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Montenegro

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Montenegro signed the UN CRPD on 27 September 2007. The Parliament ratified the Convention on 15 July 2009 by adopting the Law on Ratification of the CRPD that was published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro - International Treaties' No 02/2009 on 27 July 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.

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Update date: Sat, 2016-05-21

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

Montenegro signed the Optional Protocol to the UN CRPD on 27 September 2007. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on 15 July 2009 by adopting The Law on Ratification of the Optional Protocol to CRPD that was published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro - International Treaties' No 02/2009 on 27 July 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.

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Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

There are no declarations, reservations or objection to the CRPD or Optional Protocol by Montenegro.

Update date: Sat, 2016-05-21

A4. Comprehensive review

The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro with the assistance of the European Union published 'Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Report for Montenegro for the year 2010'. This publication provides an overview of the situation in the field of rights of persons with disabilities’ protection, including relevant information on legislative framework, as well as a daily practice in the field of education, employment, accessibility, social and healthcare of persons with disabilities, that is very specific compared with the UN CRPD.

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Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

A5. Focal point

The Directorate for Promotion and Protection of Human Rights has been established within the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights as governmental service responsible, among other activities, for analysing international and EU standards on human rights and freedoms and harmonising national legislation with the relevant international standards; monitoring the development of the EU acquis communautaire and international standards on the protection of human rights and freedoms; fulfilment of obligations arising from international agreements related to monitoring measures of anti-discrimination policy; preparing analysis, information and reports on human rights and freedoms for the needs of state bodies that are not within the jurisdiction of other ministries. However, there is no specific body exclusively charged of the implementation of the Convention. Different public authorities, in relation to their competence and scope of work, carry out activities aimed at improving the quality of life and equal opportunities for people with disabilities, in accordance with the Convention. Competences and responsibilities of the Directorate are closely regulated by the Rules on internal organisation of the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, in Article 3 (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 22/08 and 42/11).

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Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

A6. Coordination mechanism

The Council for the Care of Persons with Disabilities, as an expert governmental body, was established in 2003, following the initiative of persons with disabilities. The mandate of the Council was for four years, and the last Decision on the establishment of the Council was adopted by the Government in January 2011 (published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro' No. 11/2011). The latest Council included five representatives of persons with disabilities from traditional organisations, representing persons with disabilities by type of disability and nine representatives of governmental and other state bodies. However, the Government adopted the decision in 2013 on rationalising the number of its working bodies. In this way, the Council was relocated within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. This decision caused disappointment among the organisations of persons with disabilities who protested against the discriminatory and degrading Government’s act, claiming that this Decision represents a violation of the EU and international standards on the protection of persons with disabilities. The Council consists of representatives of relevant ministries and national organisations of persons with disabilities. The main tasks of the Council are: the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities in the areas of social and health care, education, professional rehabilitation and employment; initiating the adoption of regulations for the development and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities; proposing measures to improve the quality of life of these persons; informing the public about the rights, opportunities and needs of persons with disabilities in order to eliminate prejudices and barriers in relation to these persons.

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Update date: Sat, 2016-05-21

A7. Independent mechanism

There is no independent monitoring mechanism established for the CRPD in Montenegro. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of Montenegro 46/10 and 18/2014) established the Protector for Human Rights and Freedoms as the independent national mechanism against discrimination on any ground, including disability. The Law on the Protector for Human Rights and Freedoms (Official Gazette of Montenegro No. 42/11) states the Protector’s competence to deal with complaints of victims of human rights violations; to provide required information to the complainant who believes to be discriminated by any authority, business entity, other legal person, entrepreneur or any person. The Law also explicitly gives the Protector the right to submit a special report on discrimination issues.

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Update date: Sat, 2016-05-21

A8. Official reporting

Montenegrin Government has prepared the Initial report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in December 2013. Although the Report should be submitted in 2011, a delay of two years was justified by the need for preparing a comprehensive Report. The report was prepared by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, with coordination and input from other relevant ministries and state institutions, but without the participation of non-governmental and disabled peoples’ organizations. However, the Association of Youth with Disabilities submitted their comments to the Report during the very short-lived consultations, negatively evaluating the same. The Government adopted the Initial report in January 2014, submitted it to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and officially deposited it at the UN on 13 March 2014.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-09

A9. Shadow reporting

No report from civil society has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report.

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Update date: Wed, 2017-08-09

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

Article 8 of the Montenegrin Constitution prohibits discrimination, either direct or indirect, on any grounds. The same article stipulates the measures of affirmative action, i.e. positive discrimination, so as to adopt regulations and implement specific measures aimed at creating the conditions for achieving overall equality and protection of persons on any grounds in an unequal position. Special protection of persons with disabilities is provided under Article 68 of the Montenegrin Constitution.The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of Montenegro 46/10 and 18/2014), in its Article 2, prohibits discrimination on any grounds, and distinguishes between direct and indirect discrimination. The grounds of discrimination explicitly listed in the Law include race, skin colour, national, social or ethnic origin, association with a minority group or minority national community, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, sex, gender, sexual orientation, health, disability, age, property and membership of a group or assumed membership of a group. In regards to discrimination against persons with disabilities, the following situations, in particular, shall be considered: preventing or hindering access to health care, and denial of medical care, regular medical treatment and medications, rehabilitation means and measures; denial of the right to education; denial of the right to employment and rights of employment, in accordance with the needs of the person; denial of the right to marry, family and other rights related to marriage and family relations. Unavailability of access to facilities and areas used by the public to persons with reduced mobility and persons with disabilities, or preventing, restricting or impeding the use of these facilities, in a manner which is not a disproportionate burden on the legal or natural person who is required to provide it, is considered discrimination.The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities, in Article 2, prohibits any form of discrimination against persons with disabilities of any kind. Consent of a person with disability to discrimination does not relieve the person who discriminates. Article 4 defines that discrimination based on disability is any legal or factual, direct or indirect, intentional or unintentional discrimination or unequal treatment or non-treatment of a person or group of persons with disabilities in relation to other persons, as well as exclusion, restriction or giving priority to a person in relation to a person with disabilities, for which the person with a disability impairs or nullifies the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of human rights and freedoms in the political, educational, economic, social, cultural, sports, civil and other areas of public and private life. Article 4 also states that ‘the discrimination on the ground of disability is considered to be the inviting, aiding, abetting or inciting, harassment, giving instructions, and announcing the possibility that a specific person or group of persons with disabilities are discriminated against’.

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Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

The Constitution, in Article 19, provides that everyone is entitled to equal protection of rights and freedoms. The laws dealing with the position of persons with disabilities in Montenegro are: the Criminal Procedure Code ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 57/2009, 49/2010, 47/2014, 2/2015, 35/2015 and 58/2015), the Law on Non-Litigation Procedure ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 27/06, 20/15) and the Civil Procedure Code ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 22/2004, 28/2005, 76/2006, 47/2015 and 48/2015). The Law on Criminal Procedure, Article 69 states: 'If the defendant is a person with special needs and not capable to protect his/her own rights in the proceeding or the proceeding concerns the criminal offense punishable by the longest prison sentence, the defendant must have a lawyer during the first interrogation', while Article 106 prescribes cases in which an interpreter for hearing of the accused person must be provided. Law on Non-Litigation Procedure, Article 29 states that 'in the process of losing and returning of the legal capacity the court investigates whether an adult person is capable for normal reasoning and protection of his/her rights and interests and decides on the total/partial guardianship, or the total/partial returning of legal capacity when the reasons for the complete or partial guardianship do not exist anymore.' The person against whom the proceeding for the guardianship has been initiated must be examined by medical expert of the appropriate specialty who will give a report and opinion on his/her mental state and ability to judge. The legal framework on access to justice for people with disabilities can be considered a good one. The most common problem in practice is insufficient education of employees in the judiciary and administrative bodies who work with people with disabilities. Accessibility of the court rooms and administrative bodies, as well as an insufficient number of sign language interpreters are also huge problems. Persons with disabilities are recognized by the law as persons who have a legal capacity. When it comes to the protection of their right to work in practice, this right is not implemented in a proper and sufficient way. There are no available data on the number of disabled people who lost their legal capacity as well as information on their property.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

The Law on Election of the Members of the Parliament (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 46/11, 14/14 and 47/14) provides for persons with disabilities the possibility of indirect exercise of voting rights. A voter who is unable to vote in person at the polling station (a blind, disabled or illiterate person) has the right to elect a person who will vote for him/her, in a way that he/she determines. The vote cannot be cast by any member of the voting committee nor any member of the electoral list. During the presidential elections held in April 2013, the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, (in cooperation with the Association of the Blind of Montenegro, and the Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro), implemented a procedure to provide visually impaired and blind persons the necessary conditions, using of the ballot forms, to exercise their political right to vote independently and secretly. The possibility of independent voting for the visually impaired was realized so that each polling place had one of the ballot forms through which blind people can vote without an escort, even if they do not know Braille. This pilot project has demonstrated the advantages this social group can use to independently cast their vote for the selected representatives. The Protector of Human Rights and Freedoms made a series of recommendations adopted by the Committee for Human Rights and Freedoms of the Parliament of Montenegro, as a conclusion intended for the state authorities, state government, local government bodies and local governments, as well as holders of public authority, in order to make possible equal participation of persons with disabilities in public life, and combat discrimination based on disability.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

B4. Official recognition of sign language

In Montenegro, sign language is not recognised as an official language, but it is standardised by the ministry responsible for education. General Law on Education (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 04 /08, 21/ 09, 45/10, 45/11 and 44/13) defines that the primary education is compulsory for all children aged six to 15 years, and 'education for people who use sign language, or a separate alphabet or other technical solutions is performed in sign language and by means of the language'. Drafting the Law on the Use of Sign Language was incorporated in the Government Programme for 2009, but still has not been adopted. In 2012 a Working Group on Standardisation of sign language in Montenegro has been formed. The Working Group has done the basics of sign language, developed a theoretical basis, dactylology (one-handed and two-handed signs for two new letters of the Montenegrin language) and Vocabulary basics of sign language in Montenegro (by the areas).

