : a) those sentenced by judgement to the deprivation of the right to vote for time for endorsement of sentence; b) those declared incapable by virtue of a final judgement, provided that it is expressly stated their inability to exercise the right to vote; and c) those admitted to a psychiatric hospital with judicial authorisation, during the period of their internment, provided that the judge expressly stated the inability to exercise the right to vote. In other situations, there is the right to vote.

Despite the above, it should be noted that in Spain many people with intellectual disabilities, as well as people with Down Syndrome, are deprived of their right to vote because they were legally declared incapable (see the document: The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. From rights to facts (2015)).

The Organic Law 2/2011 of 28 January, amending the Organic Law 5/1985 of 19 June, on the General Electoral System establishes, at point Thirty-One: Paragraph 2 of Article 87, that ‘the Government (with a report from the Central Electoral Board), will regulate the voting procedure for the blind or visually impaired to enable them to exercise their right to vote, ensuring the secrecy of the vote, which shall, in any case, elections to the Chamber of Deputies and Senate elections to the European Parliament and the assumptions of referendum’. People with disabilities who are judged to lack legal capacity may not vote, in accordance with the Act on the General Election System (Article 3.1 b)-c) Law on Regime of General Elections). Limitations on voting rights are also enshrined in the Spanish Constitution.

On 24 October 2013, the Constitutional Committee has unanimously approved an initiative urging the Government to prepare a report within six months, with specific proposals for adaptation of Spanish legislation to the UN Convention on Disabilities, ratified by Spain in 2008, among which is a reform of the Electoral reform Law so all persons with disabilities can vote. It is currently estimated that there are about 80,000 people with intellectual disabilities who cannot vote.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

B4. Official recognition of sign language

In Spain, Law 27/2007, of 23 October, recognizes Spanish sign languages and regulates the means of support for oral communication of the deaf, hearing impaired and deaf - blind people. The dissemination of the UNCRPD has been a priority in the actions undertaken in Spain and the Convention has been published and distributed in different accessible formats. The Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad and the CNSE Foundation have collaborated with the publication of the Spanish and Catalan sign language formats, as a mechanism of promoting the UNCRPD.
It is also possible to mention Royal Decree 921/2010, of 16 July, amending the Statute of the Royal Patronage on Disability approved by Royal Decree 946/2001, of August 3, to regulate the Centre for Language Normalisation of the Spanish Sign Language
Other regulations at the national level are:

  • Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on the adaptation of Spanish legislation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • Order ECD / 1542/2015, of July 21, establishing the curriculum of the higher education cycle corresponding to the title of Higher Technician in Communicative Mediation.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The Third National Action Plan for People with Disabilities 2009–2012 sets out an agenda and a set of principles for action. It includes a special call for equal opportunities for young people, and also specific measures to promote social participation and social leadership, as well as education, sport and leisure. The Spanish Strategy on Disability 2012-2020 is based on the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 and the Europe 2020 strategy. It aims to improve the welfare of people with disabilities and includes the basic lines of public policy to be developed in the years of its application. Its content has its fundamental references in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Law 51/2003, of equal opportunity, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for people with disabilities. Its strategic objective is to contribute to meeting the objectives of Europe 2020 and the National Reform Programme 2011 of Spain through actions aimed at improving, in the field of disability, areas such as accessibility to the environment, improving knowledge about the life situation of people with disabilities to overcome barriers participation in the exercise of rights, equal treatment and non-discrimination. The purpose of the Spanish Strategy on Disability, therefore, is to enable all people with disabilities to enjoy their rights and therefore the society as a whole and people with disabilities themselves can fully benefit from their contribution in the economy and social life. Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013, of 29 November. This Royal Legislative Decree, approving the revised text of the General Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its social inclusion, is an application of the second final provision of Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. According to this new normative, Government will draw up every four years a National Plan for Prevention of Deficiencies and Intensification of Disabilities. It will be presented to the General Courts, informing annually its development and the degree of compliance. According to this normative, the Office of Attention to Disability is the National Council of Disability responsible for promoting equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of persons with disabilities. References that are made in the legal system to the Special Permanent Office shall be made to the Office of Attention to Disability. The Spanish Strategy Action Plan on Disability 2014-2020 that was approved by the Council of Ministers on 12 September 2014, states several target areas: employment, education, etc. The three priorities of the Strategic Plan are: (1) promote employment and combat wage discrimination. This axis include measures in education, to develop specific educational programs supporting and reinforcing students especially vulnerable (immigrants, Roma, disabled or suffering violence environments). (2) Conciliation and responsibility. (3) Combating violence against women. National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 includes 53 measures dedicated to promoting social and labor inclusion through employment of the most vulnerable people, with special attention to families with children at risk. These actions are organised around six operational objectives: (1) adapt active employment policies to the specific needs of socially vulnerable people through employment pathways and personalized support; (2) effective coordination of employment and social services; (3) promote entrepreneurship and self-employment; (4) support for integration enterprises and social economy; (5) adequacy of guidance and job placement (public employment services and agencies) to the needs of people, with the support of the Third Sector of Social Action; (6) support for reconciliation, promotion of business responsibility and rationalisation and flexibility of schedules. Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society argues that although the digital access gap and the use of computers and the Internet in recent years tends to close, women continue to generally use less frequent than men. Thus, the agenda includes among its objectives to promote the inclusion and literacy and training in new ICT occupations. Included, also, are objectives and activities directed specifically to ensure that inequalities and differences due to multiple factors are reduced enabling the exercise of the right to equal opportunities and non-discrimination. II National Strategic Plan for Children and Adolescents 2013-2016. Its objective four relates to protection and social inclusion: strengthening social intervention and care of children and adolescents at risk, vulnerable, disabled and/or socially excluded, establishing shared quality and practices susceptible to evaluation. Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017 includes measures to support large families, single parents and families with people with disabilities. Help families with fewer resources to meet costs associated with education and certain services such as phone service, transportation, etc. Resolution of 25 July 2013, the Ministry of Social Services and Equality amending the Agreement on common criteria, conditions and recommendations of comprehensive care plans for children under three years in a situation of dependence or at risk. The aim and purpose of this agreement is to set common standards, recommendations and minimum requirements to be met by Comprehensive Care Plans for children under three years of age in a dependent, or being at risk of developing a dependent condition. These standards should promote personal autonomy, so that they can enhance their ability to development and welfare, allowing inclusion in the family, school and social environment.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-04-27

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities, introduces the principle of ’universal accessibility‘ in law. In Article 7 of Law 51/2003, reasonable accommodation is defined as ’measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as other citizens‘. The material scope of this Law is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. In Spain, the Autonomous Regions have exclusive responsibility (i.e. they legislate and execute legislation) in the field of accessibility on their territories. Royal Decree 1544/2007, of 23 November, regulates the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for access and use of transport for people with disabilities is the specific legislation in this area; regulations referring to vehicles and also buildings and facilities involved in transport activity are to be found in this Decree. Spain implemented the National Accessibility Plan 2004-2012 that targeted to consolidate a ‘Design for All’ model, aiming to introduce accessibility in public infrastructure, to create a regulatory system for the promotion of accessibility, to adapt environments, products and services to 'Design for All' (universal design) criteria, and to promote accessibility in new technologies. In August 2011, Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. The fifth additional provision with the following wording was added: 'Fifth additional provision. Assessment of accessibility in State-owned infrastructure'. Projects of general interest of transportation infrastructure such as roads, railways, airports and ports, promoted by the General Administration of the State, will incorporate an accessibility assessment that will examine alternatives and determine the technical solutions needed to ensure universal accessibility and non-discrimination for all citizens with disabilities. For example, Law 38/2015, of September 29 on the rail sector, which is related to the reform of rail transport and includes, among its measures, to improve the quality and accessibility. It states that the travel agencies must facilitate information in appropriate, accessible and understandable formats. The rail sector should also ensure that the services are provided in accordance with the rules governing the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for access and use of rail transport. Failure to comply with the accessibility is considered a very serious offense.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

C2. Built environment accessibility

Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities introduces the principle of 'universal accessibility'. In Article 7 of the Law, reasonable accommodation is defined as 'measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as for other citizens'. The material scope of this Law is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. The Royal Decree 505/2007 of 20 April, approving the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination of persons with disabilities to the access and use of urban public spaces and buildings, is the specific normative in this area. This Royal Decree sets out accessibility and non-discrimination standards in public spaces and infrastructures. Law 51/2003 provides that new goods and services must comply with the accessibility conditions before 2011 if they are public and before 2021 if they are private. In this sense, new developed public spaces and housing must comply with the accessibility conditions before 2011. In August 2011, Law 26/2011 of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad) was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. In relation to accessibility, such as key and element essential for the full realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities, emphasises the modification of the Horisontal Property Law. Amending paragraph 2 of Article 10 of Law 49/1960, of 21 July, on Horisontal Property, which is drawn up in the following way:'§2. Likewise, the community, at the request of the owners whose housing, work or pay their altruistic services or volunteer people with disabilities, or over seventy years of age, shall be bound to perform the actions and works of accessibility which are necessary for a proper usage of the common elements, or for installation of mechanical and electronic devices that facilitate their communication with the outside' whose total amount does not exceed twelve ordinary monthly payments of common costs'. A fifth additional provision with the following wording was also added: 'Fifth additional provision. Assessment of accessibility in State-owned infrastructure'. Projects of general interest of transportation infrastructure such as roads, railways, airports and ports, promoted by the General Administration of the State, will incorporate an accessibility assessment that examine alternatives and determine the technical solutions needed to ensure universal accessibility and non-discrimination for all citizens with disabilities. More recently, Law 8/2013 of 26 June, on Rehabilitation, regeneration and urban renewal was adopted. In addition, each Autonomous Community has developed their own laws.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-06-09

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Law 51/2003 does not establish a legal obligation to provide access to information. Article 12 of this Law provides only that 'the public authorities shall conduct and promote informative activities, awareness campaigns, training actions and any other measures that may be required to promote equal opportunities and non-discrimination'. However, this Law contains a seventh final provision that recommends that the Government should, in the two-year interval before its entry into force, establish some basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for the access to and the use of technologies, products and services related to the information society and the media. Royal Decree 1494/2007 of 12 November approves the regulation on basic conditions for access of disabled people to technologies, products and services related to information society and the media. Law 34/2002 of July 11 on the information society and eCommerce services, in its fifth additional provision, obliges the public administration to adopt the necessary measures so that the information available on their respective Internet websites can be accessible to the elderly and disabled. In August 2011, Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities) was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. It added a new paragraph to the fifth additional provision of law 34/2002, of 11 July, of Services of the Information Society and Electronic Commerce, with the following wording: 'Fifth additional provision. Accessibility for people with disabilities and elderly to information provided by electronic means. Web pages that serve as a support or channel to online social networks, developed by entities whose turnover annual operations, calculated pursuant to the value added tax regulations, exceed 6 101 121.04 euros, must satisfy, from 31 December 2012, as a minimum, the average level of the generally recognised criteria of content accessibility. UNE 139803: 2012. Accessibility Requirements for web content: It is a Spanish standard recently approved (July 2012) that establishes accessibility requirements for web content. As for your reference requirements completely Accessibility Guidelines for Web content WCAG2.0, of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), Web Consortium (W3C) therefore there is a direct equivalence between them. This rule updates the UNE 139803: 2004. Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society argues that although the digital access gap and use of computers and the Internet in recent years tends to close, women continue to generally use ICT less frequent than men. Thus, the agenda includes among its objectives to promote the inclusion, literacy and training in new ICT occupations. Included, also, are objectives and activities directed specifically to ensure that inequalities and differences due to multiple factors are reduced enabling the exercise of the right to equal opportunities and non-discrimination. Spain has signed the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled on 16 July 2015.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-04-27

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

In Spain, segregated residential options continue to be the main option, and public administration organisations spend most resources on these, however there are choices for disabled people to live independently in their own homes and in the community, resulting from the passing of the Law 39/2006, of 14 December on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons, and the Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities. However, there are no structured policies promoting independent living that follow the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; only some groups of people with disabilities and some disability associations are playing a role in promoting independent living. In addition, there are important differences among Autonomous Communities in applying new Acts and in developing new regulations to facilitate independent living (Verdugo, Jenaro & Campo, 2009). Law 39/2006 could be considered a significant new proposal for future policies to support people living in the community rather than in institutions; it regulates the basic conditions that should guarantee equality in the promotion of personal autonomy and care for dependent persons, by creating a System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency (SAAD). With the SAAD, all elderly or disabled people who cannot fend for themselves will be attended to by government, by ensuring access to public social services and economic performance more suited to their needs. People with mental health conditions may be deprived of their liberty and made to stay in an institution for which a legal decision is needed.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D2. De-institutionalisation

In Spain, segregated residential options continue to be the main option, and public administration organizations spend most resources on these, but there are choices for disabled people to live independently in their own homes and in the community resulted from the passing of the Law 39/2006 of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons and the Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities. Both Acts have encouraged people with disabilities to live in their community.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D3. Quality of social services

The Autonomous Communities or the competent Administration, credited to the centres and contracted services to be part of the network system, and centres and services arranged for them to pay attention to people in situations of dependency so they can perceive the economic benefit linked. Similarly, private entities will be credited for each of the centres and services in the catalogue of the Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons. Quality requirements and standards will be established in the following areas, taking into account the number of places, the intensity in the provision of, and the types of resources and services they should offer: a) material and equipment to ensure the provision of services tailored to the needs of people in a situation of dependence, and the intensities, security and accessibility; b) the requirements and standards on human resources will be directed to ensure proper service delivery, including the number of professionals, such as in training and retraining for job performance.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-30

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

Support for assistive equipment and adaptations is regulated at the level of the Autonomous Communities and there are significant differences between them. There are also financial limits for the different technical aids so disabled people must co-fund these. Financial limits for equipment and adaptations are determined by each Autonomous Community. Each Autonomous Community publishes yearly information on technical aids or adaptations in the home, giving the requirements and maximum amounts payable per type of product, for example, the amount for acquisition of a vehicle and for its adaptation, for the removal of barriers in vehicles, for home adaptations, and for acquisition of hearing aids, prescription glasses and technical aids. Some requirements for eligibility are having a certified disability, being under 65, and having income within certain limits. Law 39/2006 (Article 22) includes a personal alert system as a specific service for the promotion of personal autonomy and for attention and care.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Since the implementation in 2007 of the Law on promoting personal autonomy and care for people in a situation of dependency, the financial income of disabled people has been an important political question. According to Article 2, Personal Assistance consists of a service provided by a personal assistant who performs the dependent person’s everyday tasks, with the aim of encouraging his/her independent living and promoting and reinforcing his/her personal autonomy (Law 39/2006, p.45).Personal assistance services and assistive equipment and adaptations are supported and regulated by this law. Nevertheless, availability of support (types, resources) differs between the Autonomous Communities (there are 17 in Spain). Eligibility criteria are based on a medical approach (i.e. level of dependence). The scale used is focused on physical disabilities and aims to measure functional capabilities, instead of the assistance required for daily living. Support for personal assistance is financially constrained and it is only available for those disabled people classified as having major dependency, and less than 1% of disabled people classified as having major dependency are receiving personal assistance.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

