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Liechtenstein

A. UN Convention status

A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention

Liechtenstein has not signed the UNCRPD up to now.
During Liechtenstein's second cycle universal periodic review (UPR) in 2013, three recommendations regarding the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities were made. Liechtenstein accepted all of them without any further comment. The government of Liechtenstein has appointed an inter-office working group to assess the need for preparation of its ratification. The main reason for not having signed the UNCRPD yet can be seen in the lack of administrative resources within this area. Additionally, the latest changes within the governmental organisation and the newly founded Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) as independent national human rights institution in Liechtenstein in 2016, did not speed-up the process on the preparation of the UNCRPD ratification.

The UN Human Rights Council discussed the human rights situation in Liechtenstein on 24 January 2018. Liechtenstein presented itself for the third time to the so-called Universal Periodic Review (UPR). The Liechtenstein review was based on a report on the national human rights situation submitted in autumn 2017. The report shows the progress made since the last review in 2013 and at the same time, it identifies areas of action for further improvement. One of the main issues remains the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities by the next UPR review.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol

During Liechtenstein's second cycle universal periodic review (UPR) in 2013, Liechtenstein received the recommendation to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol (OP-CRPD). Liechtenstein accepted the recommendation but has not ratified the OP-CRPD so far.
Liechtenstein submitted a report on the national human rights situation in Liechtenstein in autumn 2017 to the UN Human Rights Council. The Report serves as the basis for the third Universal Periodic Review. During the discussion on 24 January 2018, the representatives of the UN Human Rights Council repeated the recommendation regarding the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections

Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence there are no declarations, reservations or objections.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

A4. Comprehensive review

Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. No comprehensive review in preparation for implementation of the UN convention has been made.

Update date: Wed, 2014-10-29

A5. Focal point

Liechtenstein has signed neither the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no focal point has been appointed.
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein can be regarded as the main administrative board. It was founded by 26 non-governmental organisations on 10 December 2016 and acts as an independent national human rights institution in accordance with the United Nations Paris Principles of 1932. The status of the association and the relevant legal provisions were laid down in a new law, the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Gesetz über den Verein für Menschenrechte in Liechtenstein; VMLG). This Act entered into force on 1 January 2017, and the association became operational from that day onward.
The Association replaced the former Office for Equal Opportunities, which was assigned to the Ministry of Society. The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein coordinates measures to bring about equal opportunity and to protect human rights, and serves as an independent national institution for further development and the implementation of human rights as well as human rights education. The association also has the function of an independent Ombudsman for children and young people in accordance with Art. 96 of the Children and Youth Act.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

A6. Coordination mechanism

Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no co-ordination mechanism has been established yet.
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) and Liechtenstein Association of Persons with Disabilities (LBV) are not judicial bodies. None of their roles can be interpreted as being quasi-judicial. Their statements have no binding legal character and they do not automatically trigger a right of action (in court).
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein coordinates measures to bring about equal opportunity and to protect human rights. Its main tasks are:

  • Advising authorities and private individuals on human rights issues;
  • Counselling people who feel violated in their rights and supporting victims of human rights violations;
  • Inform the public about the human rights situation in Liechtenstein;
  • Conducting investigations and recommending appropriate measures to authorities and private individuals;
  • Giving opinions on draft laws and regulations and on the ratification of international conventions;
  • Promoting dialogue and national / international cooperation with human rights bodies.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein also promotes a comprehensive national anti-discrimination act, covering the grounds of religion, belief, disability, race, origin, gender and sexual orientation.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

A7. Independent mechanism

Liechtenstein has neither signed the UN CRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no independent mechanism due to the CRPD has been established yet.
The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities was installed by the Liechtenstein government according to Article 22 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) and is run at present by the Liechtenstein Association for People with Disabilities. The main duties of the Office are: counselling of private and public bodies; collaboration in the development of legislation; drafting of reports; etc.
Based on the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein, the responsibilities of the association include carrying out investigations and recommending measures to public authorities and private parties, preparing comments on draft laws and ordinances and on the ratification of international agreements. Furthermore the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) checks legal provisions for their compliance with human rights for monitoring purposes.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

A8. Official reporting

Liechtenstein has neither signed the CRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no official reporting is due to the UN Committee.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2015-03-03

A9. Shadow reporting

Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no shadow reporting due to the CRPD has been established yet. The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities has published a report regarding the situation of persons with disabilities in Liechtenstein in 2007. Since 2007 no further official report regarding people with disabilities has been set up.

Since the founding of the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) in December 2016, no reports have been made and published so far. The first half of 2017 (of the association's existence) was dominated by construction work and the second half was the starting phase for content work.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

B. General legal framework

B1. Anti-discrimination legislation

The Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein contains no provisions directly related to discrimination, neither on the grounds of gender, nor ethnicity, age or disability. However, it includes the basic principle of equality. Article 27bis states that human dignity shall be respected and protected and that no one may be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 31 states that all Liechtenstein citizens shall be equal before the law. The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG) aims at eliminating and preventing discrimination against people with disabilities. Nobody shall be discriminated against on the grounds of disability. This is also valid for parents or other people caring or assisting persons with disabilities. The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities aims to guarantee equal participation of people with disabilities in the daily life of society. Regarding specific rights of disabled children, regulations about educational options are given in Art. 18 of the BGlG. There are no specific rights of disabled women acknowledged.

In April 2016, an amendment to § 283 of the Criminal Code (StGB) entered into force, introducing a comprehensive prohibition against discrimination. While before, only racial discrimination constituted a criminal offence, the offence now also includes publicly inciting hatred or discrimination on the grounds of language, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, ideology, gender, disability, age, or sexual orientation.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

B2. Recognition of legal capacity

Articles 187 to 268 of the Common Civil Code are about custodianship (Vormundschaft), Articles 269 to 284 are about legal guardians (Sachwalter). Legal guardians are foreseen for adult persons who suffer from mental illness or who are mentally disabled, and who are not able to manage some or all of their affairs without the danger of disadvantaging themselves in some way. The task of the legal guardian may include only some specifically defined activities, set out, for instance, in a single legal act or several legal procedures, or it may include all the affairs of the disabled person. In 2010 the Common Civil Code was amended in order to introduce private associations for legal guardianship instead of the previous state office (Article 279, paragraphs 3 and 4). Hence, the Act on Custodianship by Associations was enacted the same year; the Association for Legal Guardianship was founded subsequently.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

B3. Accessibility of voting and elections

According to Art. 29 of the Constitution (Verfassung des Fürstentum Liechtenstein, 05.10.1921, LGBl 1921, no. 15), full civic rights are given to citizens of Liechtenstein who have reached the age of 18 and have their regular residence in Liechtenstein and are not restricted in exercising their voting rights. There are no stated provisions which generally exclude citizens with disabilities from exercising their voting rights, neither in the Constitution nor in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243). Restrictions on the right to elect and vote are specified in the Act on the Exercise of the Political Rights of the People (Gesetz über die Ausübung der politischen Volksrechte in Landesangelegenheiten (Volksrechtegesetz; VRG), 17.07.1973, LGBl. 2012 no. 357), but do not include disability in general. Thus, all voters have a right to vote independently and in secret. Art. 131a of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act (Gesetz über das gerichtliche Verfahren in Rechtsangelegenheiten ausser Streitsachen (Ausserstreitgesetz; AussStrG), 25.11.2010, LGBl. 2010, no. 454) states that the procedure of excluding someone from his/her voting rights can only be initiated by application or by acting ex officio in the event of a justified indication of the necessity of such a measure (see B2). Art. 49 (2) of the VRG states that polling booths within the polling stations have to be set up in such a way that voters are enabled to complete and return the ballot paper unattended. Polling station staff must ensure that disabled voters are not offered a lower standard of service than other voters. Disabled voters are entitled to the right to request assistance to mark the ballot paper. This right is subject to the approval of the national electoral commission. This right is stated in Art 49 (2) of the VRG.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

B4. Official recognition of sign language

The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities notes in Article 17 the obligation of society to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. This includes also the use of sign language when communicating with public authorities. This obligation is combined with the right of speech, hearing, and visually impaired people to use familiar facilities or tools, e.g. sign language, when communicating with official authorities in Liechtenstein. This includes also the possibility, upon request, to receive forms, court cases, or official notices in an understandable and comprehensible form for disabled people without additional cost. Where public services are offered via the internet, they have to be compliant with the international standards regarding accessibility for disabled people. The Criminal Court Procedures Act states that accused persons and witnesses who are deaf or dumb have to be questioned in a way to be able to answer. This may be either by conversation in written form or by the assistance of a person who is familiar with sign language, or who can communicate with the accused person or the witness successfully in another way (Articles 117 and 145 paragraph 3).