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008-2016 was adopted by the Montenegrin Government in November 2007 with the aim on improving the situation of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Montenegro and their involvement in all areas of society at equal basis. The objectives of the Strategy have been established for the period of 2008 - 2016, with action plans provided for the period of every two years. The Action plan for the implementation of the Strategy for 2014/2015 was prepared and adopted by the Government. The process of preparing the new Strategy 2016-2020 has been finalised during March 2016.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

The Law on the prohibition of discrimination against persons with disabilities established the prohibition of discrimination in the field of access to public facilities and public spaces as well as public transportation. The Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008 – 2016 prescribes ensuring accessibility to all public services and public transports and the provision of an accessible environment in accordance with the principles of universal design. According to the Law on Road Traffic Safety, in public transportation vehicles two to six seats closest to the entrance of the vehicle shall be reserved for persons with disabilities, and a notice about the number of such seats shall be displayed in a visible place. The Law on Obligations and Basic Property Relations in air traffic defines that the air carrier is obliged to give priority to the transport of persons with reduced mobility and their companions or certified guide dogs and children without escort.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

C2. Built environment accessibility

The Law on Spatial Planning and Construction (Official Gazette of Montenegro nos. 51/08, 34/11, 35/13) provides standards of safety and accessibility and requires that buildings are designed and constructed in such a way that particularly takes into account the accessibility and use by persons with reduced mobility and persons with disabilities. It provides obligations, planning rules and professional supervision that include controls and checks on the quality of execution of all types of work and application of regulations, standards and technical norms, including standards of accessibility. The Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism prescribes in more detail the technical standards of accessibility. The Law also provides penalties for the investor and the responsible person if accessiblity for persons with disability is not provided, in compliance with the accessibility standards. Amendments to the Law on Spatial Planning and Construction, by a plan of temporary facilities (access ramps, lifts, etc.) made possible to provide conditions for access and movement of persons with reduced mobility. In this way, it is possible to build ancillary facilities in a faster, easier and cheaper way, which should provide access, movement and a stay of persons with reduced mobility, because the construction of the same is treated as the construction of temporary facilities. This will overcome the current problem in the construction of access ramps, elevators and the like which required obtaining urban-planning requirements and building permit, as well as for any other building facilities. An Ordinance on the conditions and manner of adjustment of facilities for access and movement of persons with reduced mobility (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 10/ 09 of 10 February 2009) prescribes the conditions and manner of providing unobstructed access, movement, stay and work of persons with reduced mobility in public facilities, residential buildings and housing and commercial building and establishes the requirements and simple way to adapt accessibility to residential, housing and commercial buildings.'

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

The Law on Public Broadcasting Services of Montenegro (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, No. 79/08, and 45/12) regulates the rights and obligations of national public service broadcasters in the media system in Montenegro. Pursuant to this law, the public broadcasting service is designed to observe high standards of professional ethics and quality, without discrimination, to protect the public interest through its program content at the national and local levels through informational, cultural, educational, sports and entertainment programs, paying particular attention to children and youth, minority nations or other minority groups, persons with disabilities, socially disadvantaged and other specific groups, which results in the promotion and respect of human rights and freedoms. The Electronic Media Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, Nos. 46/10, 53/11 and 6/13) regulates the relations in the field of audiovisual media services based on, among others, the principle of non-discrimination. Audiovisual media services should not be allowed to spread hate or discrimination based on, among other things, disability and genetic heritage. The Regulation on the minimum set of services included in the Universal Service (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 60/10) determines the minimum set of universal services that must be available to all users at an affordable price, regardless of their geographical location in the territory of Montenegro. The minimum set of services included in the Universal service, among other, includes certain benefits for persons with disabilities, enabling them to have adequate access to publicly available telephone services and their use, including access to services, phone booths, directory and information service. The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro in cooperation with the Ministry for Information Society and Telecommunications in 2011 established a web portal (the link is given below). This portal is the only Internet portal in Montenegro which handles all issues related to disability. It contains information about the most important areas of life of people with disabilities, such as education, employment, independent living, accessibility, human rights, health and the like. The portal is based on the principles established by the UN CRPD. During 2012 and 2013 the portal has been updated and edited by the Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

Specific regulations related to the services of support to people with disabilities do not exist, except partially in the Law on Social and Child Protection, which in Articles 63, 64 and 65 defines the role of the Centre for Social Work. Under this law, social work services’ competences are: prevention, diagnostics, treatment and counseling, and therapeutic treatment. The Local Government Law (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 88/09, 03/10 and 38/12) stipulates that the municipalities shall conduct activities that are of direct and common interest to the local population and, according to their abilities, participate in the provision of conditions and improvements in the areas of: health care, education, social and child protection, employment and other areas of interest to local residents. Articles 32 and 33 of this Law define that local governments shall regulate and address the housing needs of persons in need and people with special needs, as well as the work of humanitarian and non-governmental organisations in these areas. There is no law that regulates personal assistance as one of the preconditions for greater independence and autonomy of persons with disabilities. Considering that the competent authorities emphasize the need of conducting pilot projects of personal assistance, disability organisations run various projects in this field.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D2. De-institutionalisation

Social and child protection is provided to citizens through a network of public institutions (centres for social work, homes for the placement of children or adults, day care centres, a variety of services at the local level). In Montenegro there are ten centres for social work with regional offices, 6 day care centres (for children with disabilities), one institution for children without parental care, one institution for adults with intellectual disabilities, two institutions for elderly and persons with disabilities, as well as an increasing number of services provided by NGOs. The Law on Social and Child Protection (Official Gazette, Nos. 27/13, 1/15, 42/15 i 47/15) defines that social and child protection is based on the principles of respect for the integrity and dignity of beneficiaries, non-discrimination, user information, individual access to and active participation of users, taking into account the best interests of the users. Prevention of institutionalisation and availability of services in the least restrictive environment when there are conditions in the person’s home or in the community through non-institutional forms of care that are provided by different service providers, with the aim of improving the quality of life of beneficiaries and their social inclusion, pluralism of services and service providers, partnerships and mergers of different operators of activities and programs are also encouraged. In mid-2013 the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Care 2013–2017 has been adopted, which names the protection of vulnerable groups as one of the priorities, through a process of preventing institutionalisation, the gradual reduction of the capacity of institutions and raising the quality of social care as well as job opportunities for the beneficiaries to escape from the institution to a natural or a less restrictive environment. Unfortunately, state institutions still lack capacities to develop non-institutional support services for people with disabilities. This is a process that requires time and serious material resources.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D3. Quality of social services

The area of social protection is generally regulated by the Constitution, in its Article 67, prescribing social insurance of employees as mandatory, and the obligation of state institutions to provide material security to the person who is unable to work and has no other funds for survival. However, in practice, support services for people with disabilities to allow them independent living are lacking. In addition to the symbolic material benefits in the form of social assistance (family allowance, one-time assistance and child allowance), and compensational rights (personal disability compensation and compensation for care and assistance of another person), people with disabilities and their families have no other assistance to cover the costs associated with disability. During the procedure of awarding social and child protection, people with disabilities are faced with obstacles. First, people with disabilities are assessed by relevant commissions through the prism of the inability and the assessment of their disability is based on the disease (damage) derived from legal definitions of lack of ability to work or to achieve independent living, instead of the assessment of their individual needs. Assessment of the person’s disability usually serves as the basis for referring the person with disability to special programmes and services while discouraging their involvement in mainstreamed systems and services intended and available for all citizens.

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

In addition to the by-law which is partly related to this area - Regulations on the process of exercising the right to medical - technical aids (Official Gazette of Montenegro nos. 24/13 and 26/14), there are no specific regulations governing this area. In the field of aids and assistive technologies, the situation, comparing to the previous period, has improved in terms of providing assistive supplies that better meet the needs of people with disabilities. However, a number of tools that would enable people with greater disabilities to better address their basic needs (such as various canes, electric carts with possibilities for adjusting the height, backrest, etc.) are missing.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

For several years now the Employment Agency has implemented the public programme Personal assistance and assistance in the classroom, as a social service aimed at increasing the employability of assistants and support persons with disabilities from an early age, in schools, and throughout their adulthood. Integration into society through education and employment contributes to combating social exclusion, which is a form of discrimination. Personal assistance services and assistants in teaching are provided by associations of disabled persons, associations of parents of children with disabilities and other organisations and institutions. There is no legal regulation that prescribes the personal assistant scheme for the persons with disabilities. This is more on the project or ad hoc basis. That is why there is no continuity in the implementation of these schemes.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D6. Income maintenance

There is no information applicable for the income maintenance.

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D7. Additional costs

There is no information applicable for the additional costs.

Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

D8. Retirement income

The Law on Amendments to the Law on Pension and Disability Insurance (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 78/10), which came into force on January 2011, continued the reform of the pension and disability insurance in Montenegro started in 2004. This law stipulates that the right to a retirement pension with 20 years of working experience, regardless of age, has one of the parents who have a child (who is the user of personal disability benefit) regardless of the age of the child. The amount of the pension for a parent of a child with severe developmental disabilities, who is the user of personal disability, increases by 20%. A person with disability insurance whose disability was caused by illness or injury outside of the work aged less than 30 years will be entitled to a disability pension under favorable conditions; a person up to the age of 20 will be entitled to a disability pension regardless of the length of insurance and a person aged 20 to 30 years old will be entitled to a disability pension if before the disability he/she had a total of at least one year of service (Article 46).

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Update date: Mon, 2016-05-23

E. Education

E1. Special schools

The education of children with disabilities in Montenegro is regulated by the General Law on Education, Law on Pre-School Education, Law on Primary Education, Law on Secondary School, Law on Vocational Education, and Law on the Education of children with special educational needs. The Law on the Education of children with special educational needs defines that the education and rehabilitation of children with special educational needs is required from the moment when the special educational need of the child is detected. This law makes it clear that children with disabilities and special needs shall attend kindergarten/school with their peers, and only exceptionally be referred to a special institution, when it is in his best interest. In accordance with the law, a parent, adoptive parent or guardian of a child with special educational needs has the right to participate in the choice of the program of education. The parent, or the child with special educational needs has the right, during the training, to change the curriculum in accordance with the law. The school and a resource centre shall, as a rule, within 30 days of the admission of the child, make an individual development and educational program for the child with special educational needs, in partnership with parents. The Law on the Education of Children with Special Needs created a legal basis for the inclusion of children with disabilities in the mainstream system. The Law defines children with special needs as children with physical, sensory or mental impairments; behavioural problems; severe chronic illnesses; emotional disorders; combined disabilities; children with long-term illnesses and other children with learning disabilities (Article 4). Under this Law, the education of such children is carried out either in: a) mainstream pre-school establishment and school with use of technical aids and additional professional assistance, if required; b) special groups or classes in mainstream schools with joints classes on some subjects or extracurricular activities or in special institutions with joint classes on some subjects with peers from the neighbouring school; c) special institutions, if children cannot be educated in the mainstream school due to the kind of assistance they require and the fact that their education and rehabilitation are closely intertwined; and d) at home. The decision on the referral of a child to one of the specific types of education is made by the municipal bodies in charge of education issues on the basis of a proposal by a special commission, made up of a pediatrician, doctors specialized in the relevant area, psychologist, pedagogue, disability specialist and a social worker. Parents and teachers are allowed to take part in the work of the commission. The schooling of children with special needs is financed out of the state budget and the policy framework was enhanced in 2008 with the adoption of the Government Strategy on Inclusive Education.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