D6. Income maintenance

Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled establishes social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities in the fields of social benefits, social security, education, work and housing. There are two types of pensions in Spain for disabled people: Contributory and Non-Contributory. The first one relates to the pensioner’s wages and number of years worked. The Non-Contributory pension is for disabled people who have not worked; it ensures medical care and social services. The criteria for eligibility are: being over 18 and below 65 years of age; being a Spanish resident or to have lived in Spain for the last five years; having an average of disability over 65%; and finally there is an income criterion. Other specific groups to consider with regard to additional improvements in the lowest pensions are: pensions of the Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance, SOVI, which is being phased out; social welfare pensions for the sick and elderly; and those under the repealed Law on the Social Integration of the Disabled.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

D7. Additional costs

Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled establishes social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities in the fields of social benefits, social security, education, work and housing. Additional benefits for disabled people are the Minimum Income Guarantee Subsidy, the Personal Assistant Subsidy, the Mobility and Transport Subsidy, and Pharmacy and Medical Care. As a consequence of the Laws 51/2003 and 39/2006, more services for disabled people and their families are available. It has had a significant impact on service delivery, using personal assistance budgets, direct payments, allowances to individuals or their care givers, respite care, living arrangements and work rehabilitation services.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

D8. Retirement income

Retirement income for persons with disabilities is managed in the same way as for other people: if they have been working they get the same money. Royal Decree 1851/2009, of 4 December, established the earlier retirement of workers with disabilities equal to or above 45% from 65 to 58 years of age. In the past, there was the Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance (SOVI), but it is no longer available, although there are people receiving it still.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

E. Education

E1. Special schools

Equal treatment and non-discrimination have been consolidated as basic principles of education in Spain (Cachón, 2009, p. 51).The passage of the Organic Law on Education through Parliament was marked by a fierce campaign against it by conservative organisations because the Law seeks to establish a more even distribution of pupils with special needs between state schools and state-subsidised private schools. One of the key points of the political debate was the clash between the right of parents to freely choose a school for their children, and the right to education and access thereto on equal terms. The Law strikes a balance between these principles, stating that ’families may apply for admission at the schools to which they wish to send their children‘ (Art. 86.3), but also providing the possibility of setting up ’committees or other bodies to guarantee admission‘ (Cachón, 2009, p. 52).The Law on the social integration of disabled people attempts to integrate the people with disabilities into ’the ordinary system of general education, receiving, in this case, the support and resource programmes that the Law recognizes‘. A special education system is provided that can be either temporary or permanent for those disabled people for whom attendance within the ordinary educational system is impossible. According to the Spanish Independent Living Forum, the legal and policy framework is developed in 17 different ways in the 17 Autonomous Communities or regions, and the country still has 20% of students educated in segregated specific schools. In the case of specific institutions for special education that provide education for students who cannot enter an inclusive framework, only two educational levels are carried out: basic compulsory education (6 to 16 years of age) and complementary vocational training or programmes for transition to adult life (16 to 19 years of age). Students at these institutions may be enrolled up to the maximum age of 20 (on an exceptional basis up to the age of 21). In special education classrooms, the ratio is 10-12 students per teacher (physical or serious hearing disabilities), 8-12 (physical disabilities), 6-8 (several disabilities), and 3-5 (autistic or severe personality problems).

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

E2. Mainstream schools

Disabled people are recognised in national laws, policies and strategies as having equal rights to their peers in schools. However, more legislation has been developed for compulsory educational levels than for higher education or adult education levels. The Organic Law 2/2006 of Education offers, at national level, the legal framework to provide and assure the right to education. The Autonomous Communities regulate the adaptation of this Law to their territories (European Agency, 2009). There are differences among the different 17 autonomous communities of the country. Financial and personal supports are generally available throughout Spain in primary and secondary levels of education, but they are lacking in the transition years to adult life. Compulsory education includes a broad number of support measures in integrated settings for disabled students, such as: conditions for school building facilities to facilitate access, movement and communication, in accordance with accessibility legislation; special curriculum access adaptations or curricular adaptations such as modifications in the objectives, contents, methodology, activities and assessment criteria and procedures; additional support provided by specialist teachers, including physiotherapists, psychologists, speech therapists, teaching assistants, and peripatetic special education teachers who go to students’ homes or hospitals; special teaching methods and materials, including Braille, tactile sensory stimulation and space-time orientation, sign language and alternative communication systems, and didactic resources; reduced class sizes in mainstream classrooms, the maximum number or students per classroom is 25 and the maximum number of disabled students per classroom is two (a local education commission decides in which mainstream school pupils are located); special arrangements for evaluation or progress through education, in which the use of diverse assessment tools and procedures is recommended, such as observation, questionnaires and interviews) (Verdugo, Jenaro, & Campo, 2009c, p.4).

During 2012-2013 [Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2014), the percentage of students with special educational needs due to a disability in non-university education was 2.1% of all students. Except for students who are in special education, the percentage of integrated students in preschool education was 0.9%; in primary education it was 2.2%; in secondary education it was 2.4%, in high school it was 0.3%. In addition, in intermediate vocational training degree it was 0.9%; in vocational education degree it was 0.1%, and on initial vocational qualification programs it was 4.4%. Those percentages support the notion that a significant number of students with disabilities are not included or they may not finish their studies.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

Children with visual or hearing impairments have a right to but do not learn Braille or sign language in their school. Blind children usually learn Braille with the ONCE (National Organisation of Blind People) teachers and deaf children often learn sign language in other associations. ONCE is a non-profit corporate organisation that focuses its activities on the improvement of the quality of life of people with blindness or severe visual impairment all over Spain. In mainstream schools additional support is provided by specialist teachers who are specialised in special education and/or in visual and/or hearing and speech difficulties.
Some examples of good practices in inclusive education of students with disabilities have been developed in Spanish schools.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

E4. Vocational training

Legislation in Spain states that the general objectives for students with special educational needs must be those generally established for all students, with the necessary curricular adaptations. For those unable to achieve the objectives, public administrations are to promote training programmes adapted to the students’ specific needs, aiming at facilitating their social and employment inclusion through training programmes. Major policy changes that occurred in recent years relate to: 1) the Organic Law 2/2006 on Education that introduces the new Initial Professional Qualification Programmes (PCPI), formerly called Social Guarantee Programmes (PGS); 2) the Royal Decree 1538/2006, which established the general organisation of vocational training within the education system; 3) the vocational training for employment (Royal Decree 395/2007) that establishes the current model for continuing training in Spain, which is called ’continuing vocational education and training‘ (CVET). Autonomous Communities have the responsibility to draw up, approve and execute different training courses. The Law establishes that students who do not achieve the objectives of compulsory secondary education are entitled to enroll in specific social guarantee programmes. They may enroll either in the general social guarantee programmes, under the integrative framework, or in social guarantee programmes specifically designed for them. Programmes for transition to adult life or of complementary vocational training aim fundamentally at developing abilities linked to professional occupations, personal independence and social integration. The Organic Law on Education also provides a measure for positive action (Art. 75), stating that ‘The educational authorities shall establish a reserve quota of places in vocational training for pupils with disabilities’. Concerning more recent Educational policies, it is possible to mention Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, improvement of educational quality (LOMCE) that aims to address the main problems identified in the Spanish education system and promote the quality and excellence, improve student outcomes and transforming education for overcoming the challenges faced by Spain in Europe 2020. It is mandatory that assessments are tailored to the needs of students with special educational needs and support for these students they will be established. The main objectives of the reform and related issues identified in the initial part of this report is to reduce the rate of early school leaving, flexible itineraries for students, promote vocational training, improve employability and boost the entrepreneurial spirit among the students. Regarding training policies promoted by other ministries and targeting groups at risk of exclusion, there are several initiatives worthy to mention:

  • Law 30/2015, of September 9, whereby the vocational training system for use in the workplace is regulated: has four strategic objectives: (1) the guarantee of the right to training of workers, employed and unemployed, in particular the most vulnerable; (2) the effective contribution of training to the competitiveness of enterprises; (3) the strengthening of collective bargaining on the adequacy of the training to the requirements of the productive system, and (4) the efficiency and transparency in the management of public resources. It establishes inter alia that vocational training for employment may be given in person, by teletraining, low platforms and content accessible to people with disabilities, or a mixed form by combining the above two methods.

  • Spanish Strategy of Activation for Employment 2014-2016: groups all the strategies of public employment services and raises the annual employment policy plans and annual applications of this strategy. It includes six areas focused on: (1) orientation, (2) training; (3) employment opportunities, special consideration to the situation of persons with disabilities; (4) equal opportunities in access to employment; (5) business; (6) Improving the institutional framework of the National Employment System.

  • Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014: includes five strategic objectives: (1) improve the employability of young people and implement the National Plan of Implementation of the National System of Youth Guarantee in Spain; (2) promote the employability of other groups particularly affected by unemployment: over 55 years, long-term unemployed and beneficiaries; (3) improve the quality of vocational training for employment; (4) strengthen the linkage of active and passive employment policies; (5) and promote entrepreneurship.

  • National Implementation Plan of the National System of Youth Guarantee: is an initiative of the European Union that targets young people between 16 and 29 not in education, employment or training (NEET), who can receive a job offer or training after completing their studies.

  • Youth Employment and Entrepreneurship Strategy 2013- 2016: The actions foreseen in the Strategy are aimed, in general, at youth under 30, especially those who are unemployed. In the case of people with disabilities with a recognized degree or above 33%, it rises to five years. It consists of 100 measures to adapt education and training to the real labor market, needs related to improving the guidance, support and information when looking for a job, among others.

  • Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017: includes measures to support large families, single parents and families with people disabilities. It help families with fewer resources to meet costs associated with education (e.g. acquisition of text books) and certain services such as phone service, transportation, etc. It includes measures such as: convene and develop the general system of scholarships and study grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, with special attention to families in difficult economic situation and for students with specific educational needs.

  • 'Empléate: Single Portal of Employment and Self Employment': includes four employment services: 1) a professional orientation (from the identification of the professional profile of the worker to the advice on market trends); 2) placement services and advice to companies (to ensure the best matching between vacancies and applications for employment); 3) service training and qualifications for employment (which include, among others, account management training of workers) and 4) a counseling service for self-employment and entrepreneurship (to promote entrepreneurship and boost local economic development).

Several additional and specific measures have been developed, aimed at reinforcing a more market-oriented work, including vocational training:
  • Royal Decree 127/2014, by which specific aspects of Vocational Training are regulatedand basic professional titles are approved
  • Royal Decree 751/2014 that approves the Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation2014- 2016
  • Royal Decree 7/2015, that approves the Common Services Catalog of the National Employment System
  • Royal Decree 817/2014, establishing the specific aspects of professional qualifications

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-04-27

E5. Higher education

Universities in Spain are not specifically subject to non-discrimination laws in relation to disability. Public institutions such as universities have to comply with Law 51/2003, of 2 December, of equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (beyond compulsory schooling age the LIONDAU establishes the need to guarantee equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for all). However, Universities have their own normative such as: the Organic Law of Universities 6/2001, of 21 December, on Universities; the Organic Law of Universities 4/2007, of 12 April, that promotes policies to guarantee equality of opportunities for people with disabilities; and the Royal Decree 1393/2007, of 29 October, that organises university studies and includes several measures to guarantee equal access to disabled students. It also establishes the possibility of making curricular adaptations, although many of this type of adjustments are made at the discretion of each professor. At university level there are Disabled Student Offices where a disability specialist gives support to disabled students. In some cases there are volunteers or student grants to help with these issues. The practical assistance the student can get depends on the university, Disability Service Office and the student needs. Assistance could include: support during access tests, curricular adaptations, free fares, grants, note takers, support products, volunteering support, Braille transcription, sign language interpreter, etc. Education is free of charge in Spain up to secondary level but disabled students also have free tuition fees at public universities. Generally, public universities organize the support to students with disabilities much better than private ones.

Two studies conducted by Universia Foundation show that the percentage of students with disabilities in undergraduate studies was about 1.3% in 2013 and 2014. The percentage of students from Master and PhD was less than 1.3%, which suggests that not all students with disabilities, who access tertiary education, finish their Master or PhD studies.

Other studies conducted by Universia Foundation indicate that the number of students with disabilities is decreasing in universities (1.2% of students with disabilities in undergraduate, first and second cycle courses reaches 0.5% of students with disabilities who study postgraduate and master's degrees and 0.3% of students with disabilities who undertake doctoral studies).

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

National legislation applies the principle of non-discrimination to all sectors of public and private employment and occupation, including contract work, self-employment and holding statutory office. Art. 16.2 of the Workers’ Statute provides that (public and private) employment services should guarantee ’the principle of equal treatment in access to employment, and may not make any discrimination on grounds of origin, including racial or ethnic origin, gender, age, (...) religion or beliefs, (...) sexual orientation, (...) or disability’. Accordingly, any job advertisement that does not respect this precept constitutes direct discrimination, even when an employer advertises a vacancy directly without using an employment service (Cachón, 2009, p. 29). The Workers’ Statute has been amended several times (1983, 1984 and most importantly, 1994, the year of the labour legislation reform), usually to continue adapting labour regulations to changes in the production system and to strengthen the position of the most representative trade unions in the Spanish industrial relations system (Eurofound 2009). Law 62/2003 (Art.28.1.c) defines indirect discrimination as ’where a legal or administrative provision, a clause of a collective agreement or contract, an individual agreement or a unilateral decision, though apparently neutral, would put a person of a certain racial or ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, disability, age or sexual orientation at a particular disadvantage in relation to others, provided that such provision is not objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary’ (Cachón, 2009, p.30). Some Articles of the Workers’ Statute have been updated according to this 62/2003 Law. For example, Art.4 on Labour Rights, section 2c, states that workers may not be discriminated against based on a disability (Workers’ Statute). Additional articles have been reworded after passing of the Law 3/2007 of 22 March, for effective equality between women and men. Art.4.2e states that privacy and dignity must be preserved, as well as protection against mobbing based on characteristics such as disability.

In 2013, one of the most important changes, concerning employment policies, was the publication by the Ministry of Employment and Social Security of the Strategy for Entrepreneurship and Young Employment 2013-2016. One-hundred new measures related to employment of young people under 30 years are proposed in this Strategy. In the case of young people with disabilities age increases five years, up to 35. Young people with disabilities who want to register as Self-Employed will have a reduction of 80% in fees to Social Security during the first 12 months, and then will remain 50% bonus up to a maximum of five years.