In practice, the Government has for several years granted barrier‐free access with sign‐language interpretation for its official internet platform (www.regierung.li), and for the website that provides official information about the country (www.liechtenstein.li). With financial support from the Government, the Liechtenstein Association of Persons with Disabilities (LBV) also maintains an online guide entitled "Barrier‐free through Liechtenstein" (www.barrierefreies.li) providing current information on the accessibility of public buildings, restaurants, doctors' offices, etc.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

B5. National disability strategy and action plan

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) was founded at the end of 2016 and started its work at the beginning of 2017. After the foundation activities were completed, a strategy meeting was held in October 2017 to define the strategy and action plan of the future work of the association. Five situation analyses were carried out on disability rights, women's rights and equality between women and men, children's rights, foreigners' rights and social discrimination. Different fields of action have been identified which will serve as a basis for the activities of the association in 2018. These actions will be presented at the general meeting in spring 2018.

The Office for Equality of Persons with Disabilities has its focus on public relations work to raise public awareness and is often contacted by private individuals for advice regarding non-discrimination of persons with disabilities. No specific disability strategy and action plan were adopted.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

C. Accessibility

C1. Transport accessibility

Accessibility of public transport services is covered by the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Articles 15 and 16). Transport infrastructure constructed after the Act has entered into force has to be designed in a barrier-free way. This holds also for transport systems, especially for bus stops, communication systems, ticket issuing and transport vehicles. Article 32 sets time limits for public transport systems in order to fulfil the general standard expressed in Articles 15 and 16.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2016-03-22

C2. Built environment accessibility

Accessibility of the built environment is covered by the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) in Art. 11 to 14 (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243). Section C of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities provides in Art. 11 to 14 regulations for buildings and public transportation facilities regarding accessibility and suitability for people with disabilities. These rules can be seen as a general duty to provide accessibility, which exists in the absence of an individual request. According to the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities public buildings must be constructed in a way that gives people with disabilities the possibility to move around freely. If buildings are not convenient for people with disabilities – especially public places – they must be adapted in order to give people with disabilities the freedom to move around freely as soon as work has been completed on the building. Houses with six or more apartments which were constructed before the law entered into force must be adapted at the first major renovation the house undergoes in order to give people with disabilities access and free movement. If such a building is constructed under the new law, it must be accessible from the start. However, if there are problems with space etc. the government may make an exception. The reasons, though, must be valid and the problem of providing unfettered access must be unsolvable. These rules can be seen as a general duty to provide accessibility, which exists in the absence of an individual request. Thus, the general regulation on equal treatment based on the AEPD and the Act on the Medical Profession is also valid for technical accessibility standards or guidance relating to medical equipment. Furthermore the European Community Medical Devices Directives that have successively been introduced into the provisions which are applicable to the European Economic Area Act on the Medical Profession, comprising the 28 EU member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, can be seen as the basis for the current regulations in the Liechtenstein national law. Nevertheless, the rules within section C of the AEPD do not apply to private doctors’ surgeries. There is no specific regulation regarding accessibility of medical equipment used in the course of medical consultations and examinations.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

C3. ICT and Web accessibility

Art. 17 of the Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), of 25 October 2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) states that the obligation of society is to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. Where public services are offered via the internet, they have to be compliant with the international standards regarding accessibility for disabled people. The Government has granted barrier‐free access with sign‐language interpretation for its official internet platform (www.regierung.li) and the website that provides official information about the country (www.liechtenstein.li). In respect of the services and information provided by the Parliament of Liechtenstein on its web page, a complete barrier-free version is accessible. This version is based on the same data stream as the 'regular' website and therefore the content in respect of time and quality is identical.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

D. Independent living

D1. Choice of living arrangements

The law does not provide for compulsory living arrangements. Every single case is treated in its own way, mainly by the disabled person him/herself or by the legal guardian or the custodian. Preferably, people with disabilities act freely and make individual choices. This is also expressed in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243), which states in Article 1 that the purpose of the act is, inter alia, a self-determined life for persons with disabilities. There are special housing services in order to facilitate the everyday life of people with disabilities in their habitual surrounding. If this is not possible, the municipalities run care homes for older people, which are also potentially at the disposal of disabled people. The Special Education Centre and the Association for Sheltered Housing also provide for sheltered residential homes.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

D2. De-institutionalisation

The policy on living circumstances of people with disabilities focuses on the needs and preferences of the concerned persons and their assistants. Although the Special Education Centre and the Association for Sheltered Housing provide for sheltered residential homes, the preference is for self-determined living conditions. Public and private actors provide financial assistance as well as special working and day-care institutions, if these services are requested by the concerned persons and their social environment.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

D3. Quality of social services

The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities was set up by the Government according to Article 22 of the Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen, AEPD) after the act entered into force in 2007. The Office has the following tasks relating to the quality of community-based social services to people with disabilities:

  • Submit recommendations or applications for action to the government;
  • Advice public authorities;
  • Participate in the preparation of relevant legislation.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) is based on the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Gesetz über den Verein für Menschenrechte in Liechtenstein; VMLG), entering into force on 1 January 2017 has the following tasks relating to the quality of community-based social services to people with disabilities:

  • Advising authorities on human rights issues;
  • Conducting investigations and recommending appropriate measures to authorities;
  • Giving opinions on draft laws and regulations and on the ratification of international conventions.

Both institutions cooperate with communities on projects and improvements in the area of social services for disabled people. According to the transitional provisions regarding Art. 82 of the Law on Disability Insurance, contracts with public and private, non-profit residential care homes, integration centres and sheltered workshops for people with disabilities stood valid until 2014 and any confirmation which grants subsidies for the contraction to such residential care homes or integration centres remain valid without an expiry date.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

D4. Provision of assistive devices at home

The main legal basis for assistive device is the Act on Disability Insurance. There is a wide range of assistance, including, among others, assistive devices (Articles 47 and 48). The provision of assistive devices, according to Article 47 paragraph 2 of the Act on Disability Insurance, is foreseen for the following purposes: at the workplace; in schools, education and training; to adapt to the status of disability; for mobility; for contacts with the environment; for self-help. This does not include devices for medical treatment (Article 48 Section 3). Persons with disabilities are entitled to assistive devices, regardless of whether they are able to work or not. Persons with disabilities can chose between registered doctors, practitioners, or recognised domestic or foreign institutions, to receive support and assistive devices (Article 47 paragraph 3). Measures of non-registered institutions outside Liechtenstein are only covered by the Insurance if the Insurance has accepted this beforehand (Article 47 paragraph 3).

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes

Personal assistance can be required in addition to the benefits from disability insurance. The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) provides additional regulations and assistance for people with disabilities. Besides financial benefits (disability pension) it seeks to assist people in employment (Arts. 39-44) by specific career counselling, job services, vocational training, and capital assistance in cases of self-employment. There are also measures for speech, hearing, or visually impaired people especially in the areas of public transport, dealing with the law, education, the internet and television. This includes for example acoustic information on bus-stops in public buses, or the use of sign language at media conferences of the government. Furthermore, associations for people with disabilities communicate in the newspapers and other media channels on special needs of people with disabilities, for example on the kind of presentation of texts and graphs which makes it easier for concerned persons to understand the content. The Act on the Supplementary Benefits to the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (Gesetz über Ergänzungsleistungen zur Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenversicherung (ELG), 10.12.1965, LGBl. 1965 no. 46) provides for benefits in case of helplessness (Section B). This part of the Act aims at helping people who need personal assistance, or supervision, in their everyday life. The Act on Supplementary Assistance further provides for assistance for special medical treatment, including medical treatment due to impairment by birth (Section C). Section D of the Act provides for assistance for home caring. In practice, through the merger of six locally organized family help service organisations in Liechtenstein in 2013 the offer regarding home care could be enlarged and more specialised services for people cared for in their own homes have been set up since then.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

D6. Income maintenance

People with disabilities are supported by the national disability insurance. If the income of a concerned person lies below a minimum (threshold), defined in Article 1 paragraph 1, the Act on Social Assistance (Sozialhilfegesetz, LGBl. 1987 no. 18, Art. 12 a) provides minimum income benefits (MI). As stated in Art. 3 of the Act on Social Assistance a person is eligible for MI benefits if: a) he/she is a Liechtenstein citizen and receives an income from employment and/or social transfers (including pensions) which is below the minimum income defined by the law; b) he/she is a Liechtenstein resident but not a citizen and cannot support him/herself and the eligibility of MI benefits is laid down in accordance with state treaty (state treaty between Liechtenstein and the citizenship country of the resident) as follows:

  • the home country of the resident grants minimum income benefits reciprocally (i.e. treats Liechtenstein citizen resident in that country equally to its own citizens), or
  • where it is necessary, in the common interest or in the interest of the person in need, to prevent that person from becoming homeless.