E2. Mainstream schools

In 2008, the Government of Montenegro adopted the Strategy for Inclusive Education, which is part of the reform process relying on international and European targets aimed at the economic and social development of society, poverty reduction, and to provide quality and accessible education for children, students and adults with disabilities and other difficulties. The current system of education of children and youth with disabilities is organised in three main forms: institutions for children with disabilities, special classes in regular schools, regular classes in regular schools. In the first two forms, the system is organised so that children with the same type of disability attend special schools or special classes. Other children with disabilities or some other sort of special needs are placed in classes in regular schools along with other children, with the secured professional support. Regardless of the type of education, schools and institutions have a duty to develop an individual plan of education for each child with special needs in cooperation with the child’s parents. The Department of Education organises specialised mobile teams, engaging professionals from specialised institutions and those in the mainstream system, who are trained in inclusive education. They are included into mainstream schools where children with disabilities are educated, depending on the type of disability. The aim of these teams is to help children with disabilities, parents, teachers, and provide professional services in schools that educate children with disabilities. The orientation towards the appropriate form of education for each child is conducted by the Commissions for orientation, which are organised at the local level and operate in all municipalities in Montenegro. Their task is to recommend the best solution for the education of every child with special educational needs. The proposal for orientation is based on pedagogical, special-pedagogical, psychological and other documentation received from the relevant institutions.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

The General Law on Education (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 04 /08, 21/ 09, 45/10 and 45/11 and 44/ 13) defines that the primary education is compulsory for all children aged six to 15 years, and that classes for individuals who use sign language, or a separate alphabet or other technical solutions shall be performed on sign language and using appropriate means. Textbooks that would allow learning of Braille for children with disabilities and visual impairments are prepared and published on the basis of projects and donations. The Department for Education and Professional Rehabilitation of Children and Youth with Disabilities (Resource Centre for children and young people with physical, sensory and combined developmental disabilities) is equipped with three Braille machines. The resource centre in Podgorica conducts the project 'Braille in inclusive education'. This Resource Centre prepares the textbooks in Braille for elementary school. In collaboration with UNICEF the textbooks and teaching materials are converted to audio – CD.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

E4. Vocational training

The Labour Law (Article 15) explicitly prohibits direct and indirect discrimination in 'education, vocational training and advanced vocational training'. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination establishes discrimination in the area of education and vocational training as a form of discrimination. Namely, its Article 15 provides that discrimination in the field of education and vocational training is taken to occur when a person with disabilities is prevented from enrolling in an educational institution and university and from choosing an educational programme regardless the level of education; when the student with disabilities is excluded from the mentioned institution; or denied the possibility of attending classes and participating in other educational activities; or any classification of children, pupils, participants in education and students, abused or subject to any other unjustified differentiation or unequal treatment based on any ground refereed to the Law. The Vocational training of persons with disabilities is regulated by the Law on Vocational Training. The Government of Montenegro adopted in December 2007 the Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities in Montenegro, for the period 2008–2016. This document includes the following areas: health care, social protection, pension and disability insurance, education, vocational training and employment, accessibility, culture, sport and recreation, as well as the area that relates to the position of persons with disabilities in civil society. The Department of Education is implementing the project 'Support to the inclusion in vocational education within seven vocational schools'. This project has provided for the establishment and training of teams to support inclusive education.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

E5. Higher education

The provisions of the Higher Education Law prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability in the exercise of the right to higher education. Article 6 of this Law states: 'Higher education is accessible to all ...' while Article 7 states: 'Discrimination on the basis of skin color, race, marital status, sex, religion, language, nationality, ethnic or other characteristics, material wealth and disability is not allowed.' The Association of Youth with Disabilities maintains a database on the number of students with disabilities at individual university units (which includes the number of students who use wheelchairs or have walking difficulties, students with visual impairments, hearing impairments, and others) as well as data collected from the University on measures that are implemented so that students with disabilities have equal opportunities in higher education as other students. Some faculties of the University of Montenegro (Architecture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering) have not provided access to students with disabilities. In consequence, these persons are not enrolled at these university units, while other units ensure accessibility and create equal conditions for studying (e.g. ramps, elevators, computers with speech software in the reading rooms). The Schools of Economics and Philosophy are partly accessible, while in the building of the Faculty of Law and Faculty of Political Sciences a lift was installed in early 2008. In November 2010 at the Faculty of Law a board with the plan of the building and the inscriptions was set up in Braille. The big problem of all higher education institutions is the lack of books available for students with visual impairments. Also, there is a lack of sign language interpreters at the universities, and thus only one student with a hearing impairment is enrolled at the University of Montenegro.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

The Constitution of Montenegro in Articles 62, 63 and 64 provides that 'everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of a profession and employment, to humane conditions of work and protection during unemployment' (Article 62). Article 63 prohibits forced labor. Article 64 regulates the rights of employees prescribing that young people, women and disabled persons shall enjoy special protection at work. The Labour Law defines direct discrimination as every treatment which puts a person seeking employment or an employee in a less favorable position compared with other persons in the same or similar situation, on the grounds of sex, birth, language, race, religion, skin colour, age, pregnancy, health or disability, ethnicity, marital status, family duties, sexual orientation, political or other affiliation, social background, material status, membership in political and trade union organisations or some other personal characteristics (Article 6). Article 9 paragraph 2 of the Labour Law provides that provisions of the law, collective agreement and labour contract regarding special protection and assistance to certain categories of employed persons, and especially the ones regarding the protection of persons with disabilities, women during pregnancy and maternity leave and leave from work in order to care for a child, are not to be considered discrimination. Article 5m of the Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities, prohibits direct and indirect discrimination in vocational rehabilitation, as well as employment of persons with disabilities. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination provides that direct discrimination exists if a person or a group of persons, in the same or similar situation in respect to other person or group of persons, is brought or were brought, or may be brought in an unequal position by an act, action or failure to act, on any ground proposed by the Law, including disability. Discrimination in work shall also refer to the payment of unequal salary or remuneration for work of equal value to a person or a group of persons, on the basis of disability.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

F2. Public employment services

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities prescribes the manner and the procedure of enforcement of the right to vocational rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, measures and incentives for their employment, way of financing and other important issues. The Employment Agency of Montenegro, as a mediator working towards the employment of the unemployed, initiates and in the initial stage, supports the establishment of specialised organisations for vocational rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities, as they require special longer professional treatment for a number of barriers that affect their employment. The Employment Agency, within the pilot project in November 2009, started the process of training of 12 unemployed persons registered with the Employment Office of Podgorica, with higher education, of different profiles, for occupations required to regularly perform the process of vocational rehabilitation (psychologists, technologists, social workers, therapists). Along with the implementation of the programme in the vocational rehabilitation centres, the process of training included eight persons employed by the Agency who will work as advisors for professional rehabilitation. In accordance with the Law, the Employment Agency of Montenegro established a Fund for the professional rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities. The Fund’s resources are provided out of the special contribution paid by employers in the Budget of Montenegro.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

F3. Workplace adaptations

The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities provides that persons with disabilities can be employed under special requirements in special organisations (sheltered employment) if they are not able to find employment on the open labour market and under general conditions on the basis of their working and health capabilities. In this context, it should be noted that employers who employ persons with disabilities, as well as persons with disabilities who are self-employed, employed in an agricultural family households or owners of commercial enterprises are entitled to subsidies from the state. These subsidies include, among others, grants for adaptation of the working posts and conditions of work to persons with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

F4. Financial incentives

Article 36 of the Law on Professional Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities provides supports in order to stimulate employers to hire people with disabilities. These supports include: grants for adapting the workplace and working conditions for the employment of persons with disabilities; loans granted on more favourable terms for the purchase of machinery, equipment and tools needed for the employment of persons with disabilities; financing of expenditures for engaging personal (work) assistants for persons with disabilities, as well as a subsidy income for employing persons with disabilities. It should be noted that employers who employ persons with disabilities, as well as persons with disabilities who are self-employed, employed in an agricultural family farm or who are owners of commercial enterprises are entitled to subsidies from the state. According to Article 4 of the Decree on subsidies for employment of certain categories of unemployed persons (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 11/2012), the employer is released of the contributions for: pension and disability insurance at the rate of 15.0%, the contribution for health insurance at a rate of 8.5% and a contribution to insurance from unemployment status at the rate of 0.5%. The vulnerable groups who are beneficiaries of the Decree are, among others, persons who are in the records of the Employment Agency for more than five years and unemployed persons with over 25 years of paid insurance.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

The National Statistical Agency is the official body charged with statistics and data collection. However, there are no special regulations requiring that data is collected regarding persons with disability, except in the Law on the Population, Households and Dwellings Census 2011. Article 5 of this Law prescribes that the data about persons covered by the Census includes data on disability by types and causes of disability. The disability questions are optional in the questionnaire, according to the law. Joint cooperation and multi-sectorial networking of institutions at the local, regional and central levels should be ensured in order to provide systematic support for children and youth with disabilities. The plan began to be implemented in late 2010, with the establishment of formal services for children with disabilities, which are located in the centres for social work, in all municipalities in Montenegro. Their main role is to establish a database of all children with disabilities from the territory belonging to the municipality. A file for each child is established that contains all the relevant information about who, how and when has been working with the child, which collectively serves as a framework of an individual support plan for the child. Parents are introduced to all kinds of rights and services available to them in the field of social and health protection and in the education system, at the national, regional, or local level. The Customer Service now has precise data on children who are entitled to personal disability allowance, the right to care and assistance at the municipality level, as well as data on children with disabilities who are placed in social and child protection institutions.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

G2. Census data

The Population and Housing Census 2011 for the first time collected data on the existence of obstacles to perform everyday activities. The data was collected on the basis of people’s statements regardless of the existence of medical records as proof of disability. The questions in the Questionnaire, which was filled for each person separately were: 1. whether a person faces difficulties in carrying out everyday activities due to a long-term illness, disability or old age; 2. types of disabilities; and 3. cause of disability and types of devices that the person uses.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

G3. Labour Force Survey

The Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT) is the competent body for the production of official statistics. As the statistical leader, MONSTAT is obliged to collect data, processes and disseminate statistics performed in independent, professional, transparent and highly expert manner. The Labour force survey in Montenegro is being implemented since 1994 and includes information on economically active population and all persons working or seeking work in order to earn their living. The Labour Force Survey includes all persons working or looking for work in order to earn their living. Therefore, the main categories included in the survey are total employment, unemployment and demographic, educational, socio-economic and other characteristics of individuals that are in each of the individual group. Also, National Employment Agency conducts research on employment/unemployment considering, in general, employment rate among persons with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