Another important change in employment are measures taken in law 14/2013, 27 September, of Support for Entrepreneurs and their Internationalization in which referred to tax incentives to create jobs for workers with disabilities or reductions from Social Security contributions for workers with disabilities self-employed. All these measures reference to Spanish Disability Strategy, European Disability Strategy and UNCRPD.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

F2. Public employment services

Current arrangements for providing employment advice and support services to disabled people in mainstream employment depend on the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) previously known as the INEM (National Institute on Employment). This agency comes under the Ministry of Work and Immigration. Each Autonomous Community (AC) has its own Public Service of Employment, given that competences in employment, education, health, etc. have been transferred to different ACs.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

F3. Workplace adaptations

The Law 13/1982 states that ’the employer is obliged to adopt appropriate measures, according to the needs of each specific situation in order to enable disabled people to have access to employment, to do a job, to advance in a profession and to undergo training, unless such measures would entail an excessive burden for the employer’ (Art. 37 section 2). National law, transposing Directive 2000/78 has implemented the duty to provide reasonable accommodation for disabled people both in general terms (Law 51/2003 on equal opportunities for the disabled) and in employment (Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled). Law 49/2007 (on offences and sanctions in the field of equality for disabled people) establishes sanctions in the event of a breach of the duty to provide reasonable accommodation. In Art. 7 of Law 51/2003, reasonable accommodation is defined as ’measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as for other citizens‘. The material scope of this Law 51/2003 is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. The definition of ’disproportionate burden‘ is the same for employment and areas outside employment. Art. 27.2 of Law 62/2003 provides that measures for the application of the principle of equal treatment under it apply to every person, both in the public and the private sector. Although Directive 2000/78 only refers to the field of employment, discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation is prohibited in all areas, public and private. This applies not only to the fields mentioned in Directive 2000/43 (social protection, social advantages, education, access to and supply of goods and services available to the public, including housing), but also to other possible fields, even if there is not an explicit anti-discrimination provision, because of the general and direct applicability of Article 14 of the Constitution.

There are several general plans and programs dealing with accessibility issues. For example, the Strategic Plan for Equal Opportunities 2014-2016 that includes three priorities: (1) employment and combat wage discrimination. In this axis measures in education, consisting of developing specific educational programs support and reinforcement to especially vulnerable students (immigrants, Roma, disabled people or people suffering from violence) are included; (2) conciliation and responsibility; (3) combating violence against women.

Likewise, the Action Plan 2014-2016 of the Spanish Disability Strategy 2012-2020 includes 100 measures that are divided into five areas: (1) equality for all people, (2) employment, (3) education, (4) availability, (5) boosting the economy. These axes are developed through operational targets and specific actions. The Plan intends to promote the accessibility to goods and services.

Some specific additional measures on accessibility have been developed, such as Law 30/2015, of September 9, whereby the vocational training system for use in the workplace is regulated: This amendment has four strategic objectives: (1) guarantee the right to training of workers, employed and unemployed, in particular the most vulnerable; (2) make an effective contribution of training to the competitiveness of enterprises; (3) strengthen collective bargaining on the adequacy of the training to the requirements of the productive system, and (4) establish efficiency and transparency in the management of public resources. It establishes inter alia that vocational training for employment may be given in person, by teletraining and content accessible to people with disabilities or a mixed form by combining the previous two methods.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

F4. Financial incentives

There are several financial incentives for the employment of disabled workers in the open labour market (e.g. wage subsidies, enforcement of employment quotas, tax concessions). Given that competencies for Employment are transferred to the different autonomous communities, each region has its own incentives. For example, by accessing online the Public Service of Employment of Castilla y León, it is possible to access information on different contracts that may be signed with workers with disabilities. There are ten different types of contracts, each of them with different financial incentives: 1) contract for the training of people with disabilities; 2) contract for practices for people with disabilities; 3) temporary replacement of people with disabilities; 4) permanent contract for people with disabilities; 5) temporary contract for people with disabilities; 6) transforming a temporary contract in the open market into a permanent contract for workers with disabilities; 7) contract for persons with disabilities in Special Employment Centres (Sheltered Workshops); 8) transforming a temporary contract in Special Employment Centres into a permanent contract for workers with disabilities; 9) permanent contract for people with disabilities coming from Enclaves or Mobile Work Crews; 10) application of incentives for permanent contracts or conversion of temporary contracts into permanent contracts for disabled workers, for adapting job positions or for providing means of protection.

Several Plans, programs, and laws have been developed in response to the economic crisis and the need for protection of specially disadvantaged groups. First, the National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 that includes 53 measures dedicated to promoting social and labor inclusion through employment of the most vulnerable people, with special attention to families with children at risk. These actions are organized around six operational objectives: (1) adapt active employment policies to the specific needs of socially vulnerable people through employment pathways and personalized support; (2) effectively coordinate employment and social services; (3) promote entrepreneurship and self-employment; (4) support for integration enterprises and social economy; (5) provide adequate guidance and job placement (public employment services and agencies) to the needs of the people, with the support of the Third Sector of Social Action; (6) support reconciliation, promotion of business responsibility and rationalisation and flexibility of schedules.

Second, the Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation 2014-2016 groups all the public employment service strategies and the annual employment policy plans and annual applications of this strategy. It includes six axes focused on: (1) orientation, (2) training; (3) employment opportunities, special consideration to the situation of persons with disabilities; (4) equal opportunities in access to employment; (5) business; (6) improving the institutional framework of the National Employment System.

Third, the Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014 includes five strategic objectives: (1) improve the employability of young people and to implement the National Plan of Implementation of the National System of Youth Guarantee in Spain; (2) promote the employability of other groups particularly affected by unemployment: over the age of 55, the long-term unemployed and beneficiaries; (3) improve the quality of vocational training for employment; (4) strengthen the linkage of active and passive employment policies; and (5) promote entrepreneurship.

Fourth, the Spanish Strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility 2014-2020 aims at business, government and the rest of the organisations to move towards a society and a more competitive, productive, sustainable and inclusive economy. It includes various measures to promote the inclusion of groups at risk.

Several specific laws have also been developed. For example, Law 11/2013 of 26 July, of measures to support entrepreneurship and to stimulate growth and job creation, that includes, among other measures, reductions and rebates for contributions to Social Security for people with disabilities who are self-employed. Likewise, Law 14/2013 of 27 September, supporting entrepreneurs and their internationalization establishes, among other general measures, reductions and rebates of contributions to Social Security for people with disabilities who are self-employed. More recently, Law 31/2015, of 9 September, for amending and updating the legislation on self-employment and building measures and promotion of self-employment and social economy includes measures such as: (1) extends the possibility of public contracting with companies of insertion, which adds to the existing Special Employment Centres; (2) sets quota reductions and bonuses to Social Security for People with disabilities (…) registered as self-employed; (3) requires meeting a minimum percentage of quota to participate in contracts to Special Employment Centres and integration companies; (4) states that self-employed workers with disabilities do not lose the right to enjoy their benefits as self-employers as a result of employing other workers.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The State Observatory of Disability (Observatorio Estatal de la Discapacidad) is the main official service that compiles information on News, Statistics, Documents, Case Law, Bibliography, Legislation, Calls, Events, Aids, Directory of organizations, Collective agreements, and Links. This Observatory comes under the Ministry of Health, Social Affairs, and Equality. Most recent statistics and data on Employment can be obtained from the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) (e.g. Observatorio de las Ocupaciones, vol. 2, 2011). National reports from Verdugo, Jenaro & Campo as of 2009 offer detailed information about statistics on Employment, Social Inclusion, and education. The National Statistics Institute (INE) has been carrying out a macro survey on disabilities since 1986, published in 2008 (Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy and Dependent Situations). This is based on Spain’s ratification of the UNCRPD, related to Article 31.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

G2. Census data

The government (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Instituto de Mayores y Servicios Sociales -IMSERSO) is updating the Census to include disabled people.
The Disability Surveys are statistical operations in the form of macro-surveys, which respond to the demand for this information on behalf of the Public Administrations and of numerous users, particularly non-governmental organisations. These surveys cover a good part of the information needs regarding disability, dependency, the population ageing and the state of health of the population resident in Spain.
Three macro-surveys were conducted: the Survey on Disabilities, Impairment and Handicaps in 1986; the Survey on Disabilities, Impairment and Health Status in 1999; and the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations in 2008. The methodologies follow the World Health Organisation recommendations, and in particular, the international classifications in force during the year when the survey is carried out.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

G3. Labour Force Survey

There is a national Labour Force Survey and disabled people are identified in the collection of data. Thus, it is possible to compare the situation of employed/unemployed and active/inactive people in both the general and the disabled population. Spain included in the European LFS ad-hoc module, specifically the data from 2005-2010. Most recent statistics and data on Employment can be obtained from the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) (e.g. Observatorio de las Ocupaciones, vol. 2/2011). The situation at the end of 2012 was described in the Report of the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2013. This Report showed a decrease of 3.32% in people with disabilities' employment rate. Data from 2013 and 2014 revealed the highest number of inactive (63%) population among people with disabilities of working age. Spanish activity rates for disabled and non-disabled women and men are quite similar to the EU activity rates. The same can be said concerning age groups. These trends are also very similar since 2008, with disabled women showing the lowest activity rates, in contrast to non-disabled men who show the highest activity rates. Nevertheless, Spanish activity rates for disabled and non-disabled women (34.29%) and men (39.92%) are half of the existing for Spanish men (83.08%) and women (71.25%) without disabilities according to 2014 data published in the State Labour Market Report of Persons with Disabilities. The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain (National Observatory on Disability, 2014) states that regarding active population, gross profit analysis (salary) indicates significant differences close to EUR 2,500 per year among people with and without disabilities, with very pronounced differences depending on sex and age.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

G4. Disability equality indicators

Equality is a core and cross-sectional principle in Spanish policies. However, there are no specific disability equality indicators in every domain (e.g. communication, health, housing, independent living, justice system, etc.) to measure progress towards disability equality. The main indicators on equality are related to employment and there are monthly reports available on employment that include disabled people. The Government is initiating a project to include the disability indicators.

In 2014, there was still a general lack of indicators that disaggregated findings by disability. However, the Spanish Strategy on Disability (2012-2020), in the section on fighting social exclusion and poverty, includes two strategic measures:

  • promote specific measures to ensure compliance with the general reduction targets of people below the poverty line included in the National Reform Programme 2011 of Spain.
  • promote the full development of personal autonomy goals of the Law on Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependency

The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain states that:

  • Regarding and economic inclusion, the disadvantage of the disabled population is almost 33% compared to the general population. This is for the huge difference in labour force participation rate and by the disadvantaged in poverty levels.
  • The risk of poverty affects 32% of the disabled population, nearly 5 points higher than the general population. Meanwhile, severe poverty affects 14.7% of the population with disabilities, by 9.6% in the population without disabilities. This risk is especially high for women with disabilities.
  • Regarding social integration, 21.5% of the population with disabilities recognizes that it has few or no friends and the majority (91%) have difficulties for cultural, sporting and leisure activities.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2016-04-28

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

In Spain there are a significant number of observatories on Equality. The observatories are specialised organs on equality of gender and equal opportunities whose main objective is to advise, analyse, evaluate and disseminate all information concerning cross-cutting policies on gender equality that are being carried out in different Ministerial departments, autonomous bodies and other entities both public and private. They emphasise the need for specific attention to specially vulnerable subgroups, such as disabled women. One of the strategic objectives of the Equal Opportunities Plan (2008-2011) is to consolidate, promote and disseminate the work done by these observatories. The Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equity has developed the Strategic Plan on Equal Opportunities (2008-2011). In its Eighth Strategic Goal, the Plan states that specific attention should be given to groups of girls and women in situations of increased vulnerability to suffer from double discrimination because of (among other things) having a disability (p.41). Among the measures included in the ninth Strategic Goal, on Education, Objective 13 aims to incorporate a gender perspective in the process of evaluating the education system, by disaggregating the data by sex and crossing them with relevant variables such as disability in order to highlight the situation of these students (p. 48). Additional measures include: making accessible awareness - raising programmes and campaigns, especially those related to health issues and prevention of gender violence, so it can be easily understood by women with visual-auditory disabilities (p. 86); and conducting studies on gender violence against most vulnerable women (disabled women, etc.) (p.93); promotion of innovative projects that ensure the right to comprehensive social assistance. However the plain does not specify how this will be done of who will do it.

The Spanish Strategy Action Plan on Disability 2014-2020, in the area of Education includes on its objective 2: “Promote awareness of disability in the curriculum”, which includes.

- Advancing the inclusion of the subject of 'universal accessibility and design for all people' in the various curricula.

- Include elements in the curriculum relating to equal opportunities and rights of people with disabilities.

- Develop training plans on disabilities and include disability issues in tests to access to public education administration.

The Objective 3” To promote knowledge and awareness by the educational community to the needs of people with disabilities”, includes:

- Enhance teacher training in understanding the needs of people with disabilities.

- Promote collaboration between the educational community and disability associations.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2015-02-27

H2. Training for teachers

There are no generalised or compulsory disability awareness/equality issues training as part of initial teacher training programmes. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers.
Some recently developed initiatives have been undertaken by the CRUE (Crue Universidades Españolas), a non-profit association founded in 1994 and formed by a total of 76 Spanish universities: 50 public and 26 private universities. CRUE has published a series of documents on Curricular Training in Design for All. This line of work started in 2006 with the White Paper on Design for All at the University, prepared by the Design Coordinator for All in Spain, with the collaboration of the ONCE Foundation and the Spanish Government Agency for the management programs and benefits for the elderly and dependent (IMSERSO). In order to give continuity to this project called Curricular Training in Design for All, in 2017 two publications were developed applied to the degrees of Tourism and Education, including in this last one the Grades of Preschool Education, Primary Education and Social Education, as well such as the Master's Degree in Compulsory Secondary Education, Baccalaureate and Vocational Training and Languages.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

H3. Training for lawyers

There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of the training programmes for lawyers. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers.
The CRUE has published a document on Curricular Training in Design for All in law studies.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

H4. Training for doctors

There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of training programmes for doctors. Disabled people's organisations are not systematically involved as trainers. Recently, the CRUE has published a document on Curricular Training in Design for all people in Medical studies, as well as in Nursing studies.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

H5. Training for engineers

There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of training programmes for engineers and designers. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers.

Links

Update date: Thu, 2018-04-19

H6. International development aid

Disability mainstreaming is identified in official policies or programmes of international development aid. More specifically, the Government, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, has developed for the 2009-2012 a Master Plan for Spanish Cooperation, which is a framework document establishing the objectives, criteria, and geographic priorities for cooperative development. The Millennium Declaration and other agreements derived from the United Nations are the principal references. Disability is mentioned in different places in the Plan, prohibiting discrimination paying ‘special attention’ to vulnerable groups, supporting access to basic education and health, job creation and entrepreneurial skills, and noting the disadvantaged position of disabled women. The Strategic Plan on Equal Opportunities includes Axis 11 on Foreign policy and development cooperation (Política exterior y de cooperación para el desarrollo). Non-discrimination principles based on gender are included but there is no specific reference to disability mainstreaming.