According to Articles 1bis to 1quinguies of the Act on Social Assistance, the provisions are valid for persons who receive payments from the national insurance system, e.g. old people, widows and widowers, and also people with disabilities. The Act on Social Assistance provides also for benefits in case of helplessness (Section B). This part of the Act aims at helping people who need personal assistance, or supervision, in their everyday life. Furthermore, the Act on Social Assistance regulates the provision of assistance for special medical treatment, including medical treatment due to genetic impairment (in Section C), and the provision of assistance for home caring (in Section D of the Act).

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

D7. Additional costs

People with disabilities are supported by the national disability insurance scheme. Article 1 paragraph 2 of the Act on Supplementary Assistance states that the guaranteed income level can be augmented by up to two-thirds to meet expenses for stays in care homes, for illness, for caring at home, or technical assistance.
Additional assistance is provided for blind people by the Law on Assistance for Blind People (Gesetz über die Gewähung von Blindenbeihilfe, of 17 December 1970, LGBl. 1971 no. 7). Article 1 of this Law states that this support is implemented for extraordinary expenses due to blindness. Articles 2 and 3 define the categories of persons who are entitled to profit from these benefits. The maximum monthly benefit is CHF 500 (Article 4). The extra assistance for blind people according to the Law is not charged to the disability insurance but is provided additionally (Article 5). In cases where the total income (including the family financial assets) is below the minimum income defined by the By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Law (Verordnung zum Gesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung (AHVV), of 07 December 1981, LGBl. 1982 no. 35), a supplementary benefit is paid to persons with an invalidity insurance allowance.

Liechtenstein government implemented in 2010 a new state financed model of care and nursing allowance and initiated a reform of its long-term care system. For the (partial) financing of outpatient care services, the care and nursing allowance is paid out irrespective of age, income and wealth.
Precondition for financial support is the proven use of third-party assistance, be it by family aid organisations or by employing relatives or third parties.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

D8. Retirement income

The Liechtenstein regulation regarding pension systems distinguishes between the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (mandatory contribution system arranged by the state for all employees) and the occupational retirement scheme. Basically, all employees, who are subject to a compulsory pension by the occupational retirement scheme, are also subject to the compulsory Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (AHV) insurance scheme. The pension insurance system is set up as a mandatory contribution system for inhabitants and commuters with a working engagement in Liechtenstein. Thus people with disabilities are covered by the social security system like anybody else if they have been employed and have been paying into the pension insurance during their active professional life. Article 52 of the Law on National Old Age and Widows and Widowers Pension (Gesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung (AHVG), of 14 December 1952, LGBl. 1952 no. 29) states that every person who has paid contributions to the retirement insurance is entitled to a pension.

In 2016 the Parliament approved an amendment to the legislation for the statutory pension system. The annual state subsidy was reduced by more than 50% to an amount of 30 million Swiss francs from 2018 onward and the contributions rose from a total of 11.48% to 11.79% for employed persons. In addition, from 2018 on, the general retirement age was increased from 64 to 65 for both sexes. The early retirement arrangement with reduced pension payments for persons entitled to a statutory pension remained unchanged. In respect of the early retirement arrangement, the age conditions remained unchanged, but the corresponding reduced benefits were increased from the range of 4.5% to 26.1% up to 5.22% to 40.71%, depending on the age and duration of early retirement.
If contributions have not been paid for the whole of the professionally active period from 20 to 65 years of age, only a partial pension will be disbursed. If a person is supported by the disability insurance at the time when the pension age is reached, the disability insurance will be converted into a retirement pension (Article 67bis para 1). The main criteria for the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension is given in the following act and regulation:

  • Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension Act, of 14 December 1952 (AHVG)
  • By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Act, of 30 November 2010 (AHVV)

The occupational retirement scheme acts as a backup policy in the sense that the whole costs of living which occur during a person’s working life mostly cannot be covered by the first line of defence (Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

E. Education

E1. Special schools

According to Art. 18 of Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD, Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungs-gesetz; BGlG), of 25 October 2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243), early intervention and basic training that is customised to the specific needs of persons with disabilities must be ensured by the state (§1). Art. 18 of the AEPD states:

  • Decisive are the rules of the Act on School Education.
  • The State shall further ensure that children and young people with disabilities receive vocational education with respect to their special needs, abilities and interests.

The state can participate in the disability-related costs provided that they are not covered by insurance and other benefits.
In addition, Law on Vocational Training (AVT, Art. 1c) supports the elimination of discrimination against people with disabilities in any area of vocational training. The specific needs of people with disabilities in respect of their pre-vocational training (in terms of basic education and training) are taken into account by Art. 16 of the AVT through the possibility of shortening or extending the training period.

Children and adolescents who are impaired in their development are supported by appropriate pedagogical and therapeutic measures in preparation for attending a special or regular school, in addition to training in a special school or to enable them to take part in regular lessons, insofar as this is necessary to promote their development.
The Office for Education decides on the allocation to the regular kindergarten or regular school at the request of the parents. Pursuant to Art. 51 of the Ordinance on Special Measures in Schools, Pedagogical and Therapeutic Measures, Special Training and the School Psychology Service, the following preliminary clarifications must be made:

  • the special education needs of the child or young person;
  • the suitability of the regular kindergarten or regular school eligible for allocation; and
  • the objective, content and scope of the special training course.

In addition, the parents, the kindergarten or school management, the doctor and the school psychology service must be consulted.

Children and adolescents who are impaired in their development and are therefore unable to meet the requirements of the regular kindergarten and regular school are trained in a special school. The training takes place in the form of a school education adapted to the developmental disorder or impairment, or in the form of support in manual matters, in everyday activities and in the ability to interact with the environment.
Art. 41 of the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service defines what the terms 'developmental disorders and impairment' mean.

The Office for Education decides on the allocation to a special school at the request of the parents or ex officio. Pursuant to Art. 48 of the Ordinance on Special Educational Measures, Pedagogical Therapeutic Measures, Special Training and the School Psychology Service, the following preliminary clarifications are required:

  • the special education needs of the child or young person;
  • the suitability of the special school to which the child or young person is to be assigned.

Furthermore, the doctor, the school psychology department or other experts and specialist bodies must be consulted.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

E2. Mainstream schools

The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG) asserts that the state has to promote appropriate forms of training for pupils, as well as adequate training and support for teachers to integrate children and young people with disabilities into mainstream schools, and the assistance by professionals is given in such cases. The priority in the legal framework is to include disabled children within mainstream education. But in practice, in many cases, children and young people with disabilities attend the Special Education Centre, especially children with intellectual impairments. Art. 15a of the Law on School Education (SchulG) deals with special school actions for pupils with reduced intellectual potential or strange behaviour. Article 15b focuses on pedagogical and therapeutic measures. Support can start even before official school time begins and ends at the age of 20, exceptionally at the age of 22.
Art. 26 of the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service distinguishes between the following types of pedagogical and therapeutic measures:

  • Speech therapy measures;
  • Psycho-motor measures;
  • Early educational measures;
  • Measures for the sensory impaired

Article 15b paragraph 3 states that the professionals who are providing this special assistance must have a specific professional degree which qualifies and legitimises them to carry out these duties. Details are provided in the Law on School Education (Schulgesetzt (SchulG) and the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