G4. Disability equality indicators

It is not possible to summarise disability equality indicators based on public data sources. At the moment, there is no comprehensive and adequate quantitative nor qualitative data related to disability. Official statistics does not monitor disability through the collection of comprehensive regular statistical surveys. However, there is some kind of unofficial evidence developed by the organisations of persons with disabilities. At the beginning of 2012, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare signed an agreement to implement the project 'Social card – Information system of social care in Montenegro' with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Montenegro. This project represents one of the pillars of further promoting the reform of social protection systems, and the introduction of the information system of social welfare (ISSS) will allow the creation of a single ‘social card’ of citizens involved in social welfare programmes, as well as the exchange of information between relevant institutions at the national and local levels. The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare has established a working group for the development of uniform criteria for disability expert evaluation, as well as the establishment of a single body of expertise. The process of adoption of a Single list of impairments is ongoing, which will ensure standardisation of criteria across areas (the area of social protection, employment and veterans’ disability and pension system). This means that, once the list of impairments is standardised and finalised, officials who apply the law will always adopt the same decisions for persons with the same type and degree of disability. Currently, persons with disabilities, with the same diagnosis, are in an unequal position because of the lack of the standardised List of impairments. For example, there is a situation in which one person with a disability can exercise, based on the decision of the relevant officials, any of the rights in the field of social care, while another person with the same disability cannot achieve the same protection. This list shall be open to amendment pursuant to its application in practice, and the development of medical diagnostics. The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro in partnership with the USAID during 2011 conducted a research on the challenges faced by women with disabilities, and the situation of women with disabilities in the Montenegrin society. During the selection of the target group of the survey, gender, age, education, socio-cultural, material and other characteristics were taken into account. In addition, the research has been done on a cross-disability basis, and includes all types of disabilities. Besides these methods, the study included statistical data on persons with disabilities, research programs that include people with disabilities in general and differentiated programs that include certain groups of persons with disabilities, the definition of disability, the publication in which women with disabilities are mentioned, and the data from the field of employment among others.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

Currently, there is no information about official awareness raising programs. There are several raising awareness projects on disability implemented by non-governmental organisations.

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H2. Training for teachers

In mid-2013 the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Care 2013–2017 has been adopted, which names as one of its priorities, the development of social and child protection measures, and the improvement of the protection of vulnerable groups, through a process of preventing institutional care, gradually reducing the capacity of institutions and raising the quality of institutional care and increasing job opportunities for institutional residents to allow them to move from the institution to a natural or a less restrictive environment. This is a process that requires time and serious material resources. Since the beginning of the reform of the educational system a number of trainings for the staff in preschools and elementary schools has been organised to support children with special educational needs. The Department of Education has organised seminars for teachers on inclusive education in the period 2009-2012. The Department of Education continuously implements a project 'Support to the inclusion in vocational education'. In seven vocational schools, teams for training and support for inclusive education have been formed and trained.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H3. Training for lawyers

There is no information available about the organisation of trainings for lawyers.

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H4. Training for doctors

Up until the end of 2009, six centres for children with special needs were established in health centres. Counseling services for reproductive health, maternity, neonatology departments, selected paediatricians and others, are referring the high-risk newborn and children with a developmental disability to these centres. The centres are organising training for professional teams (paediatricians, nurses, psychologists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and special education teachers), who had been previously trained by special programs to provide services to children with disabilities up to the age of 14. The work content of these teams include: early detection, monitoring and treatment of children with psychomotor dysfunction, as well as development of programmes for the inclusion of children with disabilities in educational institutions. In addition, support centres organise counseling services for children with other chronic diseases, which can affect their normal growth and development. Through the work of these counseling services, children and their parents receive comprehensive information and advice on the methods and style of living with disability.

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H5. Training for engineers

Currently, there is no information available about organisation of trainings for engineers.

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

H6. International development aid

Currently, there is no information available about this item.

Update date: Wed, 2016-05-25

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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 17
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => greece
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
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                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 18
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                    [lft] => 28
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => hungary
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 19
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                )

            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                )

            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 35
                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
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                )

            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 22
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                    [rgt] => 37
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 23
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                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => luxembourg
                    [title] => Luxembourg
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 24
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 25
                    [parent_id] => 3
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => netherlands
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [22] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 26
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [children] => 0
                )

            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => portugal
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
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                )

            [24] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 28
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                )

            [25] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 29
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => slovakia
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 28
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            [26] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 30
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
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            [27] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [level] => 2
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [ordering] => 3
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            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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            [32] => stdClass Object
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            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [level] => 2
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            [38] => stdClass Object
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        )

    [themes] => Array
        (
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                    [level] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [1] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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            [2] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [4] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [6] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
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                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 11
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 18
                    [rgt] => 19
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 10
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [10] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 21
                    [rgt] => 32
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => b-general-legal-framework
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 11
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [11] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 22
                    [rgt] => 23
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 12
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [12] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 24
                    [rgt] => 25
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 13
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 15
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 26
                    [rgt] => 27
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                    [title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 14
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [14] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 16
                    [parent_id] => 12
                    [lft] => 28
                    [rgt] => 29
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                    [title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 15
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [15] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 17
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                    [lft] => 30
                    [rgt] => 31
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                    [title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 16
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [id] => 18
                    [parent_id] => 1
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                    [slug] => c-accessibility
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                    [ordering] => 17
                    [state] => 1
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 18
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                    [title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 19
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                    [title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 20
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => d-independent-living
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                    [title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 22
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 23
                    [state] => 1
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                    [slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 24
                    [state] => 1
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                    [title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 25
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 26
                    [state] => 1
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 27
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                    [slug] => d8-retirement-income
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 29
                    [state] => 1
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                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 30
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [30] => stdClass Object
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                    [slug] => e1-special-schools
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 31
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [31] => stdClass Object
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                    [parent_id] => 31
                    [lft] => 62
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                    [slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                    [title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 32
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

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                    [rgt] => 65
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                    [title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 33
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

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                    [rgt] => 67
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                    [slug] => e4-vocational-training
                    [title] => E4. Vocational training
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 34
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

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                    [lft] => 68
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                    [slug] => e5-higher-education
                    [title] => E5. Higher education
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 35
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [slug] => f-employment
                    [title] => F. Employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 36
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [36] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 73
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                    [title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 37
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

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                    [lft] => 74
                    [rgt] => 75
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                    [slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                    [title] => F2. Public employment services
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 38
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [38] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 40
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                    [lft] => 76
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                    [title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 39
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [39] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 41
                    [parent_id] => 37
                    [lft] => 78
                    [rgt] => 79
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                    [title] => F4. Financial incentives
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 40
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                    [id] => 42
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 81
                    [rgt] => 90
                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => g-statistics-and-data-collection
                    [title] => G. Statistics and data collection
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 41
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [41] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 43
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 82
                    [rgt] => 83
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g1-official-research
                    [title] => G1. Official research
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 42
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [42] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 84
                    [rgt] => 85
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g2-census-data
                    [title] => G2. Census data
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 43
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [43] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 45
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 86
                    [rgt] => 87
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                    [title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 44
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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                )

            [44] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 46
                    [parent_id] => 42
                    [lft] => 88
                    [rgt] => 89
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                    [title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 45
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [45] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 47
                    [parent_id] => 1
                    [lft] => 91
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => h-awareness-and-external-action
                    [title] => H. Awareness and external action
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 46
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
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                )

            [46] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 48
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 92
                    [rgt] => 93
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                    [title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 47
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [47] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 49
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 94
                    [rgt] => 95
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                    [title] => H2. Training for teachers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 48
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                )

            [48] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 50
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 96
                    [rgt] => 97
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                    [title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 49
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [49] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 51
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 98
                    [rgt] => 99
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                    [title] => H4. Training for doctors
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 50
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [50] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 100
                    [rgt] => 101
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                    [title] => H5. Training for engineers
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 51
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
                )

        )

    [results] => Array
        (
            [36] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Candidate / Acceding countries
                    [location] => Montenegro
                    [location_id] => 36
                    [location_slug] => montenegro
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Montenegro signed the UN CRPD on 27 September 2007. The Parliament ratified the Convention on 15 July 2009 by adopting the Law on Ratification of the CRPD that was published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro - International Treaties' No 02/2009 on 27 July 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-21 19:17:53
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Law on Ratification of the CRPD (Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije UN o pravima osoba sa invaliditetom sa Opcionim protokolom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [4] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol
                                    [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
                                    [theme_id] => 4
                                    [contents] => Montenegro signed the Optional Protocol to the UN CRPD on 27 September 2007. The Parliament ratified the Optional Protocol on 15 July 2009 by adopting The Law on Ratification of the Optional Protocol to CRPD that was published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro - International Treaties' No 02/2009 on 27 July 2009 and entered into force on the eighth day of its publication.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:15:09
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Law on Ratification of the OP to the CRPD (Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije UN o pravima osoba sa invaliditetom sa Opcionim protokolom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [5] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections
                                    [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
                                    [theme_id] => 5
                                    [contents] => There are no declarations, reservations or objection to the CRPD or Optional Protocol by Montenegro.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-21 19:29:50
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [6] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review
                                    [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
                                    [theme_id] => 6
                                    [contents] => The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro with the assistance of the European Union published 'Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Report for Montenegro for the year 2010'. This publication provides an overview of the situation in the field of rights of persons with disabilities’ protection, including relevant information on legislative framework, as well as a daily practice in the field of education, employment, accessibility, social and healthcare of persons with disabilities, that is very specific compared with the UN CRPD.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:17:06
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Report for Montenegro for 2010
                                                    [url] => http://umhcg.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/izvjestaj-fin+.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [7] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A5. Focal point
                                    [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point
                                    [theme_id] => 7
                                    [contents] => The Directorate for Promotion and Protection of Human Rights has been established within the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights as governmental service responsible, among other activities, for analysing international and EU standards on human rights and freedoms and harmonising national legislation with the relevant international standards; monitoring the development of the EU acquis communautaire and international standards on the protection of human rights and freedoms; fulfilment of obligations arising from international agreements related to monitoring measures of anti-discrimination policy; preparing analysis, information and reports on human rights and freedoms for the needs of state bodies that are not within the jurisdiction of other ministries. However, there is no specific body exclusively charged of  the implementation of the Convention. Different public authorities, in relation to their competence and scope of work, carry out activities aimed at improving the quality of life and equal opportunities for people with disabilities, in accordance with the Convention. Competences and responsibilities of the Directorate are closely regulated by the Rules on internal organisation of the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, in Article 3 (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 22/08 and 42/11).
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:19:49
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Directorate for Promotion and Protection of Human Rights 
                                                    [url] => http://www.mmp.gov.me/rubrike/Direktorat_za_unapredenje_i_zastitu_ljudskih_prava/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Rules on internal organisation of the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights (Pravilnik o unutrašnjoj organizaciji i sistematizaciji 2015. godine)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mmp.gov.me/biblioteka/pravilnici
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [8] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 8
                                    [contents] => The Council for the Care of Persons with Disabilities, as an expert governmental body, was established in 2003, following the initiative of persons with disabilities. The mandate of the Council was for four years, and the last Decision on the establishment of the Council was adopted by the Government in January 2011 (published in the 'Official Gazette of Montenegro' No. 11/2011). The latest Council included five representatives of persons with disabilities from traditional organisations, representing persons with disabilities by type of disability and nine representatives of governmental and other state bodies. However, the Government adopted the decision in 2013 on rationalising the number of its working bodies. In this way, the Council was relocated within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. This decision caused disappointment among the organisations of persons with disabilities who protested against the discriminatory and degrading Government’s act, claiming that this Decision represents a violation of the EU and international standards on the protection of persons with disabilities. The Council consists of representatives of relevant ministries and national organisations of persons with disabilities. The main tasks of the Council are: the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities in the areas of social and health care, education, professional rehabilitation and employment; initiating the adoption of regulations for the development and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities; proposing measures to improve the quality of life of these persons; informing the public about the rights, opportunities and needs of persons with disabilities in order to eliminate prejudices and barriers in relation to these persons.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-21 19:58:27
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Decision on establishing the Council for the Care of Persons with Disabilities (Odluka o obrazovanju Savjeta za brigu o licima s invaliditetom) 
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/odluke?pagerIndex=3
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Protest of organisations of persons with disabilities against the Government’s Decision on relocating of the Council within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare: 
                                                    [url] => http://umhcg.com/saopstenje-za-javnost-povodom-ukidanja-savjeta-za-brigu-o-licima-s-invaliditetom/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [9] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism
                                    [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                                    [theme_id] => 9
                                    [contents] => There is no independent monitoring mechanism established for the CRPD in Montenegro. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of Montenegro 46/10 and 18/2014) established the Protector for Human Rights and Freedoms as the independent national mechanism against discrimination on any ground, including disability. The Law on the Protector for Human Rights and Freedoms (Official Gazette of Montenegro No. 42/11) states the Protector’s competence to deal with complaints of victims of human rights violations; to provide required information to the complainant who believes to be discriminated by any authority, business entity, other legal person, entrepreneur or any person. The Law also explicitly gives the Protector the right to submit a special report on discrimination issues.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-21 20:02:28
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Zakon o zabrani diskrminacije)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mmp.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on the Protector for Human Rights and Freedoms (Zakon o zastitniku/ci ljudskih prava i sloboda Crne Gore)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mmp.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Protector’s Report on Prohibition Against Discrimination 2011
                                                    [url] => http://www.ombudsman.co.me/izvjestaji.php
                                                )