Links

Update date: Fri, 2012-03-23

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                    [path] => 
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                    [slug] => other-european-countries
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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        )

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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => a-un-convention-status
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 8
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [rgt] => 32
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                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
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                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
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            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                    [title] => C1. Transport accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [state] => 1
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => d-independent-living
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                    [title] => D3. Quality of social services
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                    [title] => D6. Income maintenance
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
                    [state] => 1
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d7-additional-costs
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
                    [state] => 1
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            [28] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
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                    [rgt] => 57
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
                    [title] => D8. Retirement income
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 31
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                    [rgt] => 70
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => e-education
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 60
                    [rgt] => 61
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
                    [title] => E1. Special schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 62
                    [rgt] => 63
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 34
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 64
                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [33] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 66
                    [rgt] => 67
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [34] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 68
                    [rgt] => 69
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [35] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 37
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 71
                    [rgt] => 80
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 38
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 72
                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [37] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 40
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 76
                    [rgt] => 77
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [40] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 4
                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
                    [rgt] => 104
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 6
                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [31] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => EU Member States
                    [location] => Spain
                    [location_id] => 31
                    [location_slug] => spain
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Spain signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Convention on 3 December 2007. It was published on 21 April 2008 (BOE), and the UNCRPD entered into force on 3 May that year.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:23:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Instrument of Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://boe.es/boe/dias/2008/04/21/pdfs/A20648-20659.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Additional links: UNCRPD in Spain
                                                    [url] => http://www.convenciondiscapacidad.es/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => 21 April 2008 (BOE, Official Bulletin of the State)
                                                    [url] => http://boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2008-6996
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Spain signed the Optional Protocol on 30 March 2007 in New York. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on 3 December 2007. It was published on 21 April 2008 (BOE) and the instrument entered into force on 3 May that year.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:24:02
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Instrument of Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://boe.es/boe/dias/2008/04/21/pdfs/A20648-20659.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Additional links: UNCRPD in Spain
                                                    [url] => http://www.convenciondiscapacidad.es/
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => 21 April 2008 (BOE, Official Bulletin of the State)
                                                    [url] => http://boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2008-6996
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => Spain has not made any Declarations, Reservations or Objections. However, there have been several amendments to the Bill of normative adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities UNCRPD.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:24:50
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Amendments to the Congress
                                                    [url] => http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/PopUpCGI?CMD=VERLST&BASE=puw9&DOCS=1-1&QUERY=%28CDP201103310237.CODI.%29#%28P%C3%A1gina41%29
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => On 15 June 2011, the Parliament approved the Bill of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, previously discussed at the 225 plenary session of the Congress of Deputies on 31 March 2011. Moreover, the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) asked the Autonomous Communities to adapt their legislation to the Convention. CERMI has also developed a study of the impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities into Law 39/2006 December 14. On August 2011 it was proclaimed Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad. (Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities).
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:27:07
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Text adopted by the Congress of Deputies (Bill of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities)
                                                    [url] => http://www.convenciondiscapacidad.es/Noticias/Texto%20aprobado%20congreso.doc
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Bill of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.congreso.es/public_oficiales/L9/CONG/BOCG/A/A_103-12.PDF
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => CERMI has asked the Autonomous Communities to adapt their legislation to the Convention
                                                    [url] => http://www.convenciondiscapacidad.es/Noticias/Cermi_reclama_CCAA.doc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => The focal point established for matters relating to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, via the Directorate General for Disability Support Policies. The Commission on Integral Policies on Disabilities was also created in the Congress of Deputies with this purpose.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:28:15
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Organization of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality
                                                    [url] => http://www.msps.es/organizacion/ministerio/organizacion/home.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality 
                                                    [url] => http://www.msps.es/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The government coordination mechanism to protect, promote and monitor compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the National Disability Council (Consejo Nacional de la Discapacidad). This is a consulting body made up equally of representatives of all of the ministries and representatives of persons with disabilities. It was created in 2004 by Royal Decree 1865/2004 (Disability High Level Group Report, 2010, p. 83).The National Disability Council is regulated by Royal Decree 1855/2009. It is under the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, and works in collaboration with associations of people with disabilities and their families for the definition and coordination of social policies.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:29:24
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => National Disability Council
                                                    [url] => http://www.msps.es/politicaSocial/discapacidad/informacion/consejoNacionalDisc.htm
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The National Disability Council is regulated by Royal Decree 1855/2009
                                                    [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2009/12/26/pdfs/BOE-A-2009-20890.pdf
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Fourth Disability High Level Group Report on the Implementation of the UNCRPD in the Member States (2010)
                                                    [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=6851&langId=en
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => The Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) is the Spanish umbrella organization representing the interests of more than 3.5 million women and men with disabilities in Spain. The mission of CERMI is to guarantee equal opportunities of women and men with disabilities and to protect their human rights, ensuring they are fully included in society. CERMI is an independent civil society organization.
                                    [update_date] => 2012-12-06 17:30:31
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => CERMI: Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities
                                                    [url] => http://www.cermi.es/en-US/Pages/Portada.aspx
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => The initial Spanish state report was due in June 2010 and finalised in May 2010. It was deposited at the UN on 1 July 2010. 

The UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities considered the initial report of Spain (CRPD/C/ESP/1) at its 56th and 57th meetings, held on 20 September 2011, and adopted concluding observations at its 62nd meeting, held on 23 September 2011, that constitute a framework to continue with the labour of implementing CRPD in Spain. There is an inter-ministerial work group that was created to draw up an integral study of Spanish law, with the objective of adapting it to the Convention;s provisions. This group was approved by the Council of Ministers on 10 July 2009. It is presided over by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and includes all the ministries. It is advised by the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI). This work group prepared the first comprehensive report to the UN Convention Committee for submission. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (currently the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality), CERMI and the ONCE Foundation signed a Declaration to support the UNCRPD (Disability High Level Group report, 2010, p. 84). On 30 March 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Services published a Report on measures to adapt the legislation to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. [update_date] => 2015-03-03 14:58:53 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=163&DocTypeID=29 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=163 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on measures to adapt the legislation to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO23551/informe_convencio_ONU_2010.doc ) ) ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting [theme_id] => 11 [contents] => No civil society reports were submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report or the List of Issues. There is participation of the academic sector through Madrid’s Carlos III University, in the elaboration of reports relative to Spanish legislation that needs to be adapted to the provisions of the UNCRPD. The Human Rights Institute ‘Bartolome de las Casas’, University Carlos III of Madrid, has developed a report on ’The Impact of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Law for Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for People in a situation of dependency (Law 39/2006)’, commissioned by CERMI. There is another report written by an Independent Living Association (SOLCOM) that examines UNCRPD violations. [update_date] => 2015-03-11 12:35:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=163&DocTypeID=14 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Impact of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Law for Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for People in a situation of dependency [url] => http://www.cermi.es/es-ES/Biblioteca/Lists/Publicaciones/Attachments/242/El%20Impacto%20de%20la%20Convencion%20Internacional.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => SOLCOM Report 2010: Violations in Spain of the Convention on Human Rights of People with Disability (Functional Diversity) of the UN (December 2010) [url] => http://www.asociacionsolcom.org/files/documentos/Informe_SOLCOM_2010.pdf ) ) ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation [theme_id] => 13 [contents] => In Spanish Law, the evolution in the treatment of disability towards a social model had already occurred before the passing and the coming into effect on 3 May 2008 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This evolution started with the passing of the important Law 13/1982, of 7 April, of Social Integration of Disabled Persons (LISMI) and culminated with the passing of Law 51/2003, of 2 December, of equal opportunities, non- discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (LIONDAU) and its implementing rules. Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution states that 'Spanish people are equal before the law without any discrimination on grounds of birth, race, sex, religion, or any other condition or personal or social circumstance'. Articles 38, 49 and 50 of Law 13/1982 on Social Integration of Disabled People use the word discrimination but do not include relevant measures. In Spain, non-discrimination measures were promoted with the passing of the Law 51/2003, 2 December, on equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (LIONDAU) and its implementing rules. On August 2011, Law 26/2011, of 1 August, proclaimed the Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad), that affected Law 51/2003.
In the field of employment, Spain has the Royal Legislative Decree 2/2015, of 23 October, which approves the consolidated text of the Workers' Statute Act. This regulation includes the prohibition of discrimination in labour matters. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 11:58:06 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003, of 2 December, on Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination and Universal Accessibility of People with Disability [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN5979/3-5979.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution [url] => http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Admin/constitucion.t1.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 13/1982 on Social Integration of Disabled People [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/3-1161/lismi.PDF ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Third Disability High Level Group Report on the Implementation of the UNCRPD in the Member States (2010) [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=5070&langId=en ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Legislative Decree 2/2015, of 23 October, approving the consolidated text of the Workers' Statute Act [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/10/24/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-11430.pdf ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => In Spain there is a traditional guardianship orientation, which runs counter to Article 12 of the UN Convention, concerning equal recognition before the law and support to exercise legal capacity. There is also a lack of state regulation concerning support for decision making. Supports for self-determination mainly come from organizations of people with disabilities. In Spain, a procedure of legal incapacitation begins with a written request by the family of the mentally disabled person to a judge (Court of 1st Instance), which states that he/she is incapable and needs the designation of a guardian. The assistance of a lawyer and a solicitor is required for starting this procedure. That letter must be forwarded to the disabled individual who may answer the letter in 20 days. After 20 days without a reply, a barrister is appointed to represent the person who is allegedly incapable. The trial period, where it must be proven that the disabled person is incapable, begins at this point. This is done in various ways, such as: a) hearing the relatives and/or other close family members who are involved, examining documentary evidence, medical reports, psychological assessments, etc.; b) forensic examination usually performed by medical specialists in neurology or psychiatry or by the coroner’s court; c) consideration of the person presumed incapable by the court itself (Verdugo, Jenaro, & Campo, 2009, p.3). The decision of legal incapacitation can be either total, where people deemed incapable cannot manage their property or themselves, or in part, where there is an inability to perform certain acts without the assistance of another person. The decision also determines who will be the guardian; whether it be the parents, if an adult still lives with them or another appointed person. [update_date] => 2012-12-07 16:14:18 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Third Disability High Level Group Report on the Implementation of the UNCRPD in the Member States (2010) [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=5070&langId=en ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => According to Article 3 of the Organic Law 5/1985, of June 19, the General Electoral Regime, establishes that the following do not have the right to vote : a) those sentenced by judgement to the deprivation of the right to vote for time for endorsement of sentence; b) those declared incapable by virtue of a final judgement, provided that it is expressly stated their inability to exercise the right to vote; and c) those admitted to a psychiatric hospital with judicial authorisation, during the period of their internment, provided that the judge expressly stated the inability to exercise the right to vote. In other situations, there is the right to vote.

Despite the above, it should be noted that in Spain many people with intellectual disabilities, as well as people with Down Syndrome, are deprived of their right to vote because they were legally declared incapable (see the document: The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. From rights to facts (2015)).

The Organic Law 2/2011 of 28 January, amending the Organic Law 5/1985 of 19 June, on the General Electoral System establishes, at point Thirty-One: Paragraph 2 of Article 87, that ‘the Government (with a report from the Central Electoral Board), will regulate the voting procedure for the blind or visually impaired to enable them to exercise their right to vote, ensuring the secrecy of the vote, which shall, in any case, elections to the Chamber of Deputies and Senate elections to the European Parliament and the assumptions of referendum’. People with disabilities who are judged to lack legal capacity may not vote, in accordance with the Act on the General Election System (Article 3.1 b)-c) Law on Regime of General Elections). Limitations on voting rights are also enshrined in the Spanish Constitution.

On 24 October 2013, the Constitutional Committee has unanimously approved an initiative urging the Government to prepare a report within six months, with specific proposals for adaptation of Spanish legislation to the UN Convention on Disabilities, ratified by Spain in 2008, among which is a reform of the Electoral reform Law so all persons with disabilities can vote. It is currently estimated that there are about 80,000 people with intellectual disabilities who cannot vote. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 13:02:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Organic Law 2/2011, of 28 January, Amending the Organic Law 5/1985 of 19 June on the General Electoral System [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/01/29/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-1639.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Organic Law 5/1985, of June 19, the General Electoral Regime [url] => http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Admin/lo5-1985.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. From rights to facts (2015) [url] => http://www.cermi.es/sites/default/files/docs/colecciones/La_Convenci_n_Internacional.pdf ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => In Spain, Law 27/2007, of 23 October, recognizes Spanish sign languages and regulates the means of support for oral communication of the deaf, hearing impaired and deaf - blind people. The dissemination of the UNCRPD has been a priority in the actions undertaken in Spain and the Convention has been published and distributed in different accessible formats. The Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad and the CNSE Foundation have collaborated with the publication of the Spanish and Catalan sign language formats, as a mechanism of promoting the UNCRPD.
It is also possible to mention Royal Decree 921/2010, of 16 July, amending the Statute of the Royal Patronage on Disability approved by Royal Decree 946/2001, of August 3, to regulate the Centre for Language Normalisation of the Spanish Sign Language
Other regulations at the national level are:

  • Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on the adaptation of Spanish legislation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • Order ECD / 1542/2015, of July 21, establishing the curriculum of the higher education cycle corresponding to the title of Higher Technician in Communicative Mediation.
[update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:03:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 27/2007, of October 23, which Recognizes Spanish Sign Languages and Regulates the Means of Support for Oral Communication of the Deaf, Hearing Impaired and Deaf-blind People [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/10/24/pdfs/A43251-43259.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => DVD with the UNCRPD in Spanish and Catalan Sign Languages [url] => http://www.cnlse.es/es/virtual-library/convenci%C3%B3n-internacional-de-naciones-unidas-sobre-los-derechos-de-las-personas-con ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 921/2010, of 16 July, amending the Statute of the Royal Patronage on Disability approved by Royal Decree 946/2001, of August 3, to regulate the Centre for Language Normalisation of the Spanish Sign Language [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2010/07/17/pdfs/BOE-A-2010-11428.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on the adaptation of Spanish legislation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Order ECD / 1542/2015, of July 21, establishing the curriculum of the higher education cycle corresponding to the title of Higher Technician in Communicative Mediation [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/07/29/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-8477.pdf ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => The Third National Action Plan for People with Disabilities 2009–2012 sets out an agenda and a set of principles for action. It includes a special call for equal opportunities for young people, and also specific measures to promote social participation and social leadership, as well as education, sport and leisure. The Spanish Strategy on Disability 2012-2020 is based on the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020 and the Europe 2020 strategy. It aims to improve the welfare of people with disabilities and includes the basic lines of public policy to be developed in the years of its application. Its content has its fundamental references in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Law 51/2003, of equal opportunity, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for people with disabilities. Its strategic objective is to contribute to meeting the objectives of Europe 2020 and the National Reform Programme 2011 of Spain through actions aimed at improving, in the field of disability, areas such as accessibility to the environment, improving knowledge about the life situation of people with disabilities to overcome barriers participation in the exercise of rights, equal treatment and non-discrimination. The purpose of the Spanish Strategy on Disability, therefore, is to enable all people with disabilities to enjoy their rights and therefore the society as a whole and people with disabilities themselves can fully benefit from their contribution in the economy and social life. Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013, of 29 November. This Royal Legislative Decree, approving the revised text of the General Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its social inclusion, is an application of the second final provision of Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. According to this new normative, Government will draw up every four years a National Plan for Prevention of Deficiencies and Intensification of Disabilities. It will be presented to the General Courts, informing annually its development and the degree of compliance. According to this normative, the Office of Attention to Disability is the National Council of Disability responsible for promoting equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of persons with disabilities. References that are made in the legal system to the Special Permanent Office shall be made to the Office of Attention to Disability. The Spanish Strategy Action Plan on Disability 2014-2020 that was approved by the Council of Ministers on 12 September 2014, states several target areas: employment, education, etc. The three priorities of the Strategic Plan are: (1) promote employment and combat wage discrimination. This axis include measures in education, to develop specific educational programs supporting and reinforcing students especially vulnerable (immigrants, Roma, disabled or suffering violence environments). (2) Conciliation and responsibility. (3) Combating violence against women. National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 includes 53 measures dedicated to promoting social and labor inclusion through employment of the most vulnerable people, with special attention to families with children at risk. These actions are organised around six operational objectives: (1) adapt active employment policies to the specific needs of socially vulnerable people through employment pathways and personalized support; (2) effective coordination of employment and social services; (3) promote entrepreneurship and self-employment; (4) support for integration enterprises and social economy; (5) adequacy of guidance and job placement (public employment services and agencies) to the needs of people, with the support of the Third Sector of Social Action; (6) support for reconciliation, promotion of business responsibility and rationalisation and flexibility of schedules. Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society argues that although the digital access gap and the use of computers and the Internet in recent years tends to close, women continue to generally use less frequent than men. Thus, the agenda includes among its objectives to promote the inclusion and literacy and training in new ICT occupations. Included, also, are objectives and activities directed specifically to ensure that inequalities and differences due to multiple factors are reduced enabling the exercise of the right to equal opportunities and non-discrimination. II National Strategic Plan for Children and Adolescents 2013-2016. Its objective four relates to protection and social inclusion: strengthening social intervention and care of children and adolescents at risk, vulnerable, disabled and/or socially excluded, establishing shared quality and practices susceptible to evaluation. Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017 includes measures to support large families, single parents and families with people with disabilities. Help families with fewer resources to meet costs associated with education and certain services such as phone service, transportation, etc. Resolution of 25 July 2013, the Ministry of Social Services and Equality amending the Agreement on common criteria, conditions and recommendations of comprehensive care plans for children under three years in a situation of dependence or at risk. The aim and purpose of this agreement is to set common standards, recommendations and minimum requirements to be met by Comprehensive Care Plans for children under three years of age in a dependent, or being at risk of developing a dependent condition. These standards should promote personal autonomy, so that they can enhance their ability to development and welfare, allowing inclusion in the family, school and social environment. [update_date] => 2016-04-27 14:24:30 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action Plan (in Spanish) [url] => http://www.uah.es/discapacidad/documentos/marco_legal/III_Plan_accion_2009-2012.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Spanish Strategy on Disability 2012-2020 (in Spanish) [url] => http://www.msssi.gob.es/ssi/discapacidad/docs/estrategia_espanola_discapacidad_2012_2020.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => II Plan of action of Women with Disabilities 2013-2016 [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO26486/plan_integral_mujeres.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013, of 29 November [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/12/03/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-12632.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Spanish Strategy Action Plan on Disability 2014-2020 [url] => http://www.famma.org/images/PDF/general/plan-de-accion-de-la-estrategia-espanola-sobre-discapacidad-2014-2020.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 [url] => http://www.msssi.gob.es/destacados/docs/PNAIN_2013_2016_EN.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society [url] => http://www.inmujer.gob.es/actualidad/NovedadesNuevas/docs/BorradIIPlanAccionSocInf.pdf ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => II National Strategic Plan for Children and Adolescents 2013-2016 [url] => http://www.observatoriodelainfancia.msssi.gob.es/documentos/pdf/II_PLAN_ESTRATEGICO_INFANCIA_English.pdf ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017 [url] => http://www.msssi.gob.es/novedades/docs/PIAF-2015-2017.pdf ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Resolution of 25 July 2013, the Ministry of Social Services and Equality [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-8539.pdf ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities, introduces the principle of ’universal accessibility‘ in law. In Article 7 of Law 51/2003, reasonable accommodation is defined as ’measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as other citizens‘. The material scope of this Law is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. In Spain, the Autonomous Regions have exclusive responsibility (i.e. they legislate and execute legislation) in the field of accessibility on their territories. Royal Decree 1544/2007, of 23 November, regulates the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for access and use of transport for people with disabilities is the specific legislation in this area; regulations referring to vehicles and also buildings and facilities involved in transport activity are to be found in this Decree. Spain implemented the National Accessibility Plan 2004-2012 that targeted to consolidate a ‘Design for All’ model, aiming to introduce accessibility in public infrastructure, to create a regulatory system for the promotion of accessibility, to adapt environments, products and services to 'Design for All' (universal design) criteria, and to promote accessibility in new technologies. In August 2011, Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. The fifth additional provision with the following wording was added: 'Fifth additional provision. Assessment of accessibility in State-owned infrastructure'. Projects of general interest of transportation infrastructure such as roads, railways, airports and ports, promoted by the General Administration of the State, will incorporate an accessibility assessment that will examine alternatives and determine the technical solutions needed to ensure universal accessibility and non-discrimination for all citizens with disabilities. For example, Law 38/2015, of September 29 on the rail sector, which is related to the reform of rail transport and includes, among its measures, to improve the quality and accessibility. It states that the travel agencies must facilitate information in appropriate, accessible and understandable formats. The rail sector should also ensure that the services are provided in accordance with the rules governing the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for access and use of rail transport. Failure to comply with the accessibility is considered a very serious offense. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:11:19 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003, of 2 December, on Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination, and Universal Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN5979/3-5979.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, on Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 38/2015, of September 29, on the rail sector [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/09/30/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-10440.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Country Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination (Cachón, 2009) [url] => https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/index.cfm?action=media.download&uuid=2A1206B5-AE76-E863-33B6A5063C592172 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1544/2007, of 23 November, Regulating the Basic Conditions of Accessibility and Non-Discrimination for Access to and use of means of transportation by persons with disabilities (in English) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN12360/LIONDAUtransportation.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1544/2007, of 23 November, Regulating the Basic Conditions of Accessibility and Non-Discrimination for Access to and use of means of transportation by persons with disabilities (in Spanish) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN12360/3-12360.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Accessibility Plan 2004-2012 [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO12610/pndaa.pdf ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities introduces the principle of 'universal accessibility'. In Article 7 of the Law, reasonable accommodation is defined as 'measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as for other citizens'. The material scope of this Law is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. The Royal Decree 505/2007 of 20 April, approving the basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination of persons with disabilities to the access and use of urban public spaces and buildings, is the specific normative in this area. This Royal Decree sets out accessibility and non-discrimination standards in public spaces and infrastructures. Law 51/2003 provides that new goods and services must comply with the accessibility conditions before 2011 if they are public and before 2021 if they are private. In this sense, new developed public spaces and housing must comply with the accessibility conditions before 2011. In August 2011, Law 26/2011 of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad) was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. In relation to accessibility, such as key and element essential for the full realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities, emphasises the modification of the Horisontal Property Law. Amending paragraph 2 of Article 10 of Law 49/1960, of 21 July, on Horisontal Property, which is drawn up in the following way:'§2. Likewise, the community, at the request of the owners whose housing, work or pay their altruistic services or volunteer people with disabilities, or over seventy years of age, shall be bound to perform the actions and works of accessibility which are necessary for a proper usage of the common elements, or for installation of mechanical and electronic devices that facilitate their communication with the outside' whose total amount does not exceed twelve ordinary monthly payments of common costs'. A fifth additional provision with the following wording was also added: 'Fifth additional provision. Assessment of accessibility in State-owned infrastructure'. Projects of general interest of transportation infrastructure such as roads, railways, airports and ports, promoted by the General Administration of the State, will incorporate an accessibility assessment that examine alternatives and determine the technical solutions needed to ensure universal accessibility and non-discrimination for all citizens with disabilities. More recently, Law 8/2013 of 26 June, on Rehabilitation, regeneration and urban renewal was adopted. In addition, each Autonomous Community has developed their own laws. [update_date] => 2016-06-09 13:29:39 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination, and Universal Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN5979/3-5979.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 8/2013 of 26 June, rehabilitation, regeneration and urban renewal [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/06/27/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-6938.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination: Spain (Cachon, 2009) [url] => https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/index.cfm?action=media.download&uuid=2A1206B5-AE76-E863-33B6A5063C592172 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 505/2007 of 20 April, Approving the Basic Conditions of Accessibility and Non-Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities to the Access and use of urban Public Spaces and Buildings (in English) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN11123/LIONDAUbuildings.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 505/2007 of 20 April, Approving the Basic Conditions of Accessibility and Non-Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities to the Access and use of Public Spaces and Buildings (in Spanish) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN11123/3-11123.pdf ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => Law 51/2003 does not establish a legal obligation to provide access to information. Article 12 of this Law provides only that 'the public authorities shall conduct and promote informative activities, awareness campaigns, training actions and any other measures that may be required to promote equal opportunities and non-discrimination'. However, this Law contains a seventh final provision that recommends that the Government should, in the two-year interval before its entry into force, establish some basic conditions of accessibility and non-discrimination for the access to and the use of technologies, products and services related to the information society and the media. Royal Decree 1494/2007 of 12 November approves the regulation on basic conditions for access of disabled people to technologies, products and services related to information society and the media. Law 34/2002 of July 11 on the information society and eCommerce services, in its fifth additional provision, obliges the public administration to adopt the necessary measures so that the information available on their respective Internet websites can be accessible to the elderly and disabled. In August 2011, Ley 26/2011, de 1 de agosto, de adaptación normativa a la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities) was proclaimed that affects Law 51/2003. It added a new paragraph to the fifth additional provision of law 34/2002, of 11 July, of Services of the Information Society and Electronic Commerce, with the following wording: 'Fifth additional provision. Accessibility for people with disabilities and elderly to information provided by electronic means. Web pages that serve as a support or channel to online social networks, developed by entities whose turnover annual operations, calculated pursuant to the value added tax regulations, exceed 6 101 121.04 euros, must satisfy, from 31 December 2012, as a minimum, the average level of the generally recognised criteria of content accessibility. UNE 139803: 2012. Accessibility Requirements for web content: It is a Spanish standard recently approved (July 2012) that establishes accessibility requirements for web content. As for your reference requirements completely Accessibility Guidelines for Web content WCAG2.0, of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), Web Consortium (W3C) therefore there is a direct equivalence between them. This rule updates the UNE 139803: 2004. Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society argues that although the digital access gap and use of computers and the Internet in recent years tends to close, women continue to generally use ICT less frequent than men. Thus, the agenda includes among its objectives to promote the inclusion, literacy and training in new ICT occupations. Included, also, are objectives and activities directed specifically to ensure that inequalities and differences due to multiple factors are reduced enabling the exercise of the right to equal opportunities and non-discrimination. Spain has signed the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled on 16 July 2015. [update_date] => 2016-04-27 16:05:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1494/2007 of 12 November, Approving the Regulation on Basic Conditions for Access for Disabled People to the Technologies, Products and Services Related to Information Society and the Media (English Version) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN11920/LIONDAUinfosociety.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1494/2007 of 12 November, Approving the Regulation on Basic Conditions for Access for Disabled People to the Technologies, Products and Services Related to Information Society and the Media (in Spanish) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN11920/3-11920.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 34/2002, of July 11, on the Information Society and eCommerce Services [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2002/07/12/pdfs/A25388-25403.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination: Spain (Cachon, 2009) [url] => https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/index.cfm?action=media.download&uuid=2A1206B5-AE76-E863-33B6A5063C592172 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 26/2011, of 1 August, of Normative Adaptation to the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/08/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13241.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action Plan 2014-2017 for Equality between men and women in the Information Society [url] => http://www.inmujer.gob.es/actualidad/NovedadesNuevas/docs/BorradIIPlanAccionSocInf.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => UNE 139803: 2012. Accessibility Requirements for web content [url] => http://www.tawdis.net/recursos/downloads/UNE_139803.pdf ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => In Spain, segregated residential options continue to be the main option, and public administration organisations spend most resources on these, however there are choices for disabled people to live independently in their own homes and in the community, resulting from the passing of the Law 39/2006, of 14 December on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons, and the Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities. However, there are no structured policies promoting independent living that follow the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; only some groups of people with disabilities and some disability associations are playing a role in promoting independent living. In addition, there are important differences among Autonomous Communities in applying new Acts and in developing new regulations to facilitate independent living (Verdugo, Jenaro & Campo, 2009). Law 39/2006 could be considered a significant new proposal for future policies to support people living in the community rather than in institutions; it regulates the basic conditions that should guarantee equality in the promotion of personal autonomy and care for dependent persons, by creating a System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency (SAAD). With the SAAD, all elderly or disabled people who cannot fend for themselves will be attended to by government, by ensuring access to public social services and economic performance more suited to their needs. People with mental health conditions may be deprived of their liberty and made to stay in an institution for which a legal decision is needed. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (English Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/leydependencia_ingles.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (in Spanish) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/im_000562.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency (SAAD) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/dependencia_01/saad/index.htm ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => In Spain, segregated residential options continue to be the main option, and public administration organizations spend most resources on these, but there are choices for disabled people to live independently in their own homes and in the community resulted from the passing of the Law 39/2006 of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons and the Law 51/2003 of 2 December 2003 on equal opportunities, non-discrimination, and universal accessibility for persons with disabilities. Both Acts have encouraged people with disabilities to live in their community. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (English Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/leydependencia_ingles.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (in Spanish) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/im_000562.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003, 2 December, of Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination and Universal Accessibility of People with Disability [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN5979/3-5979.pdf ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => The Autonomous Communities or the competent Administration, credited to the centres and contracted services to be part of the network system, and centres and services arranged for them to pay attention to people in situations of dependency so they can perceive the economic benefit linked. Similarly, private entities will be credited for each of the centres and services in the catalogue of the Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons. Quality requirements and standards will be established in the following areas, taking into account the number of places, the intensity in the provision of, and the types of resources and services they should offer: a) material and equipment to ensure the provision of services tailored to the needs of people in a situation of dependence, and the intensities, security and accessibility; b) the requirements and standards on human resources will be directed to ensure proper service delivery, including the number of professionals, such as in training and retraining for job performance. [update_date] => 2012-03-30 09:55:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Resolution of 2 December, 2008, by the Ministry of Social Policy, Families and Care and Disability Unit, publishing an agreement by the Territorial Council of the System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency, for common accreditation criteria to ensure qua [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN13512/3-13512.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (English Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/leydependencia_ingles.pdf ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => Support for assistive equipment and adaptations is regulated at the level of the Autonomous Communities and there are significant differences between them. There are also financial limits for the different technical aids so disabled people must co-fund these. Financial limits for equipment and adaptations are determined by each Autonomous Community. Each Autonomous Community publishes yearly information on technical aids or adaptations in the home, giving the requirements and maximum amounts payable per type of product, for example, the amount for acquisition of a vehicle and for its adaptation, for the removal of barriers in vehicles, for home adaptations, and for acquisition of hearing aids, prescription glasses and technical aids. Some requirements for eligibility are having a certified disability, being under 65, and having income within certain limits. Law 39/2006 (Article 22) includes a personal alert system as a specific service for the promotion of personal autonomy and for attention and care. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (English Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/leydependencia_ingles.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (Spanish Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/im_000562.pdf ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => Since the implementation in 2007 of the Law on promoting personal autonomy and care for people in a situation of dependency, the financial income of disabled people has been an important political question. According to Article 2, Personal Assistance consists of a service provided by a personal assistant who performs the dependent person’s everyday tasks, with the aim of encouraging his/her independent living and promoting and reinforcing his/her personal autonomy (Law 39/2006, p.45).Personal assistance services and assistive equipment and adaptations are supported and regulated by this law. Nevertheless, availability of support (types, resources) differs between the Autonomous Communities (there are 17 in Spain). Eligibility criteria are based on a medical approach (i.e. level of dependence). The scale used is focused on physical disabilities and aims to measure functional capabilities, instead of the assistance required for daily living. Support for personal assistance is financially constrained and it is only available for those disabled people classified as having major dependency, and less than 1% of disabled people classified as having major dependency are receiving personal assistance. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:09 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (English Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/leydependencia_ingles.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 39/2006, of 14 December, on Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (Spanish Version) [url] => http://www.dependencia.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/im_000562.pdf ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled establishes social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities in the fields of social benefits, social security, education, work and housing. There are two types of pensions in Spain for disabled people: Contributory and Non-Contributory. The first one relates to the pensioner’s wages and number of years worked. The Non-Contributory pension is for disabled people who have not worked; it ensures medical care and social services. The criteria for eligibility are: being over 18 and below 65 years of age; being a Spanish resident or to have lived in Spain for the last five years; having an average of disability over 65%; and finally there is an income criterion. Other specific groups to consider with regard to additional improvements in the lowest pensions are: pensions of the Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance, SOVI, which is being phased out; social welfare pensions for the sick and elderly; and those under the repealed Law on the Social Integration of the Disabled. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:13:35 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Contributory Pension (Social Security System) [url] => http://www.mtin.es/estadisticas/bel/PEN/index.htm ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Contributory Pension (Social Security System) [url] => http://www.mtin.es/estadisticas/bel/PNC/index.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social and economic LISMI features [url] => http://www.imserso.es/imserso_01/prestaciones_y_subvenciones/prestaciones_lismi/index.htm ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Profile of the non-contributory pensioner of social security and of the beneficiary of social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities as of December 2016 [url] => http://www.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/perfil_pnc_pspd_2016.pdf ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled establishes social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities in the fields of social benefits, social security, education, work and housing. Additional benefits for disabled people are the Minimum Income Guarantee Subsidy, the Personal Assistant Subsidy, the Mobility and Transport Subsidy, and Pharmacy and Medical Care. As a consequence of the Laws 51/2003 and 39/2006, more services for disabled people and their families are available. It has had a significant impact on service delivery, using personal assistance budgets, direct payments, allowances to individuals or their care givers, respite care, living arrangements and work rehabilitation services. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:16:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Social and Economic LISMI Features [url] => http://www.imserso.es/imserso_01/prestaciones_y_subvenciones/prestaciones_lismi/index.htm ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mobility and Transport Subsidy [url] => http://www.imserso.es/imserso_01/auxiliares/imserso_en_linea/prestaciones_personas_con_discapacidad_sm/index.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Pharmacy and Medical Care [url] => http://www.imserso.es/imserso_01/auxiliares/imserso_en_linea/prestaciones_personas_con_discapacidad_as/index.htm ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Profile of the non-contributory pensioner of social security and of the beneficiary of social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities as of December 2016 [url] => http://www.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/perfil_pnc_pspd_2016.pdf ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => Retirement income for persons with disabilities is managed in the same way as for other people: if they have been working they get the same money. Royal Decree 1851/2009, of 4 December, established the earlier retirement of workers with disabilities equal to or above 45% from 65 to 58 years of age. In the past, there was the Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance (SOVI), but it is no longer available, although there are people receiving it still. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:18:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1851/2009, of 4 December [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN15012/3-15012.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Obligatory Old-Age and Disability Insurance (SOVI) [url] => http://www.seg-social.es/Internet_1/Trabajadores/PrestacionesPension10935/PensionesdelSeguroO10970/index.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Profile of the non-contributory pensioner of social security and of the beneficiary of social and economic benefits for persons with disabilities as of December 2016 [url] => http://www.imserso.es/InterPresent2/groups/imserso/documents/binario/perfil_pnc_pspd_2016.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Retirement income in Spain (types and procedures) [url] => http://www.seg-social.es/Internet_1/Masinformacion/TramitesyGestiones/PensiondeJubilacion/index.htm ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => Equal treatment and non-discrimination have been consolidated as basic principles of education in Spain (Cachón, 2009, p. 51).The passage of the Organic Law on Education through Parliament was marked by a fierce campaign against it by conservative organisations because the Law seeks to establish a more even distribution of pupils with special needs between state schools and state-subsidised private schools. One of the key points of the political debate was the clash between the right of parents to freely choose a school for their children, and the right to education and access thereto on equal terms. The Law strikes a balance between these principles, stating that ’families may apply for admission at the schools to which they wish to send their children‘ (Art. 86.3), but also providing the possibility of setting up ’committees or other bodies to guarantee admission‘ (Cachón, 2009, p. 52).The Law on the social integration of disabled people attempts to integrate the people with disabilities into ’the ordinary system of general education, receiving, in this case, the support and resource programmes that the Law recognizes‘. A special education system is provided that can be either temporary or permanent for those disabled people for whom attendance within the ordinary educational system is impossible. According to the Spanish Independent Living Forum, the legal and policy framework is developed in 17 different ways in the 17 Autonomous Communities or regions, and the country still has 20% of students educated in segregated specific schools. In the case of specific institutions for special education that provide education for students who cannot enter an inclusive framework, only two educational levels are carried out: basic compulsory education (6 to 16 years of age) and complementary vocational training or programmes for transition to adult life (16 to 19 years of age). Students at these institutions may be enrolled up to the maximum age of 20 (on an exceptional basis up to the age of 21). In special education classrooms, the ratio is 10-12 students per teacher (physical or serious hearing disabilities), 8-12 (physical disabilities), 6-8 (several disabilities), and 3-5 (autistic or severe personality problems). [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:10 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => LOE: Law 2/2006, 3 May, Education [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2006/05/04/pdfs/A17158-17207.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination (Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC) Country report 2009. Spain (Lorenzo Cachón) [url] => http://www.non-discrimination.net/content/media/2009-ES-Country%20Report%20LN_final.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Independent Living Forum [url] => http://www.forovidaindependiente.org/ ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => Disabled people are recognised in national laws, policies and strategies as having equal rights to their peers in schools. However, more legislation has been developed for compulsory educational levels than for higher education or adult education levels. The Organic Law 2/2006 of Education offers, at national level, the legal framework to provide and assure the right to education. The Autonomous Communities regulate the adaptation of this Law to their territories (European Agency, 2009). There are differences among the different 17 autonomous communities of the country. Financial and personal supports are generally available throughout Spain in primary and secondary levels of education, but they are lacking in the transition years to adult life. Compulsory education includes a broad number of support measures in integrated settings for disabled students, such as: conditions for school building facilities to facilitate access, movement and communication, in accordance with accessibility legislation; special curriculum access adaptations or curricular adaptations such as modifications in the objectives, contents, methodology, activities and assessment criteria and procedures; additional support provided by specialist teachers, including physiotherapists, psychologists, speech therapists, teaching assistants, and peripatetic special education teachers who go to students’ homes or hospitals; special teaching methods and materials, including Braille, tactile sensory stimulation and space-time orientation, sign language and alternative communication systems, and didactic resources; reduced class sizes in mainstream classrooms, the maximum number or students per classroom is 25 and the maximum number of disabled students per classroom is two (a local education commission decides in which mainstream school pupils are located); special arrangements for evaluation or progress through education, in which the use of diverse assessment tools and procedures is recommended, such as observation, questionnaires and interviews) (Verdugo, Jenaro, & Campo, 2009c, p.4).