E3. Sign language and Braille in school

Section 2 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) says that the state promotes appropriate forms of training and support for teachers to integrate children and young people with disabilities into mainstream schools. Beside this no specific regulations about the right of children to learn Braille or sign language exist. Likewise, no specific provisions are noted in the Act on School Education (Schulgesetz (SchulG), 15.12.1971, LGBl. 1972 no. 7) with respect to sign language and Braille in school. General provisions, however, make clear that the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is preferred and assistance to do so is offered by the state, e.g. by professional experts. Most children and young people with disabilities attend the Special Education Centre, especially children with mental impairment, where they receive individual teaching and training for future professional life.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

E4. Vocational training

Art. 10 §1 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) covers all types and stages of vocational training and education. This includes the access to careers guidance, vocational training, retraining, and further training, as well as access to practical professional experience. In addition Art. 1c of the Act on Vocational Training (Berufsbildungsgesetz (BBG), 13.03.2008, LGBl. 2008 no. 103) promotes, among other things, the elimination of discrimination against people with disabilities in relation to a vocational training system. The specific needs of people with disabilities in respect of their pre-vocational training (in terms of basic education and training) are taken into account by Art. 16 of the Act on Vocational Training through the possibility of shortening or extending the training period. The national disability insurance is the main legal act relating to vocational training for people with disabilities. The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) provides for the relevant assistance in Articles 39 to 43. It includes a) professional and career planning, b) job service and checking out jobs, c) vocational training, and d) capital assistance for self-employed people with disabilities. The vocational training can either consist of the first professional education or, if disability occurs after having started a professional career, of training for a new profession, or of training to adapt to the existing profession. In addition, the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities provides for vocational education and training for children and young people with disabilities. This aid is supposed to be adapted to their special needs, talents, and interests (Article 18 paragraph 3). The state can also cover additional expenses stemming from disability, on condition that additional expenses are not covered by the insurances or other helping institutions.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

E5. Higher education

There are no provisions regarding specific measures for people with disabilities in university or university college education. However, general provisions from the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behinderten-gleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) are also relevant for university education. This holds especially for accessibility. The Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Art. 11-12) protects people with disabilities by ensuring access to public buildings. This means that public buildings must be constructed in a way that gives people with disabilities the possibility to move around freely. If buildings are not convenient for people with disabilities – especially public places – they must be adapted in order to give people with disabilities the freedom to move around freely as soon as work has been completed on the building. Art. 17 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities states the obligation of society to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. This obligation is combined with the right of speech, hearing, and visually impaired people to use familiar facilities or tools, e.g. sign language, when communicating with official authorities in Liechtenstein. It should be mentioned that most of the university level education takes place outside Liechtenstein since there is only a very limited range of studies that can be pursued in Liechtenstein. The vast majority of tertiary education for Liechtenstein residents takes place in the neighbouring countries of Switzerland and Austria.

Links

Update date: Mon, 2017-08-21

F. Employment

F1. Non-discrimination in employment

The Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (in Art. 10, §1 and §2) specifies the extent of the duty to make provisions for the avoidance of discrimination within the area of employment and occupation. People with disabilities shall not be discriminated against as employees in the public and in the private sector or at any other workplace, either directly or indirectly. Art. 10 §1 lit. a to lit. k of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities include the aspects of recruitment, payment, voluntary social security benefits, vocational training, occupational career and promotion, other conditions for employment, termination of employment, accessibility to job services, vocational training and other services outside an employment contract, membership and co-operation in trade-unions, and conditions for the access to self-employment. There are exceptions to this general rule provided in Art. 10 §3 and §4 Art. 10 §3, which state that discrimination does not apply if a special attribute is necessary to fulfil the professional tasks and the disabled person concerned does not fit into this scheme. As there are no specific references in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities, it can be assumed that the scope of discrimination covers all aspects of the conditions for access to employment, to self-employment or to occupation. However, in relation to the public sector, discrimination is further limited by the Act on the Employment of Public Officials (Gesetz über das Dienstverhältnis des Staatspersonals (Staatspersonalgesetz; StPG), 24.04.2008, LGBl. 2008 no. 144) which explicitly names the integration of people with special needs, such as people with disabilities (Art. 4 sect. 2), as an objective of personnel policy, whereas there are no such positive statements relating to the private sector. There are no extra provisions in the labour law. Thus, special obligations for employers concerning employees with disabilities are rather weak in Liechtenstein.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-08-22

F2. Public employment services

The Law on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG) guarantees people with disabilities assistance when they are searching for a job. The occupational integration of disabled persons is a central objective of the Liechtenstein Disability Insurance (IV). Therefore, it provides the following services for people with disabilities:

  • vocational counselling for insured persons who are handicapped as a result of invalidity in their choice of occupation or in the exercise of their previous activity;
  • covering additional costs due to disability in the case of initial vocational training, further training or preparation for an auxiliary work or employment in a sheltered workshop;
  • retraining for a new job if necessary due to disability;
  • re-training in the previous profession;
  • act as an employment agency;
  • work trials to clarify the ability to work, which are possible at specialised clarification centres and institutions with protected workplaces as well as at companies of the private sector and public administration;
  • capital support under special conditions to take up or expand self-employment and to finance operational changes due to disability.

Art. 13bis of the Bye-Law to the Act on Disability Insurance (Verordnung zum Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (Invalidenversicherungsverordnung; IVV), lists details to these activities. If a person with disability finds a new job which makes it necessary to relocate to another place (due to the disability), transportation costs are covered by the disability insurance. Expenses for advertisements, inspection of a workplace etc. are not covered by the insurance.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

F3. Workplace adaptations

Within Art. 10 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) no explicit regulation exists which refers to the employers' obligation to create reasonable accommodation and/or adaptation of workplaces for people with disabilities.
Art. 7 §3 of the AEPD states that indirect discrimination is observed if no attempts were undertaken to accommodate the situation of a concerned person. In terms of ensuring non-discrimination within employment and occupation, the obligations based on the AEPD do not differ according to the employment type of the disabled person. Thus, the obligations of the AEPD extend to public and private employers of any size and all employees. Adaptions to workplaces and other integrative activities are to be developed on a case-by-case basis, whilst binding and strong legal obligations on employers are lacking in Liechtenstein legislation.
In the event that indirect discrimination is a consequence of barriers, Art. 7 §4 states that it must be checked whether legal provisions regarding accessibility exist, and if so, whether the legal tasks are fulfilled. Within the same article, the AEPD lists the type of disproportionate burdens (unverhältnismässige Belastungen) that may justify unequal treatment and prevent this from being regarded as indirect discrimination. In detail, Art. 7 §2 specifies that the following criteria in particular have to be taken into consideration when deciding whether the likely burden is 'disproportionate' or not:

  • the costs of the adaptation/accommodation;
  • the resources of the enterprise;
  • the extent to which public assistance is available;
  • the effect on the general interest of people with disabilities.

Art. 20 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities states that pilot projects on the integration of people with disabilities into the work environment may be supported by society. The term 'society' is not elaborated any further, but one can assume that the government and the municipalities are addressed, maybe also the disability insurance and other public services. One of the measures according to Art. 20 is financial support in order to adapt a workplace to the special needs of a person with disability. Article 32bis paragraph 6 of the Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl 1950 no 5) says that the government is allowed to enact a by-law to support measurements for the preservation of an existing workplace for a disabled person, or to integrate a person into another workplace at the same enterprise or another adaptions to workplaces and other integrative activities are to be developed on a case-by-case basis, while binding and strong legal obligations on employers are lacking in the Liechtenstein's legislation.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-08-22

F4. Financial incentives

The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) and the connected By-Law provide for financial incentives for employers in order to adapt the workplace of a person with a disability, or in order to continue an employment, or to integrate or to re-integrate a disabled person. Art. 45bis of the Act on Disability Insurance states that financial incentives in the sense of subventions to the wages and salaries are granted in the case of an employment of a person with a disability above 40%. There are a couple of further requirements, all in connection with the disabled person and his/her employment contract. The government is entitled to provide a state grant to the salaries for employed persons with a disability under certain conditions, which is applicable for various modes of employment: full employment, partial employment, re-integration, vocational training in the home country or abroad, etc.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2017-08-22

G. Statistics and data collection

G1. Official research

No specific research institute for questions on disability or data collection on disability exists. The Liechtenstein Institute does research on these questions as part of its scientific work. Statistical data on people with disabilities are rare in Liechtenstein. The real number of people with disabilities is unknown. One can estimate that the percentage of people with disabilities is similar to the neighbouring states, Switzerland and Austria. The figures shown in the annual report of the Disability Insurance and the Special Education Centre only represent persons with disabilities who are registered at the respective institutions. The annual report 2017 of the disability insurance mentions 1,491 full disability pensions, 482 half pensions and 96 quarter pensions. This amounts to a total of 2,069 disabled persons with grants from the disability insurance.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

G2. Census data

The national census is the most important statistical survey in Liechtenstein. In the area of population structure, its main results are published by the Statistical Office on the following topics:

  • citizenship of the Liechtenstein Population
  • religious Affiliation
  • language
  • migration
  • parenthood / number of children.