                                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Protector’s Annual Report 2014
                                                    [url] => http://www.ombudsman.co.me/docs/izvjestaji/Annual_Report_2014.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [10] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 10
                                    [contents] => Montenegrin Government has prepared the Initial report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in December 2013. Although the Report should be submitted in 2011, a delay of two years was justified by the need for preparing a comprehensive Report. The report was prepared by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, with coordination and input from other relevant ministries and state institutions, but without the participation of non-governmental and disabled peoples’ organizations. However, the Association of Youth with Disabilities submitted their comments to the Report during the very short-lived consultations, negatively evaluating the same. The Government adopted the Initial report in January 2014, submitted it to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and officially deposited it at the UN on 13 March 2014.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-09 16:58:46
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=116
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => State reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=116&DocTypeID=29
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [11] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting
                                    [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting
                                    [theme_id] => 11
                                    [contents] => No report from civil society has been submitted to the UN Committee in parallel to the initial state report.
                                    [update_date] => 2017-08-09 16:59:04
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee
                                                    [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=116&DocTypeID=14
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [13] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation
                                    [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation
                                    [theme_id] => 13
                                    [contents] => Article 8 of the Montenegrin Constitution prohibits discrimination, either direct or indirect, on any grounds. The same article stipulates the measures of affirmative action, i.e. positive discrimination, so as to adopt regulations and implement specific measures aimed at creating the conditions for achieving overall equality and protection of persons on any grounds in an unequal position. Special protection of persons with disabilities is provided under Article 68 of the Montenegrin Constitution.The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (Official Gazette of Montenegro 46/10 and 18/2014), in its Article 2, prohibits discrimination on any grounds, and distinguishes between direct and indirect discrimination. The grounds of discrimination explicitly listed in the Law include race, skin colour, national, social or ethnic origin, association with a minority group or minority national community, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, sex, gender, sexual orientation, health, disability, age, property and membership of a group or assumed membership of a group. In regards to discrimination against persons with disabilities, the following situations, in particular, shall be considered: preventing or hindering access to health care, and denial of medical care, regular medical treatment and medications, rehabilitation means and measures; denial of the right to education; denial of the right to employment and rights of employment, in accordance with the needs of the person; denial of the right to marry, family and other rights related to marriage and family relations. Unavailability of access to facilities and areas used by the public to persons with reduced mobility and persons with disabilities, or preventing, restricting or impeding the use of these facilities, in a manner which is not a disproportionate burden on the legal or natural person who is required to provide it, is considered discrimination.The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities, in Article 2, prohibits any form of discrimination against persons with disabilities of any kind. Consent of a person with disability to discrimination does not relieve the person who discriminates. Article 4 defines that discrimination based on disability is any legal or factual, direct or indirect, intentional or unintentional discrimination or unequal treatment or non-treatment of a person or group of persons with disabilities in relation to other persons, as well as exclusion, restriction or giving priority to a person in relation to a person with disabilities, for which the person with a disability impairs or nullifies the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of human rights and freedoms in the political, educational, economic, social, cultural, sports, civil and other areas of public and private life. Article 4 also states that ‘the discrimination on the ground of disability is considered to be the inviting, aiding, abetting or inciting, harassment, giving instructions, and announcing the possibility that a specific person or group of persons with disabilities are discriminated against’.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:25:26
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o zabrani diskriminacije lica sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mmp.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [14] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity
                                    [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity
                                    [theme_id] => 14
                                    [contents] => The Constitution, in Article 19, provides that everyone is entitled to equal protection of rights and freedoms. The laws dealing with the position of persons with disabilities in Montenegro are: the Criminal Procedure Code ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 57/2009, 49/2010, 47/2014, 2/2015, 35/2015 and 58/2015), the Law on Non-Litigation Procedure ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 27/06, 20/15) and the Civil Procedure Code ('Official Gazette of Montenegro' nos. 22/2004, 28/2005, 76/2006,  47/2015 and 48/2015). The Law on Criminal Procedure, Article 69 states: 'If the defendant is a person with special needs and not capable to protect his/her own rights in the proceeding or the proceeding concerns the criminal offense punishable by the longest prison sentence, the defendant must have a lawyer during the first interrogation', while Article 106 prescribes cases in which an interpreter for hearing of the accused person must be provided. Law on Non-Litigation Procedure, Article 29 states that 'in the process of losing and returning of the legal capacity the court investigates whether an adult person is capable for normal reasoning and protection of his/her rights and interests and decides on the total/partial guardianship, or the  total/partial returning of legal capacity when the reasons for the complete or partial guardianship do not exist anymore.' The person against whom the proceeding for the guardianship has been initiated must be examined by medical expert of the appropriate specialty who will give a report and opinion on his/her mental state and ability to judge. The legal framework on access to justice for people with disabilities can be considered a good one. The most common problem in practice is insufficient education of employees in the judiciary and administrative bodies who work with people with disabilities. Accessibility of the court rooms and administrative bodies, as well as an insufficient number of sign language interpreters are also huge problems. Persons with disabilities are recognized by the law as persons who have a legal capacity. When it comes to the protection of their right to work in practice, this right is not implemented in a proper and sufficient way. There are no available data on the number of disabled people who lost their legal capacity as well as information on their property.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 16:41:55
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Civil Procedure Code (Zakon o parnicnom postupku)
                                                    [url] => http://www.paragraf.me/propisi-crnegore/zakon-o-parnicnom-postupku.html
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Non-Litigation Procedure (Zakon o vanparnicnom postupku)
                                                    [url] => http://www.paragraf.me/propisi-crnegore/zakon-o-vanparnicnom-postupku.html
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Criminal Procedure Code (Zakon o krivicnom postupku)
                                                    [url] => http://www.paragraf.me/propisi-crnegore/zakonik-o-krivicnom-postupku.html
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [15] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections
                                    [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections
                                    [theme_id] => 15
                                    [contents] => The Law on Election of the Members of the Parliament (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 46/11, 14/14 and 47/14) provides for persons with disabilities the possibility of indirect exercise of voting rights. A voter who is unable to vote in person at the polling station (a blind, disabled or illiterate person) has the right to elect a person who will vote for him/her, in a way that he/she determines. The vote cannot be cast by any member of the voting committee nor any member of the electoral list. During the presidential elections held in April 2013, the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights, (in cooperation with the Association of the Blind of Montenegro, and the Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro), implemented a procedure to provide visually impaired and blind persons the necessary conditions, using of the ballot forms, to exercise their political right to vote independently and secretly. The possibility of independent voting for the visually impaired was realized so that each polling place had one of the ballot forms through which blind people can vote without an escort, even if they do not know Braille. This pilot project has demonstrated the advantages this social group can use to independently cast their vote for the selected representatives. The Protector of Human Rights and Freedoms made a series of recommendations adopted by the Committee for Human Rights and Freedoms of the Parliament of Montenegro, as a conclusion intended for the state authorities, state government, local government bodies and local governments, as well as holders of public authority, in order to make possible equal participation of persons with disabilities in public life, and combat discrimination based on disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 16:49:42
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Election of Members of Parliament (Zakon o izboru odbornika i poslanika)
                                                    [url] => http://www.dik.co.me/regulativa/Zakoni/Zakon%20o%20izboru%20odbornika%20i%20poslanika.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [16] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language
                                    [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language
                                    [theme_id] => 16
                                    [contents] => In Montenegro, sign language is not recognised as an official language, but it is standardised by the ministry responsible for education. General Law on Education (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 04 /08, 21/ 09, 45/10, 45/11 and 44/13) defines that the primary education is compulsory for all children aged six to 15 years, and 'education for people who use sign language, or a separate alphabet or other technical solutions is performed in sign language and by means of the language'. Drafting the Law on the Use of Sign Language was incorporated in the Government Programme for 2009, but still has not been adopted. In 2012 a Working Group on Standardisation of sign language in Montenegro has been formed. The Working Group has done the basics of sign language, developed a theoretical basis, dactylology (one-handed and two-handed signs for two new letters of the Montenegrin language) and Vocabulary basics of sign language in Montenegro (by the areas).
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:21:19
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => General Law on Education (Opsti zakon o vaspitanju i obrazovanju)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [17] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => B. General legal framework
                                    [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan
                                    [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan
                                    [theme_id] => 17
                                    [contents] => The Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008-2016 was adopted by the Montenegrin Government in November 2007 with the aim on improving the situation of persons with disabilities in the Republic of Montenegro and their involvement in all areas of society at equal basis. The objectives of the Strategy have been established for the period of 2008 - 2016, with action plans provided for the period of every two years. The Action plan for the implementation of the Strategy for 2014/2015 was prepared and adopted by the Government. The process of preparing the new Strategy 2016-2020 has been finalised during March 2016.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:22:36
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008-2016 (Strategija za integraciju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [19] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 19
                                    [contents] => The Law on the prohibition of discrimination against persons with disabilities established the prohibition of discrimination in the field of access to public facilities and public spaces as well as public transportation. The Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008 – 2016 prescribes ensuring accessibility to all public services and public transports and the provision of an accessible environment in accordance with the principles of universal design. According to the Law on Road Traffic Safety, in public transportation vehicles two to six seats closest to the entrance of the vehicle shall be reserved for persons with disabilities, and a notice about the number of such seats shall be displayed in a visible place. The Law on Obligations and Basic Property Relations in air traffic defines that the air carrier is obliged to give priority to the transport of persons with reduced mobility and their companions or certified guide dogs and children without escort.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:51:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities 2008-2016 (Strategija za integraciju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [20] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 20