During 2012-2013 [Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2014), the percentage of students with special educational needs due to a disability in non-university education was 2.1% of all students. Except for students who are in special education, the percentage of integrated students in preschool education was 0.9%; in primary education it was 2.2%; in secondary education it was 2.4%, in high school it was 0.3%. In addition, in intermediate vocational training degree it was 0.9%; in vocational education degree it was 0.1%, and on initial vocational qualification programs it was 4.4%. Those percentages support the notion that a significant number of students with disabilities are not included or they may not finish their studies. [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:41:16 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => LOE: Law 2/2006, 3 May, Education [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2006/05/04/pdfs/A17158-17207.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination (Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC) Country Report 2009. Spain (Lorenzo Cachón) [url] => http://www.non-discrimination.net/content/media/2009-ES-Country%20Report%20LN_final.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => ANED Country Report on Equality of Educational and Training Opportunities for Young Disabled People (Spain) [url] => http://www.disability-europe.net/content/aned/media/Report%20on%20equality%20of%20educational%20and%20training%20opportunities%20for%20young%20disabled%20people%20-%20Spain.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics of non-university education students requiring specific educational support Year 2012-2013 (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports , 2014) [url] => http://www.mecd.gob.es/dms/mecd/servicios-al-ciudadano-mecd/estadisticas/educacion/no-universitaria/alumnado/Necesidades-de-apoyo/Curso1213/NotaResumen.pdf ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => Children with visual or hearing impairments have a right to but do not learn Braille or sign language in their school. Blind children usually learn Braille with the ONCE (National Organisation of Blind People) teachers and deaf children often learn sign language in other associations. ONCE is a non-profit corporate organisation that focuses its activities on the improvement of the quality of life of people with blindness or severe visual impairment all over Spain. In mainstream schools additional support is provided by specialist teachers who are specialised in special education and/or in visual and/or hearing and speech difficulties.
Some examples of good practices in inclusive education of students with disabilities have been developed in Spanish schools. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:19:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => ONCE: National Organization of Blind People [url] => http://www.once.es/new ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => CNSE: Confederation of Deaf People [url] => http://www.cnse.es/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Guide of Good Practices in Inclusive Education in Spain [url] => http://www.aecid.es/Centro-Documentacion/Documentos/Publicaciones%20coeditadas%20por%20AECID/Guia_de_Buenas_Practicas_en_Educacion_Inclusiva_vOK.pdf ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Legislation in Spain states that the general objectives for students with special educational needs must be those generally established for all students, with the necessary curricular adaptations. For those unable to achieve the objectives, public administrations are to promote training programmes adapted to the students’ specific needs, aiming at facilitating their social and employment inclusion through training programmes. Major policy changes that occurred in recent years relate to: 1) the Organic Law 2/2006 on Education that introduces the new Initial Professional Qualification Programmes (PCPI), formerly called Social Guarantee Programmes (PGS); 2) the Royal Decree 1538/2006, which established the general organisation of vocational training within the education system; 3) the vocational training for employment (Royal Decree 395/2007) that establishes the current model for continuing training in Spain, which is called ’continuing vocational education and training‘ (CVET). Autonomous Communities have the responsibility to draw up, approve and execute different training courses. The Law establishes that students who do not achieve the objectives of compulsory secondary education are entitled to enroll in specific social guarantee programmes. They may enroll either in the general social guarantee programmes, under the integrative framework, or in social guarantee programmes specifically designed for them. Programmes for transition to adult life or of complementary vocational training aim fundamentally at developing abilities linked to professional occupations, personal independence and social integration. The Organic Law on Education also provides a measure for positive action (Art. 75), stating that ‘The educational authorities shall establish a reserve quota of places in vocational training for pupils with disabilities’. Concerning more recent Educational policies, it is possible to mention Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, improvement of educational quality (LOMCE) that aims to address the main problems identified in the Spanish education system and promote the quality and excellence, improve student outcomes and transforming education for overcoming the challenges faced by Spain in Europe 2020. It is mandatory that assessments are tailored to the needs of students with special educational needs and support for these students they will be established. The main objectives of the reform and related issues identified in the initial part of this report is to reduce the rate of early school leaving, flexible itineraries for students, promote vocational training, improve employability and boost the entrepreneurial spirit among the students. Regarding training policies promoted by other ministries and targeting groups at risk of exclusion, there are several initiatives worthy to mention:

  • Law 30/2015, of September 9, whereby the vocational training system for use in the workplace is regulated: has four strategic objectives: (1) the guarantee of the right to training of workers, employed and unemployed, in particular the most vulnerable; (2) the effective contribution of training to the competitiveness of enterprises; (3) the strengthening of collective bargaining on the adequacy of the training to the requirements of the productive system, and (4) the efficiency and transparency in the management of public resources. It establishes inter alia that vocational training for employment may be given in person, by teletraining, low platforms and content accessible to people with disabilities, or a mixed form by combining the above two methods.

  • Spanish Strategy of Activation for Employment 2014-2016: groups all the strategies of public employment services and raises the annual employment policy plans and annual applications of this strategy. It includes six areas focused on: (1) orientation, (2) training; (3) employment opportunities, special consideration to the situation of persons with disabilities; (4) equal opportunities in access to employment; (5) business; (6) Improving the institutional framework of the National Employment System.

  • Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014: includes five strategic objectives: (1) improve the employability of young people and implement the National Plan of Implementation of the National System of Youth Guarantee in Spain; (2) promote the employability of other groups particularly affected by unemployment: over 55 years, long-term unemployed and beneficiaries; (3) improve the quality of vocational training for employment; (4) strengthen the linkage of active and passive employment policies; (5) and promote entrepreneurship.

  • National Implementation Plan of the National System of Youth Guarantee: is an initiative of the European Union that targets young people between 16 and 29 not in education, employment or training (NEET), who can receive a job offer or training after completing their studies.

  • Youth Employment and Entrepreneurship Strategy 2013- 2016: The actions foreseen in the Strategy are aimed, in general, at youth under 30, especially those who are unemployed. In the case of people with disabilities with a recognized degree or above 33%, it rises to five years. It consists of 100 measures to adapt education and training to the real labor market, needs related to improving the guidance, support and information when looking for a job, among others.

  • Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017: includes measures to support large families, single parents and families with people disabilities. It help families with fewer resources to meet costs associated with education (e.g. acquisition of text books) and certain services such as phone service, transportation, etc. It includes measures such as: convene and develop the general system of scholarships and study grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, with special attention to families in difficult economic situation and for students with specific educational needs.

  • 'Empléate: Single Portal of Employment and Self Employment': includes four employment services: 1) a professional orientation (from the identification of the professional profile of the worker to the advice on market trends); 2) placement services and advice to companies (to ensure the best matching between vacancies and applications for employment); 3) service training and qualifications for employment (which include, among others, account management training of workers) and 4) a counseling service for self-employment and entrepreneurship (to promote entrepreneurship and boost local economic development).