Within the national census no collection of data regarding people with disabilities is made nor are they specifically identified.
The national census is conducted every five years (previously it was only every ten years). The last one was conducted in 2015.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

G3. Labour Force Survey

The national Labour Force Survey is set up as employment statistic and provides an overview of the structure of persons employed and jobs as well as full-time equivalents in Liechtenstein. In particular, detailed information on commuters are also published.
Within the employment statistic no specific data regarding people with disabilities are collected, as disabled people are not identified in the collection of data.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

G4. Disability equality indicators

No disability equality indicators are available for Liechtenstein. Indicators have neither been developed nor adopted.

Update date: Mon, 2012-06-11

H. Awareness and external action

H1. Awareness raising programs

The Office of Equality of Persons with Disabilities, which was set up in January 2007 with the entry into force of the Disability Equality Act, has the following tasks in relation to the integration and equality of persons with disabilities:

  • raise public awareness and
  • carry out public-relations projects in cooperation with public or private organisations

Twice a year, an editorial group at the Office of Equality of Persons with Disabilities publishes the newsletter 'Mittendrin' as part of a long-lasting awareness‐raising project.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR), which is an independent national human rights institution, has, among others, the legally defined task to promote dialogue and cooperation with human rights-relevant bodies and to inform the public about the situation of people with disabilities in Liechtenstein.

Awareness-raising is fostered by several institutions and associations. Many of these initiatives and projects are launched and / or supported through private organisations. The networking group "Sichtwechsel", established in 2010 for persons with disabilities who are in need of support, includes a total of 20 governmental and nongovernmental bodies, met regularly during the reporting period to exchange experiences and to launch and prepare joint campaigns. The group also runs the internet platform (see links), which provides information on its activities and for persons with disabilities in Liechtenstein. Since 2012 and in collaboration with the Liechtenstein radio station (Radio L), the group organised an action day to raise awareness and inform the public on December 3, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

H2. Training for teachers

Art. 15b of the Law on School Education (Schulgesetz (SchulG), of 15 December 1971, LGBl. 1972 no. 7) regulates the prerequisites that persons must meet before performing pedagogical-therapeutic measures at regular or special education schools.
Professionally qualified persons or private institutions are entrusted with pedagogical-therapeutic measures. A person holding the relevant specialist diploma from a recognised curative education college or university of applied sciences is considered to be certified.

Training for teachers in inclusive teaching methods or activities to raise their awareness is not mandatory as part of the Liechtenstein legislation. Neither the Law on School Education nor the corresponding By-laws include regulations on trainings for all teachers regarding disability awareness.
Inclusive education is mainly performed by experts acting as assistant teachers in the mainstream school education system. Such trainings do not take place in Liechtenstein since there is no pedagogical college or university department in Liechtenstein. Thus the training of teachers regarding the inclusive teaching methods or activities mainly takes place in Switzerland or Austria.
The local disabled people’s organisations are not involved as trainers.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

H3. Training for lawyers

Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programs for lawyers. Thus the national disabled people’s organizations are not involved as trainers.

Update date: Wed, 2014-10-29

H4. Training for doctors

Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programs for doctors. The Liechtenstein legislation has no specific regulations in place in this regard. Thus, the national disabled people’s organisations are not involved as trainers. Regarding the content of the training programmes in the sense of human rights, dignity and needs of persons with disabilities, no official comments or statistics exist. It cannot be evaluated whether or not the legally binding training requirements issues like autonomy of persons with disabilities, etc. are integrated in a way to ensure a raising awareness of needs of persons with disabilities. The Liechtenstein Medical Council provides no information on its webpage regarding ethical standards as part of the action programmes or training requirements for medical professionals. The Liechtenstein Nursing and Care Organisation (LAK) provides training for care personnel to ensure high quality also in the area of the needs of persons with disabilities.

Links

Update date: Wed, 2017-09-13

H5. Training for engineers

At the University of Liechtenstein, within the field of study 'architecture and spatial development', the area of barrier-free building is not explicitly anchored in the curricula of Bachelor's or Master's degree programmes. This means that barrier-free design, equality issues or accessibility are not a compulsory part of the education/training programmes for engineers at the University of Liechtenstein.
The Liechtenstein Association of Engineers and Architects does not offer advanced training courses on barrier-free building.

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

H6. International development aid

In 2014, Liechtenstein achieved an Official Development Assistance (ODA) share of 0.5%. Due to the delayed calculation of gross domestic product and gross national income, the ODA data from 2014 is the most current. Liechtenstein continues to be committed to the ODA target of 0.7%. In terms of practical implementation, the Liechtenstein Development Service is the main institution for international development aid in Liechtenstein. It operates on behalf of the government. The Liechtenstein Development Service does not explicitly declare assistance for people with disabilities as one of the key targets of international aid. But the general approach of the Service also includes the interests of people with disabilities, since the goals of the development aid are, inter alia, social justice, self-help, and satisfaction of basic needs of people (nutrition, security, education, health).

Links

Update date: Tue, 2018-03-20

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                    [level] => 2
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            [13] => stdClass Object
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            [15] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 19
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                    [level] => 2
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            [16] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 20
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                    [path] => 
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            [17] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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            [18] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => lithuania
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 21
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            [19] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 39
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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            [20] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 24
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            [21] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 25
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
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            [22] => stdClass Object
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            [23] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 27
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                    [level] => 2
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            [24] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [id] => 32
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                    [level] => 2
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            [29] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
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            [30] => stdClass Object
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            [31] => stdClass Object
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            [34] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 1
                    [slug] => other-european-countries
                    [title] => Other European countries
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                    [access] => 0
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                    [level] => 2
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                    [level] => 2
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        )

    [themes] => Array
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                    [rgt] => 20
                    [level] => 1
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                    [access] => 0
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            [1] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 3
                    [level] => 2
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 2
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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            [2] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 5
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol
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                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 3
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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            [3] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 4
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
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            [4] => stdClass Object
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                    [rgt] => 9
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a4-comprehensive-review
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 5
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
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            [5] => stdClass Object
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                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a5-focal-point
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 6
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00
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                    [children] => 0
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                    [rgt] => 13
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 7
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [7] => stdClass Object
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                    [lft] => 14
                    [rgt] => 15
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a7-independent-mechanism
                    [title] => A7. Independent mechanism
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                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 8
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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            [8] => stdClass Object
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                    [id] => 10
                    [parent_id] => 2
                    [lft] => 16
                    [rgt] => 17
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => a8-official-reporting
                    [title] => A8. Official reporting
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 9
                    [state] => 1
                    [published] => 1
                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
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                    [children] => 0
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            [9] => stdClass Object
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                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
                    [children] => 0
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            [51] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [parent_id] => 47
                    [lft] => 102
                    [rgt] => 103
                    [level] => 2
                    [slug] => h6-international-development-aid
                    [title] => H6. International development aid
                    [alias] => 
                    [access] => 0
                    [path] => 
                    [ordering] => 52
                    [state] => 1
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                    [checked_out] => 0
                    [checked_out_time] => 2016-07-01 12:00:00
                    [created_by] => 548
                    [modified_by] => 548
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    [results] => Array
        (
            [39] => stdClass Object
                (
                    [parent] => Other European countries
                    [location] => Liechtenstein
                    [location_id] => 39
                    [location_slug] => liechtenstein
                    [themes] => Array
                        (
                            [3] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [parent] => A. UN Convention status
                                    [theme_title] => A1. Ratification or conclusion of the UN Convention
                                    [theme_slug] => a1-ratification-or-conclusion-of-the-un-convention
                                    [theme_id] => 3
                                    [contents] => Liechtenstein has not signed the UNCRPD up to now. 
During Liechtenstein's second cycle universal periodic review (UPR) in 2013, three recommendations regarding the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities were made. Liechtenstein accepted all of them without any further comment. The government of Liechtenstein has appointed an inter-office working group to assess the need for preparation of its ratification. The main reason for not having signed the UNCRPD yet can be seen in the lack of administrative resources within this area. Additionally, the latest changes within the governmental organisation and the newly founded Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) as independent national human rights institution in Liechtenstein in 2016, did not speed-up the process on the preparation of the UNCRPD ratification.