                                    [contents] => The Law on Spatial Planning and Construction (Official Gazette of Montenegro nos. 51/08, 34/11, 35/13) provides standards of safety and accessibility and requires that buildings are designed and constructed in such a way that particularly takes into account the accessibility and use by persons with reduced mobility and persons with disabilities. It provides obligations, planning rules and professional supervision that include controls and checks on the quality of execution of all types of work and application of regulations, standards and technical norms, including standards of accessibility. The Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism prescribes in more detail the technical standards of accessibility. The Law also provides penalties for the investor and the responsible person if accessiblity for persons with disability is not provided, in compliance with the accessibility standards. Amendments to the Law on Spatial Planning and Construction, by a plan of temporary facilities (access ramps, lifts, etc.) made possible to provide conditions for access and movement of persons with reduced mobility. In this way, it is possible to build ancillary facilities in a faster, easier and cheaper way, which should provide access, movement and a stay of persons with reduced mobility, because the construction of the same is treated as the construction of temporary facilities. This will overcome the current problem in the construction of access ramps, elevators and the like which required obtaining urban-planning requirements and building permit, as well as for any other building facilities. An Ordinance on the conditions and manner of adjustment of facilities for access and movement of persons with reduced mobility (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 10/ 09 of 10 February 2009) prescribes the conditions and manner of providing unobstructed access, movement, stay and work of persons with reduced mobility in public facilities, residential buildings and housing and commercial building and establishes the requirements and simple way to adapt accessibility to residential, housing and commercial buildings.'
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:51:58
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Spatial Planning and Construction (Zakon o uredjenju prostora i izgradnji objekata)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrt.gov.me/rubrike/zakonska-regulativa/137389/Legislativa-iz-oblasti-uredenja-prostora.html
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [21] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => C. Accessibility
                                    [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility
                                    [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility
                                    [theme_id] => 21
                                    [contents] => The Law on Public Broadcasting Services of Montenegro (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, No. 79/08, and 45/12) regulates the rights and obligations of national public service broadcasters in the media system in Montenegro. Pursuant to this law, the public broadcasting service is designed to observe high standards of professional ethics and quality, without discrimination, to protect the public interest through its program content at the national and local levels through informational, cultural, educational, sports and entertainment programs, paying particular attention to children and youth, minority nations or other minority groups, persons with disabilities, socially disadvantaged and other specific groups, which results in the promotion and respect of human rights and freedoms. The Electronic Media Law (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, Nos. 46/10, 53/11 and 6/13) regulates the relations in the field of audiovisual media services based on, among others, the principle of non-discrimination. Audiovisual media services should not be allowed to spread hate or discrimination based on, among other things, disability and genetic heritage. The Regulation on the minimum set of services included in the Universal Service (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 60/10) determines the minimum set of universal services that must be available to all users at an affordable price, regardless of their geographical location in the territory of Montenegro. The minimum set of services included in the Universal service, among other, includes certain benefits for persons with disabilities, enabling them to have adequate access to publicly available telephone services and their use, including access to services, phone booths, directory and information service. The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro in cooperation with the Ministry for Information Society and Telecommunications in 2011 established a web portal (the link is given below). This portal is the only Internet portal in Montenegro which handles all issues related to disability. It contains information about the most important areas of life of people with disabilities, such as education, employment, independent living, accessibility, human rights, health and the like. The portal is based on the principles established by the UN CRPD. During 2012 and 2013 the portal has been updated and edited by the Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 17:53:13
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Public Broadcasting Services of Montenegro (Zakon o javnim radio-difuznim servisima Crne Gore)
                                                    [url] => http://www.ministarstvokulture.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?alphabet=lat
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Web portal of the Ministry for Information Society and Telecommunications
                                                    [url] => http://www.disabilityinfo.me/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [23] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements
                                    [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements
                                    [theme_id] => 23
                                    [contents] => Specific regulations related to the services of support to people with disabilities do not exist, except partially in the Law on Social and Child Protection, which in Articles 63, 64 and 65 defines the role of the Centre for Social Work. Under this law, social work services’ competences are: prevention, diagnostics, treatment and counseling, and therapeutic treatment. The Local Government Law (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 88/09, 03/10 and 38/12) stipulates that the municipalities shall conduct activities that are of direct and common interest to the local population and, according to their abilities, participate in the provision of conditions and improvements in the areas of: health care, education, social and child protection, employment and other areas of interest to local residents. Articles 32 and 33 of this Law define that local governments shall regulate and address the housing needs of persons in need and people with special needs, as well as the work of humanitarian and non-governmental organisations in these areas. There is no law that regulates personal assistance as one of the preconditions for greater independence and autonomy of persons with disabilities. Considering that the competent authorities emphasize the need of conducting pilot projects of personal assistance, disability organisations run various projects in this field.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:28:11
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Local Government Law (Zakon o lokalnoj samoupravi)
                                                    [url] => http://www.uom.co.me/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Zakon-o-lokalnoj-samoupravi_2003-2014.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [24] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation
                                    [theme_id] => 24
                                    [contents] => Social and child protection is provided to citizens through a network of public institutions (centres for social work, homes for the placement of children or adults, day care centres, a variety of services at the local level). In Montenegro there are ten centres for social work with regional offices, 6 day care centres (for children with disabilities), one institution for children without parental care, one institution for adults with  intellectual disabilities, two institutions for elderly and persons with disabilities, as well as an increasing number of services provided by NGOs. The Law on Social and Child Protection (Official Gazette, Nos. 27/13, 1/15, 42/15 i 47/15) defines that social and child protection is based on the principles of respect for the integrity and dignity of beneficiaries, non-discrimination, user information, individual access to and active participation of users, taking into account the best interests of the users. Prevention of institutionalisation and availability of services in the least restrictive environment when there are conditions in the person’s home or in the community through non-institutional forms of care that are provided by different service providers, with the aim of improving the quality of life of beneficiaries and their social inclusion, pluralism of services and service providers, partnerships and mergers of different operators of activities and programs are also encouraged. In mid-2013 the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Care 2013–2017 has been adopted, which names the protection of vulnerable groups as one of the priorities, through a process of preventing institutionalisation, the gradual reduction of the capacity of institutions and raising the quality of social care as well as job opportunities for the beneficiaries to escape from the institution to a natural or a less restrictive environment. Unfortunately, state institutions still lack capacities to develop non-institutional support services for people with disabilities. This is a process that requires time and serious material resources.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:37:02
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Social and Child Protection (Zakon o socijalnoj i djecijoj zastiti)
                                                    [url] => http://www.paragraf.me/propisi-crnegore/zakon-o-socijalnoj-i-djecjoj-zastiti.html
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [25] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services
                                    [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services
                                    [theme_id] => 25
                                    [contents] => The area of social protection is generally regulated by the Constitution, in its Article 67, prescribing social insurance of employees as mandatory, and the obligation of state institutions to provide material security to the person who is unable to work and has no other funds for survival. However, in practice, support services for people with disabilities to allow them independent living are lacking. In addition to the symbolic material benefits in the form of social assistance (family allowance, one-time assistance and child allowance), and compensational rights (personal disability compensation and compensation for care and assistance of another person), people with disabilities and their families have no other assistance to cover the costs associated with disability. During the procedure of awarding social and child protection, people with disabilities are faced with obstacles. First, people with disabilities are assessed by relevant commissions through the prism of the inability and the assessment of their disability is based on the disease (damage) derived from legal definitions of lack of ability to work or to achieve independent living, instead of the assessment of their individual needs. Assessment of the person’s disability usually serves as the basis for referring the person with disability to special programmes and services while discouraging their involvement in mainstreamed systems and services intended and available for all citizens.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 19:02:30
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Social and Child Protection (Zakon o socijalnoj i djecijoj zastiti)
                                                    [url] => http://www.paragraf.me/propisi-crnegore/zakon-o-socijalnoj-i-djecjoj-zastiti.html
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [26] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home
                                    [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home
                                    [theme_id] => 26
                                    [contents] => In addition to the by-law which is partly related to this area - Regulations on the process of exercising the right to medical - technical aids (Official Gazette of Montenegro nos. 24/13 and 26/14), there are no specific regulations governing this area. In the field of aids and assistive technologies, the situation, comparing to the previous period, has improved in terms of providing assistive supplies that better meet the needs of people with disabilities. However, a number of tools that would enable people with greater disabilities to better address their basic needs (such as various canes, electric carts with possibilities for adjusting the height, backrest, etc.) are missing.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:58:23
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Regulations on the process of exercising the right to medical - technical aids (Pravilnik o ostvarivanju prava na medicinsko-tehnicka pomagala)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mzdravlja.gov.me/biblioteka/pravilnici
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [27] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes
                                    [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes
                                    [theme_id] => 27
                                    [contents] => For several years now the Employment Agency has implemented the public programme Personal assistance and assistance in the classroom, as a social service aimed at increasing the employability of assistants and support persons with disabilities from an early age, in schools, and throughout their adulthood. Integration into society through education and employment contributes to combating social exclusion, which is a form of discrimination. Personal assistance services and assistants in teaching are provided by associations of disabled persons, associations of parents of children with disabilities and other organisations and institutions. There is no legal regulation that prescribes the personal assistant scheme for the persons with disabilities. This is more on the project or ad hoc basis. That is why there is no continuity in the implementation of these schemes.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:53:14
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Study Analysis: Personal Assistance: Key for independent life (Perosnalna asistencija: kljuc za samostalni zivot)
                                                    [url] => http://umhcg.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Personalna-asistencija-klju%C4%8D-za-samostalni-%C5%BEivot-2.pdf
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o profesionalnoj rehabilitaciji i zaposljavanju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?pagerIndex=2
                                                )