Several additional and specific measures have been developed, aimed at reinforcing a more market-oriented work, including vocational training:
  • Royal Decree 127/2014, by which specific aspects of Vocational Training are regulatedand basic professional titles are approved
  • Royal Decree 751/2014 that approves the Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation2014- 2016
  • Royal Decree 7/2015, that approves the Common Services Catalog of the National Employment System
  • Royal Decree 817/2014, establishing the specific aspects of professional qualifications
[update_date] => 2016-04-27 18:03:01 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1538/2006 of 15 December, Establishing the General Organization of the Vocational Education System [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/01/03/pdfs/A00182-00193.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => LOE: Law 2/2006, of 3 May, Education [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2006/05/04/pdfs/A17158-17207.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 395/2007 of 23 March, Regulating the Subsystem of Vocational Training for Employment [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/04/11/pdfs/A15582-15598.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, improvement of educational quality (LOMCE) [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/03/05/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-2360.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 30/2015, of September 9 [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/09/10/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-9734.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Spanish Strategy of Activation for Employment 2014-2016 [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/09/23/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-9623.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 7/2015, that approves the Common Services Catalog of the National Employment System: [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/02/05/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-1056.pdf ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014 [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/09/24/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-9666.pdf ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Implementation Plan of the National System of Youth Guarantee [url] => http://www.injuve.es/empleo/noticia/plan-nacional-de-implantacion-de-la-garantia-juvenil ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Youth Employment and Entrepreneurship Strategy 2013- 2016 [url] => http://www.empleo.gob.es/es/estrategia-empleo-joven/descargas/EEEJ_Documento_en_INGLES.pdf ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Integral Plan of Family Support 2015-2017 [url] => http://www.msssi.gob.es/novedades/docs/PIAF-2015-2017.pdf ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Empléate: Single Portal of Employment and Self Employment [url] => https://www.empleate.gob.es/empleo/#/ ) [12] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 127/2014 [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/03/05/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-2360.pdf ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 751/2014 that approves the Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation 2014-2016 [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/09/23/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-9623.pdf ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 817/2014 that establishes the specific aspects of professional qualifications [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/10/23/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-10742.pdf ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => Universities in Spain are not specifically subject to non-discrimination laws in relation to disability. Public institutions such as universities have to comply with Law 51/2003, of 2 December, of equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility of people with disability (beyond compulsory schooling age the LIONDAU establishes the need to guarantee equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for all). However, Universities have their own normative such as: the Organic Law of Universities 6/2001, of 21 December, on Universities; the Organic Law of Universities 4/2007, of 12 April, that promotes policies to guarantee equality of opportunities for people with disabilities; and the Royal Decree 1393/2007, of 29 October, that organises university studies and includes several measures to guarantee equal access to disabled students. It also establishes the possibility of making curricular adaptations, although many of this type of adjustments are made at the discretion of each professor. At university level there are Disabled Student Offices where a disability specialist gives support to disabled students. In some cases there are volunteers or student grants to help with these issues. The practical assistance the student can get depends on the university, Disability Service Office and the student needs. Assistance could include: support during access tests, curricular adaptations, free fares, grants, note takers, support products, volunteering support, Braille transcription, sign language interpreter, etc. Education is free of charge in Spain up to secondary level but disabled students also have free tuition fees at public universities. Generally, public universities organize the support to students with disabilities much better than private ones.

Two studies conducted by Universia Foundation show that the percentage of students with disabilities in undergraduate studies was about 1.3% in 2013 and 2014. The percentage of students from Master and PhD was less than 1.3%, which suggests that not all students with disabilities, who access tertiary education, finish their Master or PhD studies.

Other studies conducted by Universia Foundation indicate that the number of students with disabilities is decreasing in universities (1.2% of students with disabilities in undergraduate, first and second cycle courses reaches 0.5% of students with disabilities who study postgraduate and master's degrees and 0.3% of students with disabilities who undertake doctoral studies). [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:24:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003, of 2 December, on Equal Opportunities, Non-Discrimination and Universal Accessibility for People with Disability [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F3/LYN5979/3-5979.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Organic Law of Universities 6/2001 [url] => http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Admin/lo6-2001.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 4 / 2007, of 12 April, amending the Organic Law 6 / 2001, of 21 December, on Universities [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/04/13/pdfs/A16241-16260.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Royal Decree 1393/2007, of 29 October, that Establishes the Organisation of the University Degree Programs [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/10/30/pdfs/A44037-44048.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Universia Foundation (2013) [url] => http://www.cermi.es/es-ES/Biblioteca/Lists/Publicaciones/Attachments/302/Fundacion_Cermi_Price_Accesible_Def.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Universia Foundation (2014) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO26780/II_Estudio_universidad_discapacidad.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Study on the degree of inclusion of the university system Spanish on the reality of disability (2013) [url] => http://riberdis.cedd.net/bitstream/handle/11181/4142/universidad_y_discapacidad_estudio_sobre_el_grado_de_inclusi%C3%B3n.pdf?sequence=1&rd=0031814150890424 ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => National legislation applies the principle of non-discrimination to all sectors of public and private employment and occupation, including contract work, self-employment and holding statutory office. Art. 16.2 of the Workers’ Statute provides that (public and private) employment services should guarantee ’the principle of equal treatment in access to employment, and may not make any discrimination on grounds of origin, including racial or ethnic origin, gender, age, (...) religion or beliefs, (...) sexual orientation, (...) or disability’. Accordingly, any job advertisement that does not respect this precept constitutes direct discrimination, even when an employer advertises a vacancy directly without using an employment service (Cachón, 2009, p. 29). The Workers’ Statute has been amended several times (1983, 1984 and most importantly, 1994, the year of the labour legislation reform), usually to continue adapting labour regulations to changes in the production system and to strengthen the position of the most representative trade unions in the Spanish industrial relations system (Eurofound 2009). Law 62/2003 (Art.28.1.c) defines indirect discrimination as ’where a legal or administrative provision, a clause of a collective agreement or contract, an individual agreement or a unilateral decision, though apparently neutral, would put a person of a certain racial or ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, disability, age or sexual orientation at a particular disadvantage in relation to others, provided that such provision is not objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary’ (Cachón, 2009, p.30). Some Articles of the Workers’ Statute have been updated according to this 62/2003 Law. For example, Art.4 on Labour Rights, section 2c, states that workers may not be discriminated against based on a disability (Workers’ Statute). Additional articles have been reworded after passing of the Law 3/2007 of 22 March, for effective equality between women and men. Art.4.2e states that privacy and dignity must be preserved, as well as protection against mobbing based on characteristics such as disability.

In 2013, one of the most important changes, concerning employment policies, was the publication by the Ministry of Employment and Social Security of the Strategy for Entrepreneurship and Young Employment 2013-2016. One-hundred new measures related to employment of young people under 30 years are proposed in this Strategy. In the case of young people with disabilities age increases five years, up to 35. Young people with disabilities who want to register as Self-Employed will have a reduction of 80% in fees to Social Security during the first 12 months, and then will remain 50% bonus up to a maximum of five years.

Another important change in employment are measures taken in law 14/2013, 27 September, of Support for Entrepreneurs and their Internationalization in which referred to tax incentives to create jobs for workers with disabilities or reductions from Social Security contributions for workers with disabilities self-employed. All these measures reference to Spanish Disability Strategy, European Disability Strategy and UNCRPD. [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:40:52 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Workers’ Statute [url] => http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Laboral/rdleg1-1995.t1.html ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination: Spain (Cachon, 2009) [url] => http://www.non-discrimination.net/content/media/2009-ES-Country%20Report%20LN_final.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 3/2007 of 22 March, for Effective Equality between Women and Men [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/03/23/pdfs/A12611-12645.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Strategy for Entrepreneurship and Young Employment 2013-2016 [url] => http://www.empleo.gob.es/es/estrategia-empleo-joven/descargas/EEEJ_Documento.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 14/2013, 27 September [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => Current arrangements for providing employment advice and support services to disabled people in mainstream employment depend on the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) previously known as the INEM (National Institute on Employment). This agency comes under the Ministry of Work and Immigration. Each Autonomous Community (AC) has its own Public Service of Employment, given that competences in employment, education, health, etc. have been transferred to different ACs. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:26:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Service of State Employment (SEPE, in Spanish) [url] => http://www.sepe.es/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Regional Offices of the SEPE [url] => http://www.sepe.es/direccionesytelefonosWeb/jsp/JSP_index.jsp?provincia=0 ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => The Law 13/1982 states that ’the employer is obliged to adopt appropriate measures, according to the needs of each specific situation in order to enable disabled people to have access to employment, to do a job, to advance in a profession and to undergo training, unless such measures would entail an excessive burden for the employer’ (Art. 37 section 2). National law, transposing Directive 2000/78 has implemented the duty to provide reasonable accommodation for disabled people both in general terms (Law 51/2003 on equal opportunities for the disabled) and in employment (Law 13/1982 on the social integration of the disabled). Law 49/2007 (on offences and sanctions in the field of equality for disabled people) establishes sanctions in the event of a breach of the duty to provide reasonable accommodation. In Art. 7 of Law 51/2003, reasonable accommodation is defined as ’measures to adapt the physical, social, and attitudinal environment to the specific needs of persons with disabilities which effectively and practically, without involving a disproportionate burden, facilitate accessibility or participation for a person with a disability on the same terms as for other citizens‘. The material scope of this Law 51/2003 is telecommunications, built-up public spaces and buildings, transport, goods and services available to the public, and relations with public administration. The definition of ’disproportionate burden‘ is the same for employment and areas outside employment. Art. 27.2 of Law 62/2003 provides that measures for the application of the principle of equal treatment under it apply to every person, both in the public and the private sector. Although Directive 2000/78 only refers to the field of employment, discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation is prohibited in all areas, public and private. This applies not only to the fields mentioned in Directive 2000/43 (social protection, social advantages, education, access to and supply of goods and services available to the public, including housing), but also to other possible fields, even if there is not an explicit anti-discrimination provision, because of the general and direct applicability of Article 14 of the Constitution.

There are several general plans and programs dealing with accessibility issues. For example, the Strategic Plan for Equal Opportunities 2014-2016 that includes three priorities: (1) employment and combat wage discrimination. In this axis measures in education, consisting of developing specific educational programs support and reinforcement to especially vulnerable students (immigrants, Roma, disabled people or people suffering from violence) are included; (2) conciliation and responsibility; (3) combating violence against women.

Likewise, the Action Plan 2014-2016 of the Spanish Disability Strategy 2012-2020 includes 100 measures that are divided into five areas: (1) equality for all people, (2) employment, (3) education, (4) availability, (5) boosting the economy. These axes are developed through operational targets and specific actions. The Plan intends to promote the accessibility to goods and services.

Some specific additional measures on accessibility have been developed, such as Law 30/2015, of September 9, whereby the vocational training system for use in the workplace is regulated: This amendment has four strategic objectives: (1) guarantee the right to training of workers, employed and unemployed, in particular the most vulnerable; (2) make an effective contribution of training to the competitiveness of enterprises; (3) strengthen collective bargaining on the adequacy of the training to the requirements of the productive system, and (4) establish efficiency and transparency in the management of public resources. It establishes inter alia that vocational training for employment may be given in person, by teletraining and content accessible to people with disabilities or a mixed form by combining the previous two methods. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 12:23:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 49/2007 (on offences and sanctions in the field of equality for disabled people) [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/12/27/pdfs/A53278-53284.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 51/2003 of December 2, equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for the disabled [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2003/12/03/pdfs/A43187-43195.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 62/2003 of 30 December on financial, administrative and social measures [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2003/12/31/pdfs/A46874-46992.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Strategic Plan for Equal Opportunities 2014-2016 [url] => http://www.upm.es/sfs/Rectorado/Gerencia/Igualdad/Plan%20de%20Igualdad/PLAN%20ESTRATEGICO%20IGUALDAD%20OPORTUNIDADES%202014-2016.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Action Plan 2014-2016 of the Spanish Disability Strategy 2012-2020 [url] => http://www.famma.org/images/PDF/general/plan-de-accion-de-la-estrategia-espanola-sobre-discapacidad-2014-2020.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 30/2015, of September 9 [url] => https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/09/10/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-9734.pdf ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => There are several financial incentives for the employment of disabled workers in the open labour market (e.g. wage subsidies, enforcement of employment quotas, tax concessions). Given that competencies for Employment are transferred to the different autonomous communities, each region has its own incentives. For example, by accessing online the Public Service of Employment of Castilla y León, it is possible to access information on different contracts that may be signed with workers with disabilities. There are ten different types of contracts, each of them with different financial incentives: 1) contract for the training of people with disabilities; 2) contract for practices for people with disabilities; 3) temporary replacement of people with disabilities; 4) permanent contract for people with disabilities; 5) temporary contract for people with disabilities; 6) transforming a temporary contract in the open market into a permanent contract for workers with disabilities; 7) contract for persons with disabilities in Special Employment Centres (Sheltered Workshops); 8) transforming a temporary contract in Special Employment Centres into a permanent contract for workers with disabilities; 9) permanent contract for people with disabilities coming from Enclaves or Mobile Work Crews; 10) application of incentives for permanent contracts or conversion of temporary contracts into permanent contracts for disabled workers, for adapting job positions or for providing means of protection.

Several Plans, programs, and laws have been developed in response to the economic crisis and the need for protection of specially disadvantaged groups. First, the National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 that includes 53 measures dedicated to promoting social and labor inclusion through employment of the most vulnerable people, with special attention to families with children at risk. These actions are organized around six operational objectives: (1) adapt active employment policies to the specific needs of socially vulnerable people through employment pathways and personalized support; (2) effectively coordinate employment and social services; (3) promote entrepreneurship and self-employment; (4) support for integration enterprises and social economy; (5) provide adequate guidance and job placement (public employment services and agencies) to the needs of the people, with the support of the Third Sector of Social Action; (6) support reconciliation, promotion of business responsibility and rationalisation and flexibility of schedules.

Second, the Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation 2014-2016 groups all the public employment service strategies and the annual employment policy plans and annual applications of this strategy. It includes six axes focused on: (1) orientation, (2) training; (3) employment opportunities, special consideration to the situation of persons with disabilities; (4) equal opportunities in access to employment; (5) business; (6) improving the institutional framework of the National Employment System.

Third, the Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014 includes five strategic objectives: (1) improve the employability of young people and to implement the National Plan of Implementation of the National System of Youth Guarantee in Spain; (2) promote the employability of other groups particularly affected by unemployment: over the age of 55, the long-term unemployed and beneficiaries; (3) improve the quality of vocational training for employment; (4) strengthen the linkage of active and passive employment policies; and (5) promote entrepreneurship.

Fourth, the Spanish Strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility 2014-2020 aims at business, government and the rest of the organisations to move towards a society and a more competitive, productive, sustainable and inclusive economy. It includes various measures to promote the inclusion of groups at risk.