The UN Human Rights Council discussed the human rights situation in Liechtenstein on 24 January 2018. Liechtenstein presented itself for the third time to the so-called Universal Periodic Review (UPR). The Liechtenstein review was based on a report on the national human rights situation submitted in autumn 2017. The report shows the progress made since the last review in 2013 and at the same time, it identifies areas of action for further improvement. One of the main issues remains the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities by the next UPR review. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:15:41 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Recommendations made during Liechtenstein's second UPR [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/aaa/el_llv_aaa_bericht_upr-arbeitsgruppe_2013.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Response of the Government of Liechtenstein to the recommendations during its second cycle universal periodic review [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/aaa/pdf-llv-aaa-reaktion_auf_empfehlungen_en.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein's third national Report under the mechanism of the Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council [url] => https://www.llv.li/files/aaa/3-upr-staatenbericht-2017-en-final.pdf ) ) ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A2. Ratification or accession to the Optional Protocol [theme_slug] => a2-ratification-or-accession-to-the-optional-protocol [theme_id] => 4 [contents] => During Liechtenstein's second cycle universal periodic review (UPR) in 2013, Liechtenstein received the recommendation to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol (OP-CRPD). Liechtenstein accepted the recommendation but has not ratified the OP-CRPD so far.
Liechtenstein submitted a report on the national human rights situation in Liechtenstein in autumn 2017 to the UN Human Rights Council. The Report serves as the basis for the third Universal Periodic Review. During the discussion on 24 January 2018, the representatives of the UN Human Rights Council repeated the recommendation regarding the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:15:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Recommendations made during Liechtenstein's second UPR [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/aaa/el_llv_aaa_bericht_upr-arbeitsgruppe_2013.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Response of the Government of Liechtenstein to the recommendations during its second cycle universal periodic review [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/aaa/pdf-llv-aaa-reaktion_auf_empfehlungen_en.pdf ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein's Third National Report under the Mechanism of the Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council [url] => https://www.llv.li/files/aaa/3-upr-staatenbericht-2017-en-final.pdf ) ) ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A3. Declarations, Reservations and Objections [theme_slug] => a3-declarations-reservations-and-objections [theme_id] => 5 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence there are no declarations, reservations or objections. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:19:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016: Priorities of Liechtenstein Foreign Policy [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/aaa/aussenpolitische-publikation-2016-en.pdf ) ) ) [6] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A4. Comprehensive review [theme_slug] => a4-comprehensive-review [theme_id] => 6 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. No comprehensive review in preparation for implementation of the UN convention has been made. [update_date] => 2014-10-29 11:30:02 [links] => Array ( ) ) [7] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A5. Focal point [theme_slug] => a5-focal-point [theme_id] => 7 [contents] => Liechtenstein has signed neither the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no focal point has been appointed.
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein can be regarded as the main administrative board. It was founded by 26 non-governmental organisations on 10 December 2016 and acts as an independent national human rights institution in accordance with the United Nations Paris Principles of 1932. The status of the association and the relevant legal provisions were laid down in a new law, the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Gesetz über den Verein für Menschenrechte in Liechtenstein; VMLG). This Act entered into force on 1 January 2017, and the association became operational from that day onward.
The Association replaced the former Office for Equal Opportunities, which was assigned to the Ministry of Society. The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein coordinates measures to bring about equal opportunity and to protect human rights, and serves as an independent national institution for further development and the implementation of human rights as well as human rights education. The association also has the function of an independent Ombudsman for children and young people in accordance with Art. 96 of the Children and Youth Act. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:18:08 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act regarding the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgsystpage2.jsp?formname=showlaw&lgblid=2016504000&version=1&search_text=Verein für Menschenrechte&search_loc=text&sel_lawtype=conso&compl_list=1&rechts_gebiet=0&menu=0&tablesel=0&observe_date=06.04.2017 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statutes of the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.menschenrechte.li/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Statuten-VMR-definitiv.pdf ) ) ) [8] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A6. Coordination mechanism [theme_slug] => a6-coordination-mechanism [theme_id] => 8 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no co-ordination mechanism has been established yet.
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) and Liechtenstein Association of Persons with Disabilities (LBV) are not judicial bodies. None of their roles can be interpreted as being quasi-judicial. Their statements have no binding legal character and they do not automatically trigger a right of action (in court).
The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein coordinates measures to bring about equal opportunity and to protect human rights. Its main tasks are:

  • Advising authorities and private individuals on human rights issues;
  • Counselling people who feel violated in their rights and supporting victims of human rights violations;
  • Inform the public about the human rights situation in Liechtenstein;
  • Conducting investigations and recommending appropriate measures to authorities and private individuals;
  • Giving opinions on draft laws and regulations and on the ratification of international conventions;
  • Promoting dialogue and national / international cooperation with human rights bodies.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein also promotes a comprehensive national anti-discrimination act, covering the grounds of religion, belief, disability, race, origin, gender and sexual orientation. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:18:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgsystpage2.jsp?formname=showlaw&lgblid=2016504000&version=1&search_text=Verein für Menschenrechte&search_loc=text&sel_lawtype=conso&compl_list=1&rechts_gebiet=0&menu=0&tablesel=0&observe_date=06.04.2017 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statutes of the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.menschenrechte.li/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Statuten-VMR-definitiv.pdf ) ) ) [9] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A7. Independent mechanism [theme_slug] => a7-independent-mechanism [theme_id] => 9 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the UN CRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no independent mechanism due to the CRPD has been established yet.
The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities was installed by the Liechtenstein government according to Article 22 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) and is run at present by the Liechtenstein Association for People with Disabilities. The main duties of the Office are: counselling of private and public bodies; collaboration in the development of legislation; drafting of reports; etc.
Based on the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein, the responsibilities of the association include carrying out investigations and recommending measures to public authorities and private parties, preparing comments on draft laws and ordinances and on the ratification of international agreements. Furthermore the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) checks legal provisions for their compliance with human rights for monitoring purposes. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:19:25 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for People with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/ ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Statutes of the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.menschenrechte.li/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Statuten-VMR-definitiv.pdf ) ) ) [10] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A8. Official reporting [theme_slug] => a8-official-reporting [theme_id] => 10 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the CRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no official reporting is due to the UN Committee. [update_date] => 2015-03-03 16:39:58 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => State reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=100&DocTypeID=29 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Link to all UN reporting cycle documentation: [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=100 ) ) ) [11] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => A. UN Convention status [theme_title] => A9. Shadow reporting [theme_slug] => a9-shadow-reporting [theme_id] => 11 [contents] => Liechtenstein has neither signed the UNCRPD nor the Optional Protocol. Hence, no shadow reporting due to the CRPD has been established yet. The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities has published a report regarding the situation of persons with disabilities in Liechtenstein in 2007. Since 2007 no further official report regarding people with disabilities has been set up.

Since the founding of the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) in December 2016, no reports have been made and published so far. The first half of 2017 (of the association's existence) was dominated by construction work and the second half was the starting phase for content work. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:22:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Report regarding the situation of persons with disabilities in Liechtenstein, 2007 [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/scg/pdf-llv-scg-studie_2007_endversion_02.06.2008.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Civil society reports to the UN Committee [url] => http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&CountryID=100&DocTypeID=14 ) ) ) [13] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B1. Anti-discrimination legislation [theme_slug] => b1-anti-discrimination-legislation [theme_id] => 13 [contents] => The Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein contains no provisions directly related to discrimination, neither on the grounds of gender, nor ethnicity, age or disability. However, it includes the basic principle of equality. Article 27bis states that human dignity shall be respected and protected and that no one may be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 31 states that all Liechtenstein citizens shall be equal before the law. The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG) aims at eliminating and preventing discrimination against people with disabilities. Nobody shall be discriminated against on the grounds of disability. This is also valid for parents or other people caring or assisting persons with disabilities. The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities aims to guarantee equal participation of people with disabilities in the daily life of society. Regarding specific rights of disabled children, regulations about educational options are given in Art. 18 of the BGlG. There are no specific rights of disabled women acknowledged.