                                            [2] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Employment Agency of Montenegro
                                                    [url] => http://www.zzzcg.me/zaposljavanje-osi/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [28] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance
                                    [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance
                                    [theme_id] => 28
                                    [contents] => There is no information applicable for the income maintenance.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:35:12
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [29] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs
                                    [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs
                                    [theme_id] => 29
                                    [contents] => There is no information applicable for the additional costs.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 18:32:25
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [30] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => D. Independent living
                                    [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income
                                    [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income
                                    [theme_id] => 30
                                    [contents] => The Law on Amendments to the Law on Pension and Disability Insurance (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 78/10), which came into force on January 2011, continued the reform of the pension and disability insurance in Montenegro started in 2004. This law stipulates that the right to a retirement pension with 20 years of working experience, regardless of age, has one of the parents who have a child (who is the user of personal disability benefit) regardless of the age of the child. The amount of the pension for a parent of a child with severe developmental disabilities, who is the user of personal disability, increases by 20%. A person with disability insurance whose disability was caused by illness or injury outside of the work aged less than 30 years will be entitled to a disability pension under favorable conditions; a person up to the age of 20 will be entitled to a disability pension regardless of the length of insurance and a person aged 20 to 30 years old will be entitled to a disability pension if before the disability he/she had a total of at least one year of service (Article 46).
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-23 19:07:25
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Pension and Disability Insurance (Zakon o penzijskom i invalidskom osiguranju)
                                                    [url] => http://www.usscg.me/docs/Zakon%20o%20penzijskom%20i%20invalidskom%20osiguranju,%20preciscen%20tekst.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [32] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E1. Special schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 32
                                    [contents] => The education of children with disabilities in Montenegro is regulated by the General Law on Education, Law on Pre-School Education, Law on Primary Education, Law on Secondary School, Law on Vocational Education, and Law on the Education of children with special educational needs. The Law on the Education of children with special educational needs defines that the education and rehabilitation of children with special educational needs is required from the moment when the special educational need of the child is detected. This law makes it clear that children with disabilities and special needs shall attend kindergarten/school with their peers, and only exceptionally be referred to a special institution, when it is in his best interest. In accordance with the law, a parent, adoptive parent or guardian of a child with special educational needs has the right to participate in the choice of the program of education. The parent, or the child with special educational needs has the right, during the training, to change the curriculum in accordance with the law. The school and a resource centre shall, as a rule, within 30 days of the admission of the child, make an individual development and educational program for the child with special educational needs, in partnership with parents. The Law on the Education of Children with Special Needs created a legal basis for the inclusion of children with disabilities in the mainstream system. The Law defines children with special needs as children with physical, sensory or mental impairments; behavioural problems; severe chronic illnesses; emotional disorders; combined disabilities; children with long-term illnesses and other children with learning disabilities (Article 4). Under this Law, the education of such children is carried out either in: a) mainstream pre-school establishment and school with use of technical aids and additional professional assistance, if required; b) special groups or classes in mainstream schools with joints classes on some subjects or extracurricular activities  or in special institutions with joint classes on some subjects with peers from the neighbouring school; c) special institutions, if children cannot be educated in the mainstream school due to the kind of assistance they require and the fact that their education and rehabilitation are closely intertwined; and d) at home. The decision on the referral of a child to one of the specific types of education is made by the municipal bodies in charge of education issues on the basis of a proposal by a special commission, made up of a pediatrician, doctors specialized in the relevant area, psychologist, pedagogue, disability specialist and a social worker.  Parents and teachers are allowed to take part in the work of the commission. The schooling of children with special needs is financed out of the state budget and the policy framework was enhanced in 2008 with the adoption of the Government Strategy on Inclusive Education.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 12:39:59
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Strategy for Inclusive Education (Strategija za inkluzivno obrazovanje)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije?alphabet=lat
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Education of children with special educational needs (Zakon o obrazovanju djece sa posebnim obrazovnim potrbama)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [33] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools
                                    [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools
                                    [theme_id] => 33
                                    [contents] => In 2008, the Government of Montenegro adopted the Strategy for Inclusive Education, which is part of the reform process relying on international and European targets aimed at the economic and social development of society, poverty reduction, and to provide quality and accessible education for children, students and adults with disabilities and other difficulties. The current system of education of children and youth with disabilities is organised in three main forms: institutions for children with disabilities, special classes in regular schools, regular classes in regular schools. In the first two forms, the system is organised so that children with the same type of disability attend special schools or special classes. Other children with disabilities or some other sort of special needs are placed in classes in regular schools along with other children, with the secured professional support. Regardless of the type of education, schools and institutions have a duty to develop an individual plan of education for each child with special needs in cooperation with the child’s parents. The Department of Education organises specialised mobile teams, engaging professionals from specialised institutions and those in the mainstream system, who are trained in inclusive education. They are included into mainstream schools where children with disabilities are educated, depending on the type of disability. The aim of these teams is to help children with disabilities, parents, teachers, and provide professional services in schools that educate children with disabilities. The orientation towards the appropriate form of education for each child is conducted by the Commissions for orientation, which are organised at the local level and operate in all municipalities in Montenegro. Their task is to recommend the best solution for the education of every child with special educational needs. The proposal for orientation is based on pedagogical, special-pedagogical, psychological and other documentation received from the relevant institutions.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 12:46:54
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Strategy for Inclusive Education (Strategija za inkluzivno obrazovanje)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije?alphabet=lat
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [34] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school
                                    [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school
                                    [theme_id] => 34
                                    [contents] => The General Law on Education (Official Gazette of Montenegro, Nos. 04 /08, 21/ 09, 45/10 and 45/11 and 44/ 13) defines that the primary education is compulsory for all children aged six to 15 years, and that classes for individuals who use sign language, or a separate alphabet or other technical solutions shall be performed on sign language and using appropriate means. Textbooks that would allow learning of Braille for children with disabilities and visual impairments are prepared and published on the basis of projects and donations. The Department for Education and Professional Rehabilitation of Children and Youth with Disabilities (Resource Centre for children and young people with physical, sensory and combined developmental disabilities) is equipped with three Braille machines. The resource centre in Podgorica conducts the project 'Braille in inclusive education'. This Resource Centre prepares the textbooks in Braille for elementary school. In collaboration with UNICEF the textbooks and teaching materials are converted to audio – CD.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 12:51:49
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => General Law on Education (Opsti zakon o vaspitanju i obrazovanju)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [35] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training
                                    [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training
                                    [theme_id] => 35
                                    [contents] => The Labour Law (Article 15) explicitly prohibits direct and indirect discrimination in 'education, vocational training and advanced vocational training'. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination establishes discrimination in the area of education and vocational training as a form of discrimination. Namely, its Article 15 provides that discrimination in the field of education and vocational training is taken to occur when a person with disabilities is prevented from enrolling in an educational institution and university and from choosing an educational programme regardless the level of education; when the student with disabilities is excluded from the mentioned institution; or denied the possibility of attending classes and participating in other educational activities; or any classification of children, pupils, participants in education and students, abused or subject  to any other unjustified differentiation or unequal treatment based on any ground refereed to the Law. The Vocational training of persons with disabilities is regulated by the Law on Vocational Training. The Government of Montenegro adopted in December 2007 the Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities in Montenegro, for the period 2008–2016. This document includes the following areas: health care, social protection, pension and disability insurance, education, vocational training and employment, accessibility, culture, sport and recreation, as well as the area that relates to the position of persons with disabilities in civil society. The Department of Education is implementing the project 'Support to the inclusion in vocational education within seven vocational schools'. This project has provided for the establishment and training of teams to support inclusive education.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 12:56:47
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Training (Zakon o strucnom obrazovanju)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [36] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => E. Education
                                    [theme_title] => E5. Higher education
                                    [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education
                                    [theme_id] => 36
                                    [contents] => The provisions of the Higher Education Law prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability in the exercise of the right to higher education. Article 6 of this Law states: 'Higher education is accessible to all ...' while Article 7 states: 'Discrimination on the basis of skin color, race, marital status, sex, religion, language, nationality, ethnic or other characteristics, material wealth and disability is not allowed.' The Association of Youth with Disabilities maintains a database on the number of students with disabilities at individual university units (which includes the number of students who use wheelchairs or have walking difficulties, students with visual impairments, hearing impairments, and others) as well as data collected from the University on measures that are implemented so that students with disabilities have equal opportunities in higher education as other students. Some faculties of the University of Montenegro (Architecture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering) have not provided access to students with disabilities. In consequence, these persons are not enrolled at these university units, while other units ensure accessibility and create equal conditions for studying (e.g. ramps, elevators, computers with speech software in the reading rooms). The Schools of Economics and Philosophy are partly accessible, while in the building of the Faculty of Law and Faculty of Political Sciences a lift was installed in early 2008. In November 2010 at the Faculty of Law a board with the plan of the building and the inscriptions was set up in Braille. The big problem of all higher education institutions is the lack of books available for students with visual impairments. Also, there is a lack of sign language interpreters at the universities, and thus only one student with a hearing impairment is enrolled at the University of Montenegro.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 12:58:16
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Higher Education Law (Zakon o visokom obrazovanju)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mps.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [38] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment
                                    [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment
                                    [theme_id] => 38
                                    [contents] => The Constitution of Montenegro in Articles 62, 63 and 64 provides that 'everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of a profession and employment, to humane conditions of work and protection during unemployment' (Article 62). Article 63 prohibits forced labor. Article 64 regulates the rights of employees prescribing that young people, women and disabled persons shall enjoy special protection at work. The Labour Law defines direct discrimination as every treatment which puts a person seeking employment or an employee in a less favorable position compared with other persons in the same or similar situation, on the grounds of sex, birth, language, race, religion, skin colour, age, pregnancy, health or disability, ethnicity, marital status, family duties, sexual orientation, political or other affiliation, social background, material status, membership in political and trade union organisations or some other personal characteristics (Article 6). Article 9 paragraph 2 of the Labour Law provides that provisions of the law, collective agreement and labour contract regarding special protection and assistance to certain categories of employed persons, and especially the ones regarding the protection of persons with disabilities, women during pregnancy and maternity leave and leave from work in order to care for a child, are not to be considered discrimination. Article 5m of the Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities, prohibits direct and indirect discrimination in vocational rehabilitation, as well as employment of persons with disabilities. The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination provides that direct discrimination exists if a person or a group of persons, in the same or similar situation in respect to other person or group of persons, is brought or were brought, or may be brought in an unequal position by an act, action or failure to act, on any ground proposed by the Law, including disability. Discrimination in work shall also refer to the payment of unequal salary or remuneration for work of equal value to a person or a group of persons, on the basis of disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 13:45:28
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o profesionalnoj rehabilitaciji i zaposljavanju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?pagerIndex=2
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [39] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services
                                    [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services
                                    [theme_id] => 39
                                    [contents] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities prescribes the manner and the procedure of enforcement of the right to vocational rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, measures and incentives for their employment, way of financing and other important issues. The Employment Agency of Montenegro, as a mediator working towards the employment of the unemployed, initiates and in the initial stage, supports the establishment of specialised organisations for vocational rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities, as they require special longer professional treatment for a number of barriers that affect their employment. The Employment Agency, within the pilot project in November 2009, started the process of training of 12 unemployed persons registered with the Employment Office of Podgorica, with higher education, of different profiles, for occupations required to regularly perform the process of vocational rehabilitation (psychologists, technologists, social workers, therapists). Along with the implementation of the programme in the vocational rehabilitation centres, the process of training included eight persons employed by the Agency who will work as advisors for professional rehabilitation. In accordance with the Law, the Employment Agency of Montenegro established a Fund for the professional rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities. The Fund’s resources are provided out of the special contribution paid by employers in the Budget of Montenegro.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 13:46:59