Several specific laws have also been developed. For example, Law 11/2013 of 26 July, of measures to support entrepreneurship and to stimulate growth and job creation, that includes, among other measures, reductions and rebates for contributions to Social Security for people with disabilities who are self-employed. Likewise, Law 14/2013 of 27 September, supporting entrepreneurs and their internationalization establishes, among other general measures, reductions and rebates of contributions to Social Security for people with disabilities who are self-employed. More recently, Law 31/2015, of 9 September, for amending and updating the legislation on self-employment and building measures and promotion of self-employment and social economy includes measures such as: (1) extends the possibility of public contracting with companies of insertion, which adds to the existing Special Employment Centres; (2) sets quota reductions and bonuses to Social Security for People with disabilities (…) registered as self-employed; (3) requires meeting a minimum percentage of quota to participate in contracts to Special Employment Centres and integration companies; (4) states that self-employed workers with disabilities do not lose the right to enjoy their benefits as self-employers as a result of employing other workers. [update_date] => 2016-04-28 12:43:33 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Employment Service of Castilla y León [url] => http://www.empleo.jcyl.es/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Contracts for disabled workers [url] => http://www.empleo.gob.es/index.htm ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The National Action Plan for Social Inclusion 2013-2016 [url] => http://www.msssi.gob.es/destacados/docs/PNAIN_2013_2016_EN.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Spanish Strategy for Employment Activation 2014-2016 [url] => http://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_empleo/estrategia_14_16.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Decree-Law 751/2014, of 5 September [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/09/23/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-9623.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Resolution of the Secretary of State on Employment, of 16 September 2014, approving the Annual Plan for Employment Policy 2014 [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2014/09/24/pdfs/BOE-A-2014-9666.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 14/2013, of 27 September [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law 31/2015, of 9 September [url] => http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/09/10/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-9735.pdf ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Spanish Strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility 2014-2020 [url] => http://www.empleo.gob.es/es/sec_trabajo/EERSE_WEB.pdf ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => The State Observatory of Disability (Observatorio Estatal de la Discapacidad) is the main official service that compiles information on News, Statistics, Documents, Case Law, Bibliography, Legislation, Calls, Events, Aids, Directory of organizations, Collective agreements, and Links. This Observatory comes under the Ministry of Health, Social Affairs, and Equality. Most recent statistics and data on Employment can be obtained from the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) (e.g. Observatorio de las Ocupaciones, vol. 2, 2011). National reports from Verdugo, Jenaro & Campo as of 2009 offer detailed information about statistics on Employment, Social Inclusion, and education. The National Statistics Institute (INE) has been carrying out a macro survey on disabilities since 1986, published in 2008 (Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy and Dependent Situations). This is based on Spain’s ratification of the UNCRPD, related to Article 31. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:28:00 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The State Observatory of Disability (Observatorio Estatal de la Discapacidad) [url] => http://observatoriodeladiscapacidad.info/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Service of State Employment (SEPE, in Spanish) [url] => http://www.sepe.es/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistics from The State Observatory of Disability [url] => http://observatoriodeladiscapacidad.info/documentos/otros-documentos/17-estadisticas.html ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => The government (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Instituto de Mayores y Servicios Sociales -IMSERSO) is updating the Census to include disabled people.
The Disability Surveys are statistical operations in the form of macro-surveys, which respond to the demand for this information on behalf of the Public Administrations and of numerous users, particularly non-governmental organisations. These surveys cover a good part of the information needs regarding disability, dependency, the population ageing and the state of health of the population resident in Spain.
Three macro-surveys were conducted: the Survey on Disabilities, Impairment and Handicaps in 1986; the Survey on Disabilities, Impairment and Health Status in 1999; and the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations in 2008. The methodologies follow the World Health Organisation recommendations, and in particular, the international classifications in force during the year when the survey is carried out. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:31:37 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => INE: Disability Statistics [url] => http://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?L=1&c=INEPublicacion_C&cid=1259925266821&p=1254735110672&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout¶m1=PYSDetalleGratuitas ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations in 2008 [url] => http://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176782&menu=resultados&secc=1254736194716&idp=1254735573175 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State-wide database of people with disabilities [url] => http://observatoriodeladiscapacidad.info/attachments/article/34/Base%20Estatal%20Datos%20Personas%20con%20Discapacidad%202012.pdf ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => There is a national Labour Force Survey and disabled people are identified in the collection of data. Thus, it is possible to compare the situation of employed/unemployed and active/inactive people in both the general and the disabled population. Spain included in the European LFS ad-hoc module, specifically the data from 2005-2010. Most recent statistics and data on Employment can be obtained from the Public Service of State Employment (SEPE) (e.g. Observatorio de las Ocupaciones, vol. 2/2011). The situation at the end of 2012 was described in the Report of the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2013. This Report showed a decrease of 3.32% in people with disabilities' employment rate. Data from 2013 and 2014 revealed the highest number of inactive (63%) population among people with disabilities of working age. Spanish activity rates for disabled and non-disabled women and men are quite similar to the EU activity rates. The same can be said concerning age groups. These trends are also very similar since 2008, with disabled women showing the lowest activity rates, in contrast to non-disabled men who show the highest activity rates. Nevertheless, Spanish activity rates for disabled and non-disabled women (34.29%) and men (39.92%) are half of the existing for Spanish men (83.08%) and women (71.25%) without disabilities according to 2014 data published in the State Labour Market Report of Persons with Disabilities. The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain (National Observatory on Disability, 2014) states that regarding active population, gross profit analysis (salary) indicates significant differences close to EUR 2,500 per year among people with and without disabilities, with very pronounced differences depending on sex and age. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:38:13 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statistical analysis and publication of the results of the 2011 Labour Force Survey ad hoc module on employment of disabled people [url] => http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/1978984/6037334/Evaluation-Report-AHM-2011.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Public Service of State Employment (SEPE, in Spanish) [url] => http://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/estadisticas/datos_estadisticos/empleo/datos/estadisticas_nuevas.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Observatory of Occupations [url] => http://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/observatorio/observatorio.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Reports of the Labour Market of Persons with Disabilities (annual data) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/mercado_de_trabajo/informe_mercadotrabajo_estatal_discapacitados.html ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain [url] => http://www.cermi.es/sites/default/files/docs/colecciones/Informe_Olivenza_2014.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2013 (Data for 2012) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_mercado_trabajo/imt2013_datos2012_estatal_discapacitados.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => National Institute of Statistics, Labour Force Survey (third quarter 2014) [url] => http://www.ine.es/daco/daco42/daco4211/epa0314.pdf ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Olivenza 2016 report on disability in Spain [url] => http://observatoriodeladiscapacidad.info/attachments/article/90/Informe%20Olivenza%202016.pdf ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2014 (Data for 2013) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_mercado_trabajo/imt2014_datos2013_estatal_discapacitados.pdf ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the Labour Market of Persons with Disabilities 2015 (Data for 2014) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_mercado_trabajo/imt2015_datos2014_estatal_discapacitados.pdf ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2016 (Data for 2015) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_mercado_trabajo/imt2016_datos2015_estatal_discapacitados.pdf ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report on the Labour Market Situation of Persons with Disabilities 2017 (Data for 2016) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_mercado_trabajo/imt2017_datos2016_estatal_discapacidad.pdf ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => Equality is a core and cross-sectional principle in Spanish policies. However, there are no specific disability equality indicators in every domain (e.g. communication, health, housing, independent living, justice system, etc.) to measure progress towards disability equality. The main indicators on equality are related to employment and there are monthly reports available on employment that include disabled people. The Government is initiating a project to include the disability indicators.

In 2014, there was still a general lack of indicators that disaggregated findings by disability. However, the Spanish Strategy on Disability (2012-2020), in the section on fighting social exclusion and poverty, includes two strategic measures:

  • promote specific measures to ensure compliance with the general reduction targets of people below the poverty line included in the National Reform Programme 2011 of Spain.
  • promote the full development of personal autonomy goals of the Law on Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependency

The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain states that:

  • Regarding and economic inclusion, the disadvantage of the disabled population is almost 33% compared to the general population. This is for the huge difference in labour force participation rate and by the disadvantaged in poverty levels.
  • The risk of poverty affects 32% of the disabled population, nearly 5 points higher than the general population. Meanwhile, severe poverty affects 14.7% of the population with disabilities, by 9.6% in the population without disabilities. This risk is especially high for women with disabilities.
  • Regarding social integration, 21.5% of the population with disabilities recognizes that it has few or no friends and the majority (91%) have difficulties for cultural, sporting and leisure activities.
[update_date] => 2016-04-28 13:14:24 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equality indicators on employment [url] => https://www.sepe.es/indiceObservatorio/buscar.do?indice=1&tipo=2&periodo=anual&ambito=Nacional&tema=03&idioma=es ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Observatory of Occupations (2015) [url] => https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/observatorio/mercado_trabajo/2501-1.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Spanish Strategy on Disability (2012-2020) [url] => http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO26112/Estrategia2012_2020.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Olivenza 2014 report on disability in Spain [url] => http://www.cermi.es/es-ES/Biblioteca/Lists/Publicaciones/Attachments/333/Informe%20Olivenza%202014.pdf ) ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => In Spain there are a significant number of observatories on Equality. The observatories are specialised organs on equality of gender and equal opportunities whose main objective is to advise, analyse, evaluate and disseminate all information concerning cross-cutting policies on gender equality that are being carried out in different Ministerial departments, autonomous bodies and other entities both public and private. They emphasise the need for specific attention to specially vulnerable subgroups, such as disabled women. One of the strategic objectives of the Equal Opportunities Plan (2008-2011) is to consolidate, promote and disseminate the work done by these observatories. The Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equity has developed the Strategic Plan on Equal Opportunities (2008-2011). In its Eighth Strategic Goal, the Plan states that specific attention should be given to groups of girls and women in situations of increased vulnerability to suffer from double discrimination because of (among other things) having a disability (p.41). Among the measures included in the ninth Strategic Goal, on Education, Objective 13 aims to incorporate a gender perspective in the process of evaluating the education system, by disaggregating the data by sex and crossing them with relevant variables such as disability in order to highlight the situation of these students (p. 48). Additional measures include: making accessible awareness - raising programmes and campaigns, especially those related to health issues and prevention of gender violence, so it can be easily understood by women with visual-auditory disabilities (p. 86); and conducting studies on gender violence against most vulnerable women (disabled women, etc.) (p.93); promotion of innovative projects that ensure the right to comprehensive social assistance. However the plain does not specify how this will be done of who will do it.

The Spanish Strategy Action Plan on Disability 2014-2020, in the area of Education includes on its objective 2: “Promote awareness of disability in the curriculum”, which includes.

- Advancing the inclusion of the subject of 'universal accessibility and design for all people' in the various curricula.

- Include elements in the curriculum relating to equal opportunities and rights of people with disabilities.

- Develop training plans on disabilities and include disability issues in tests to access to public education administration.

The Objective 3” To promote knowledge and awareness by the educational community to the needs of people with disabilities”, includes:

- Enhance teacher training in understanding the needs of people with disabilities.

- Promote collaboration between the educational community and disability associations. [update_date] => 2015-02-27 11:40:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Strategic Plan on Equal Opportunities (2008-2011) [url] => http://www.migualdad.es/ss/Satellite?blobcol=urldata&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobheadername1=Content-disposition&blobheadervalue1=inline&blobkey=id&blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobwhere=1244651906235&ssbinary=true ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => There are no generalised or compulsory disability awareness/equality issues training as part of initial teacher training programmes. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers.
Some recently developed initiatives have been undertaken by the CRUE (Crue Universidades Españolas), a non-profit association founded in 1994 and formed by a total of 76 Spanish universities: 50 public and 26 private universities. CRUE has published a series of documents on Curricular Training in Design for All. This line of work started in 2006 with the White Paper on Design for All at the University, prepared by the Design Coordinator for All in Spain, with the collaboration of the ONCE Foundation and the Spanish Government Agency for the management programs and benefits for the elderly and dependent (IMSERSO). In order to give continuity to this project called Curricular Training in Design for All, in 2017 two publications were developed applied to the degrees of Tourism and Education, including in this last one the Grades of Preschool Education, Primary Education and Social Education, as well such as the Master's Degree in Compulsory Secondary Education, Baccalaureate and Vocational Training and Languages. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:43:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => White Paper on training for teachers [url] => http://www.aneca.es/var/media/150404/libroblanco_jun05_magisterio1.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Training Curriculum Design for All (CRUE) [url] => http://www.crue.org/SitePages/Formacion-Curricular-Diseno-para-todas-las-personas.aspx ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => University training project on design for all [url] => http://eventos.crue.org/8976/detail/formacion-universitaria-sobre-diseno-para-todas-las-personas.html ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of the training programmes for lawyers. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers.
The CRUE has published a document on Curricular Training in Design for All in law studies. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:44:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => White Paper on training for lawyers [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150240/libroblanco_derecho_def.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Training Curriculum Design for All (Law Studies) [url] => http://www.crue.org/Documentos%20compartidos/Publicaciones/Formaci%C3%B3n%20Curricular%20de%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas/Formaci%C3%B3n%20curricular%20en%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas%20-%20Derecho.pdf ) ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of training programmes for doctors. Disabled people's organisations are not systematically involved as trainers. Recently, the CRUE has published a document on Curricular Training in Design for all people in Medical studies, as well as in Nursing studies. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:45:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => White paper on Medical Studies [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150312/libroblanco_medicina_def.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Training Curriculum Design for All in Medicine [url] => http://www.crue.org/Documentos%20compartidos/Publicaciones/Formaci%C3%B3n%20Curricular%20de%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas/Formaci%C3%B3n%20curricular%20en%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas%20-%20Medicina.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Training Curriculum Design for All in Nursing studies [url] => http://www.crue.org/Documentos%20compartidos/Publicaciones/Formaci%C3%B3n%20Curricular%20de%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas/Formaci%C3%B3n%20curricular%20en%20dise%C3%B1o%20para%20todas%20las%20personas%20-%20accesible%20-%20Enfermer%C3%ADa.pdf ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => There is no general or compulsory disability awareness/equality training as part of training programmes for engineers and designers. Disabled people’s organisations are not systematically involved as trainers. [update_date] => 2018-04-19 12:46:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Aeronautical Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150252/libroblanco_aeronautica_def.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Agricultural and Forest Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150348/libroblanco_agrarias_forestales_def.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Chemical Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150264/libroblanco_ingquimica_def.pdf ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150320/libroblanco_ingcivil_def.pdf ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Construction Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150380/libroblanco_jun05_edificacion.pdf ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Engineering Materials [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150256/libroblanco_materiales_def.pdf ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Engineering of Mines and Energy [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150372/libroblanco_minas_def.pdf ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150388/libroblanco_jun05_informatica.pdf ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Geomatic Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150420/libroblanco_jun05_topografia.pdf ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Industrial Engineering (1) [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150232/libroblanco_industrialessup_def.zip ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Industrial Engineering (2) [url] => http://www.aneca.es/Documentos-y-publicaciones/Libros-Blancos/Libro-Blanco-de-Titulaciones-de-Grado-de-Ingenieria-de-la-Rama-Industrial ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Nautical and Marine Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150228/libroblanco_nautica_def.pdf ) [12] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Naval and Ocean Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/150248/libroblanco_naval_def.pdf ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Telecommunication Engineering [url] => http://www.aneca.es/media/151120/libroblanco_telecomunicaciones.pdf ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => Disability mainstreaming is identified in official policies or programmes of international development aid. More specifically, the Government, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, has developed for the 2009-2012 a Master Plan for Spanish Cooperation, which is a framework document establishing the objectives, criteria, and geographic priorities for cooperative development. The Millennium Declaration and other agreements derived from the United Nations are the principal references. Disability is mentioned in different places in the Plan, prohibiting discrimination paying ‘special attention’ to vulnerable groups, supporting access to basic education and health, job creation and entrepreneurial skills, and noting the disadvantaged position of disabled women. The Strategic Plan on Equal Opportunities includes Axis 11 on Foreign policy and development cooperation (Política exterior y de cooperación para el desarrollo). Non-discrimination principles based on gender are included but there is no specific reference to disability mainstreaming. [update_date] => 2012-03-23 14:21:12 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Master Plan for Spanish Cooperation [url] => http://www.exteriores.gob.es/es/MenuPpal/CooperacionInternacional/Publicacionesydocumentacion/Documents/Plan%20Director%202009-2012.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Opportunities Plan (2008-2011) [url] => http://www.mtin.es/es/igualdad/Documentos/Plan_estrategico_final.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Equal Opportunities Plan (2008-2011) (in English) [url] => http://www.migualdad.es/ss/Satellite?blobcol=urldata&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobheadername1=Content-disposition&blobheadervalue1=inline&blobkey=id&blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobwhere=1244652363571&ssbinary=true ) ) ) ) ) ) )