In April 2016, an amendment to § 283 of the Criminal Code (StGB) entered into force, introducing a comprehensive prohibition against discrimination. While before, only racial discrimination constituted a criminal offence, the offence now also includes publicly inciting hatred or discrimination on the grounds of language, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, ideology, gender, disability, age, or sexual orientation. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:30:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for People with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/index.php ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1921015000&version=5&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Criminal Code of Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/konso/1988037000?search_text=StGB&search_loc=abk_list&lrnr=&lgblid_von=&observe_date=21.02.2018 ) ) ) [14] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B2. Recognition of legal capacity [theme_slug] => b2-recognition-of-legal-capacity [theme_id] => 14 [contents] => Articles 187 to 268 of the Common Civil Code are about custodianship (Vormundschaft), Articles 269 to 284 are about legal guardians (Sachwalter). Legal guardians are foreseen for adult persons who suffer from mental illness or who are mentally disabled, and who are not able to manage some or all of their affairs without the danger of disadvantaging themselves in some way. The task of the legal guardian may include only some specifically defined activities, set out, for instance, in a single legal act or several legal procedures, or it may include all the affairs of the disabled person. In 2010 the Common Civil Code was amended in order to introduce private associations for legal guardianship instead of the previous state office (Article 279, paragraphs 3 and 4). Hence, the Act on Custodianship by Associations was enacted the same year; the Association for Legal Guardianship was founded subsequently. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:34:23 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Common Civil Code (AbGb) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1921015000&version=5&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Custodianship by Associations [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2010123000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for Legal Guardianship [url] => http://www.sachwalterverein.li/ ) ) ) [15] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B3. Accessibility of voting and elections [theme_slug] => b3-accessibility-of-voting-and-elections [theme_id] => 15 [contents] => According to Art. 29 of the Constitution (Verfassung des Fürstentum Liechtenstein, 05.10.1921, LGBl 1921, no. 15), full civic rights are given to citizens of Liechtenstein who have reached the age of 18 and have their regular residence in Liechtenstein and are not restricted in exercising their voting rights. There are no stated provisions which generally exclude citizens with disabilities from exercising their voting rights, neither in the Constitution nor in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243). Restrictions on the right to elect and vote are specified in the Act on the Exercise of the Political Rights of the People (Gesetz über die Ausübung der politischen Volksrechte in Landesangelegenheiten (Volksrechtegesetz; VRG), 17.07.1973, LGBl. 2012 no. 357), but do not include disability in general. Thus, all voters have a right to vote independently and in secret. Art. 131a of the Non-Contentious Proceedings Act (Gesetz über das gerichtliche Verfahren in Rechtsangelegenheiten ausser Streitsachen (Ausserstreitgesetz; AussStrG), 25.11.2010, LGBl. 2010, no. 454) states that the procedure of excluding someone from his/her voting rights can only be initiated by application or by acting ex officio in the event of a justified indication of the necessity of such a measure (see B2). Art. 49 (2) of the VRG states that polling booths within the polling stations have to be set up in such a way that voters are enabled to complete and return the ballot paper unattended. Polling station staff must ensure that disabled voters are not offered a lower standard of service than other voters. Disabled voters are entitled to the right to request assistance to mark the ballot paper. This right is subject to the approval of the national electoral commission. This right is stated in Art 49 (2) of the VRG. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:37:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Political Rights of the People (VRG) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1973050000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => The Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1921015000&version=5&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Non-Contentious Proceedings Act (AussStrG) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2010454000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [16] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B4. Official recognition of sign language [theme_slug] => b4-official-recognition-of-sign-language [theme_id] => 16 [contents] => The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities notes in Article 17 the obligation of society to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. This includes also the use of sign language when communicating with public authorities. This obligation is combined with the right of speech, hearing, and visually impaired people to use familiar facilities or tools, e.g. sign language, when communicating with official authorities in Liechtenstein. This includes also the possibility, upon request, to receive forms, court cases, or official notices in an understandable and comprehensible form for disabled people without additional cost. Where public services are offered via the internet, they have to be compliant with the international standards regarding accessibility for disabled people. The Criminal Court Procedures Act states that accused persons and witnesses who are deaf or dumb have to be questioned in a way to be able to answer. This may be either by conversation in written form or by the assistance of a person who is familiar with sign language, or who can communicate with the accused person or the witness successfully in another way (Articles 117 and 145 paragraph 3).

In practice, the Government has for several years granted barrier‐free access with sign‐language interpretation for its official internet platform (www.regierung.li), and for the website that provides official information about the country (www.liechtenstein.li). With financial support from the Government, the Liechtenstein Association of Persons with Disabilities (LBV) also maintains an online guide entitled "Barrier‐free through Liechtenstein" (www.barrierefreies.li) providing current information on the accessibility of public buildings, restaurants, doctors' offices, etc. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:37:44 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Criminal Court Procedures Act (StPO) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1988062000&version=25&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [17] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => B. General legal framework [theme_title] => B5. National disability strategy and action plan [theme_slug] => b5-national-disability-strategy-and-action-plan [theme_id] => 17 [contents] => The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) was founded at the end of 2016 and started its work at the beginning of 2017. After the foundation activities were completed, a strategy meeting was held in October 2017 to define the strategy and action plan of the future work of the association. Five situation analyses were carried out on disability rights, women's rights and equality between women and men, children's rights, foreigners' rights and social discrimination. Different fields of action have been identified which will serve as a basis for the activities of the association in 2018. These actions will be presented at the general meeting in spring 2018.