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o profesionalnoj rehabilitaciji i zaposljavanju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?pagerIndex=2
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [40] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations
                                    [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations
                                    [theme_id] => 40
                                    [contents] => The Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities provides that persons with disabilities can be employed under special requirements in special organisations (sheltered employment) if they are not able to find employment on the open labour market and under general conditions on the basis of their working and health capabilities. In this context, it should be noted that employers who employ persons with disabilities, as well as persons with disabilities who are self-employed, employed in an agricultural family households or owners of commercial enterprises are entitled to subsidies from the state. These subsidies include, among others, grants for adaptation of the working posts and conditions of work to persons with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 13:48:08
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o profesionalnoj rehabilitaciji i zaposljavanju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?pagerIndex=2
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [41] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => F. Employment
                                    [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives
                                    [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives
                                    [theme_id] => 41
                                    [contents] => Article 36 of the Law on Professional Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities provides supports in order to stimulate employers to hire people with disabilities. These supports include: grants for adapting the workplace and working conditions for the employment of persons with disabilities; loans granted on more favourable terms for the purchase of machinery, equipment and tools needed for the employment of persons with disabilities; financing of expenditures for engaging personal (work) assistants for persons with disabilities, as well as a subsidy income for employing persons with disabilities. It should be noted that employers who employ persons with disabilities, as well as persons with disabilities who are self-employed, employed in an agricultural family farm or who are owners of commercial enterprises are entitled to subsidies from the state. According to Article 4 of the Decree on subsidies for employment of certain categories of unemployed persons (Official Gazette of Montenegro, No. 11/2012), the employer is released of the contributions for: pension and disability insurance at the rate of 15.0%, the contribution for health insurance at a rate of 8.5% and a contribution to insurance from unemployment status at the rate of 0.5%. The vulnerable groups who are beneficiaries of the Decree are, among others, persons who are in the records of the Employment Agency for more than five years and unemployed persons with over 25 years of paid insurance.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 13:49:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities (Zakon o profesionalnoj rehabilitaciji i zaposljavanju osoba sa invaliditetom)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?pagerIndex=2
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [43] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G1. Official research
                                    [theme_slug] => g1-official-research
                                    [theme_id] => 43
                                    [contents] => The National Statistical Agency is the official body charged with statistics and data collection. However, there are no special regulations requiring that data is collected regarding persons with disability, except in the Law on the Population, Households and Dwellings Census 2011. Article 5 of this Law prescribes that the data about persons covered by the Census includes data on disability by types and causes of disability. The disability questions are optional in the questionnaire, according to the law. Joint cooperation and multi-sectorial networking of institutions at the local, regional and central levels should be ensured in order to provide systematic support for children and youth with disabilities. The plan began to be implemented in late 2010, with the establishment of formal services for children with disabilities, which are located in the centres for social work, in all municipalities in Montenegro. Their main role is to establish a database of all children with disabilities from the territory belonging to the municipality. A file for each child is established that contains all the relevant information about who, how and when has been working with the child, which collectively serves as a framework of an individual support plan for the child. Parents are introduced to all kinds of rights and services available to them in the field of social and health protection and in the education system, at the national, regional, or local level. The Customer Service now has precise data on children who are entitled to personal disability allowance, the right to care and assistance at the municipality level, as well as data on children with disabilities who are placed in social and child protection institutions.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 14:18:38
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Census of Population, Households and Dwellings for 2011 (Zakon o popisu stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u 2011. godini)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mif.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?query=popis&sortDirection=desc
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [44] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G2. Census data
                                    [theme_slug] => g2-census-data
                                    [theme_id] => 44
                                    [contents] => The Population and Housing Census 2011 for the first time collected data on the existence of obstacles to perform everyday activities. The data was collected on the basis of people’s statements regardless of the existence of medical records as proof of disability. The questions in the Questionnaire, which was filled for each person separately were: 1. whether a person faces difficulties in carrying out everyday activities due to a long-term illness, disability or old age; 2. types of disabilities; and 3. cause of disability and types of devices that the person uses.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 14:20:57
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Law on Census of Population, Households and Dwellings for 2011 (Zakon o popisu stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u 2011. godini)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mif.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni?query=popis&sortDirection=desc
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Census 2011 data (Montenegro)
                                                    [url] => http://www.monstat.org/eng/page.php?id=393&pageid=57
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [45] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey
                                    [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey
                                    [theme_id] => 45
                                    [contents] => The Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT) is the competent body for the production of official statistics. As the statistical leader, MONSTAT is obliged to collect data, processes and disseminate statistics performed in independent, professional, transparent and highly expert manner. The Labour force survey in Montenegro is being implemented since 1994 and includes information on economically active population and all persons working or seeking work in order to earn their living. The Labour Force Survey includes all persons working or looking for work in order to earn their living. Therefore, the main categories included in the survey are total employment, unemployment and demographic, educational, socio-economic and other characteristics of individuals that are in each of the individual group. Also, National Employment Agency conducts research on employment/unemployment considering, in general, employment rate among persons with disabilities.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 14:23:01
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Statistical reports of National Employment Agency
                                                    [url] => http://www.zzzcg.me/statisticki-izvjestaji/
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [46] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection
                                    [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators
                                    [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators
                                    [theme_id] => 46
                                    [contents] => It is not possible to summarise disability equality indicators based on public data sources. At the moment, there is no comprehensive and adequate quantitative nor qualitative data related to disability. Official statistics does not monitor disability through the collection of comprehensive regular statistical surveys. However, there is some kind of unofficial evidence developed by the organisations of persons with disabilities. At the beginning of 2012, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare signed an agreement to implement the project 'Social card – Information system of social care in Montenegro' with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Montenegro. This project represents one of the pillars of further promoting the reform of social protection systems, and the introduction of the information system of social welfare (ISSS) will allow the creation of a single ‘social card’ of citizens involved in social welfare programmes, as well as the exchange of information between relevant institutions at the national and local levels. The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare has established a working group for the development of uniform criteria for disability expert evaluation, as well as the establishment of a single body of expertise. The process of adoption of a Single list of impairments is ongoing, which will ensure standardisation of criteria across areas (the area of social protection, employment and veterans’ disability and pension system). This means that, once the list of impairments is standardised and finalised, officials who apply the law will always adopt the same decisions for persons with the same type and degree of disability. Currently, persons with disabilities, with the same diagnosis, are in an unequal position because of the lack of the standardised List of impairments. For example, there is a situation in which one person with a disability can exercise, based on the decision of the relevant officials, any of the rights in the field of social care, while another person with the same disability cannot achieve the same protection. This list shall be open to amendment pursuant to its application in practice, and the development of medical diagnostics. The Association of Youth with Disabilities of Montenegro in partnership with the USAID during 2011 conducted a research on the challenges faced by women with disabilities, and the situation of women with disabilities in the Montenegrin society. During the selection of the target group of the survey, gender, age, education, socio-cultural, material and other characteristics were taken into account. In addition, the research has been done on a cross-disability basis, and includes all types of disabilities. Besides these methods, the study included statistical data on persons with disabilities, research programs that include people with disabilities in general and differentiated programs that include certain groups of persons with disabilities, the definition of disability, the publication in which women with disabilities are mentioned, and the data from the field of employment among others.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 14:25:33
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Research on the challenges faced by women with disabilities (2011)
                                                    [url] => https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/Women-with-Disabilities-EE-Region-FINAL-2012.pdf
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [48] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs
                                    [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs
                                    [theme_id] => 48
                                    [contents] => Currently, there is no information about official awareness raising programs. There are several raising awareness projects on disability implemented by non-governmental organisations.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:07:41
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [49] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers
                                    [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers
                                    [theme_id] => 49
                                    [contents] => In mid-2013 the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Care 2013–2017 has been adopted, which names as one of its priorities, the development of social and child protection measures, and the improvement of the protection of vulnerable groups, through a process of preventing institutional care, gradually reducing the capacity of institutions and raising the quality of institutional care and increasing job opportunities for institutional residents to allow them to move from the institution to a natural or a less restrictive environment. This is a process that requires time and serious material resources. Since the beginning of the reform of the educational system a number of trainings for the staff in preschools and elementary schools has been organised to support children with special educational needs. The Department of Education has organised seminars for teachers on inclusive education in the period 2009-2012. The Department of Education continuously implements a project 'Support to the inclusion in vocational education'. In seven vocational schools, teams for training and support for inclusive education have been formed and trained.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:03:05
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [title] => Strategy for Development of Social and Child Care 2013–2017 (Strategija za razvoj socijalne i djecije zastite)
                                                    [url] => http://www.mrs.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [50] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers
                                    [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers
                                    [theme_id] => 50
                                    [contents] => There is no information available about the organisation of trainings for lawyers.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:03:35
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [51] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors
                                    [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors
                                    [theme_id] => 51
                                    [contents] => Up until the end of 2009, six centres for children with special needs were established in health centres. Counseling services for reproductive health, maternity, neonatology departments, selected paediatricians and others, are referring the high-risk newborn and children with a developmental disability to these centres. The centres are organising training for professional teams (paediatricians, nurses, psychologists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and special education teachers), who had been previously trained by special programs to provide services to children with disabilities up to the age of 14. The work content of these teams include: early detection, monitoring and treatment of children with psychomotor dysfunction, as well as development of programmes for the inclusion of children with disabilities in educational institutions. In addition, support centres organise counseling services for children with other chronic diseases, which can affect their normal growth and development. Through the work of these counseling services, children and their parents receive comprehensive information and advice on the methods and style of living with disability.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:05:53
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [52] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers
                                    [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers
                                    [theme_id] => 52
                                    [contents] => Currently, there is no information available about organisation of trainings for engineers.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:06:30
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                            [53] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => H. Awareness and external action
                                    [theme_title] => H6. International development aid
                                    [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                                    [theme_id] => 53
                                    [contents] => Currently, there is no information available about this item.
                                    [update_date] => 2016-05-25 15:06:57
                                    [links] => Array
                                        (
                                        )

                                )

                        )

                )

        )

)