The Office for Equality of Persons with Disabilities has its focus on public relations work to raise public awareness and is often contacted by private individuals for advice regarding non-discrimination of persons with disabilities. No specific disability strategy and action plan were adopted. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:40:07 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgsystpage2.jsp?formname=showlaw&lgblid=2016504000&version=1&search_text=Menschenrechte&search_loc=text&sel_lawtype=conso&compl_list=1&rechts_gebiet=0&menu=0&tablesel=0&observe_date=26.01.2017 ) ) ) [19] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C1. Transport accessibility [theme_slug] => c1-transport-accessibility [theme_id] => 19 [contents] => Accessibility of public transport services is covered by the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Articles 15 and 16). Transport infrastructure constructed after the Act has entered into force has to be designed in a barrier-free way. This holds also for transport systems, especially for bus stops, communication systems, ticket issuing and transport vehicles. Article 32 sets time limits for public transport systems in order to fulfil the general standard expressed in Articles 15 and 16. [update_date] => 2016-03-22 15:41:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgpage2.jsp?formname=showlaw&lgblid=2006243000&version=0 ) ) ) [20] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C2. Built environment accessibility [theme_slug] => c2-built-environment-accessibility [theme_id] => 20 [contents] => Accessibility of the built environment is covered by the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) in Art. 11 to 14 (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243). Section C of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities provides in Art. 11 to 14 regulations for buildings and public transportation facilities regarding accessibility and suitability for people with disabilities. These rules can be seen as a general duty to provide accessibility, which exists in the absence of an individual request. According to the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities public buildings must be constructed in a way that gives people with disabilities the possibility to move around freely. If buildings are not convenient for people with disabilities – especially public places – they must be adapted in order to give people with disabilities the freedom to move around freely as soon as work has been completed on the building. Houses with six or more apartments which were constructed before the law entered into force must be adapted at the first major renovation the house undergoes in order to give people with disabilities access and free movement. If such a building is constructed under the new law, it must be accessible from the start. However, if there are problems with space etc. the government may make an exception. The reasons, though, must be valid and the problem of providing unfettered access must be unsolvable. These rules can be seen as a general duty to provide accessibility, which exists in the absence of an individual request. Thus, the general regulation on equal treatment based on the AEPD and the Act on the Medical Profession is also valid for technical accessibility standards or guidance relating to medical equipment. Furthermore the European Community Medical Devices Directives that have successively been introduced into the provisions which are applicable to the European Economic Area Act on the Medical Profession, comprising the 28 EU member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, can be seen as the basis for the current regulations in the Liechtenstein national law. Nevertheless, the rules within section C of the AEPD do not apply to private doctors’ surgeries. There is no specific regulation regarding accessibility of medical equipment used in the course of medical consultations and examinations. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 16:56:28 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [21] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => C. Accessibility [theme_title] => C3. ICT and Web accessibility [theme_slug] => c3-ict-and-web-accessibility [theme_id] => 21 [contents] => Art. 17 of the Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), of 25 October 2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) states that the obligation of society is to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. Where public services are offered via the internet, they have to be compliant with the international standards regarding accessibility for disabled people. The Government has granted barrier‐free access with sign‐language interpretation for its official internet platform (www.regierung.li) and the website that provides official information about the country (www.liechtenstein.li). In respect of the services and information provided by the Parliament of Liechtenstein on its web page, a complete barrier-free version is accessible. This version is based on the same data stream as the 'regular' website and therefore the content in respect of time and quality is identical. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:43:51 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [23] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D1. Choice of living arrangements [theme_slug] => d1-choice-of-living-arrangements [theme_id] => 23 [contents] => The law does not provide for compulsory living arrangements. Every single case is treated in its own way, mainly by the disabled person him/herself or by the legal guardian or the custodian. Preferably, people with disabilities act freely and make individual choices. This is also expressed in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243), which states in Article 1 that the purpose of the act is, inter alia, a self-determined life for persons with disabilities. There are special housing services in order to facilitate the everyday life of people with disabilities in their habitual surrounding. If this is not possible, the municipalities run care homes for older people, which are also potentially at the disposal of disabled people. The Special Education Centre and the Association for Sheltered Housing also provide for sheltered residential homes. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 17:10:54 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Special Education Centre [url] => http://www.hpz.li ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for Sheltered Housing [url] => http://www.vbw.li ) ) ) [24] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D2. De-institutionalisation [theme_slug] => d2-de-institutionalisation [theme_id] => 24 [contents] => The policy on living circumstances of people with disabilities focuses on the needs and preferences of the concerned persons and their assistants. Although the Special Education Centre and the Association for Sheltered Housing provide for sheltered residential homes, the preference is for self-determined living conditions. Public and private actors provide financial assistance as well as special working and day-care institutions, if these services are requested by the concerned persons and their social environment. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 17:17:16 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Special Education Centre [url] => http://www.hpz.li ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for Sheltered Housing [url] => http://www.vbw.li ) ) ) [25] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D3. Quality of social services [theme_slug] => d3-quality-of-social-services [theme_id] => 25 [contents] => The Office for Equality of People with Disabilities was set up by the Government according to Article 22 of the Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen, AEPD) after the act entered into force in 2007. The Office has the following tasks relating to the quality of community-based social services to people with disabilities:

  • Submit recommendations or applications for action to the government;
  • Advice public authorities;
  • Participate in the preparation of relevant legislation.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR) is based on the Law on the Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Gesetz über den Verein für Menschenrechte in Liechtenstein; VMLG), entering into force on 1 January 2017 has the following tasks relating to the quality of community-based social services to people with disabilities:

  • Advising authorities on human rights issues;
  • Conducting investigations and recommending appropriate measures to authorities;
  • Giving opinions on draft laws and regulations and on the ratification of international conventions.

Both institutions cooperate with communities on projects and improvements in the area of social services for disabled people. According to the transitional provisions regarding Art. 82 of the Law on Disability Insurance, contracts with public and private, non-profit residential care homes, integration centres and sheltered workshops for people with disabilities stood valid until 2014 and any confirmation which grants subsidies for the contraction to such residential care homes or integration centres remain valid without an expiry date. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:46:27 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on the Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Insurance [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/iv/allgemeines.html ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/konso/2016504000?search_text=Verein%20f%C3%BCr%20Menschenrechte&search_loc=text&lrnr=&lgblid_von=&observe_date=21.02.2018 ) ) ) [26] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D4. Provision of assistive devices at home [theme_slug] => d4-provision-of-assistive-devices-at-home [theme_id] => 26 [contents] => The main legal basis for assistive device is the Act on Disability Insurance. There is a wide range of assistance, including, among others, assistive devices (Articles 47 and 48). The provision of assistive devices, according to Article 47 paragraph 2 of the Act on Disability Insurance, is foreseen for the following purposes: at the workplace; in schools, education and training; to adapt to the status of disability; for mobility; for contacts with the environment; for self-help. This does not include devices for medical treatment (Article 48 Section 3). Persons with disabilities are entitled to assistive devices, regardless of whether they are able to work or not. Persons with disabilities can chose between registered doctors, practitioners, or recognised domestic or foreign institutions, to receive support and assistive devices (Article 47 paragraph 3). Measures of non-registered institutions outside Liechtenstein are only covered by the Insurance if the Insurance has accepted this beforehand (Article 47 paragraph 3). [update_date] => 2017-09-13 13:08:49 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Insurance [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/iv/allgemeines.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein Association for People with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/Wirtschaftliche-Hilfe.php ) ) ) [27] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D5. Availability of personal assistance schemes [theme_slug] => d5-availability-of-personal-assistance-schemes [theme_id] => 27 [contents] => Personal assistance can be required in addition to the benefits from disability insurance. The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) provides additional regulations and assistance for people with disabilities. Besides financial benefits (disability pension) it seeks to assist people in employment (Arts. 39-44) by specific career counselling, job services, vocational training, and capital assistance in cases of self-employment. There are also measures for speech, hearing, or visually impaired people especially in the areas of public transport, dealing with the law, education, the internet and television. This includes for example acoustic information on bus-stops in public buses, or the use of sign language at media conferences of the government. Furthermore, associations for people with disabilities communicate in the newspapers and other media channels on special needs of people with disabilities, for example on the kind of presentation of texts and graphs which makes it easier for concerned persons to understand the content. The Act on the Supplementary Benefits to the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (Gesetz über Ergänzungsleistungen zur Alters-, Hinterlassenen- und Invalidenversicherung (ELG), 10.12.1965, LGBl. 1965 no. 46) provides for benefits in case of helplessness (Section B). This part of the Act aims at helping people who need personal assistance, or supervision, in their everyday life. The Act on Supplementary Assistance further provides for assistance for special medical treatment, including medical treatment due to impairment by birth (Section C). Section D of the Act provides for assistance for home caring. In practice, through the merger of six locally organized family help service organisations in Liechtenstein in 2013 the offer regarding home care could be enlarged and more specialised services for people cared for in their own homes have been set up since then. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 13:10:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the Supplementary Benefits to the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1965046000&version=8&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Supplementary Assistance to the Retirement Pension and Disability Insurance [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/el-ergaenzungsleistungen/allgemeines.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Assistance for Helpless People in addition to the Retirement Pension and Disability Insurance [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/he-hilflosenentschaedigung/ ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Family help service organisations [url] => http://www.familienhilfe.li/Portals/0/Jahresbericht%202014.pdf ) ) ) [28] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D6. Income maintenance [theme_slug] => d6-income-maintenance [theme_id] => 28 [contents] => People with disabilities are supported by the national disability insurance. If the income of a concerned person lies below a minimum (threshold), defined in Article 1 paragraph 1, the Act on Social Assistance (Sozialhilfegesetz, LGBl. 1987 no. 18, Art. 12 a) provides minimum income benefits (MI). As stated in Art. 3 of the Act on Social Assistance a person is eligible for MI benefits if: a) he/she is a Liechtenstein citizen and receives an income from employment and/or social transfers (including pensions) which is below the minimum income defined by the law; b) he/she is a Liechtenstein resident but not a citizen and cannot support him/herself and the eligibility of MI benefits is laid down in accordance with state treaty (state treaty between Liechtenstein and the citizenship country of the resident) as follows:

  • the home country of the resident grants minimum income benefits reciprocally (i.e. treats Liechtenstein citizen resident in that country equally to its own citizens), or
  • where it is necessary, in the common interest or in the interest of the person in need, to prevent that person from becoming homeless.

According to Articles 1bis to 1quinguies of the Act on Social Assistance, the provisions are valid for persons who receive payments from the national insurance system, e.g. old people, widows and widowers, and also people with disabilities. The Act on Social Assistance provides also for benefits in case of helplessness (Section B). This part of the Act aims at helping people who need personal assistance, or supervision, in their everyday life. Furthermore, the Act on Social Assistance regulates the provision of assistance for special medical treatment, including medical treatment due to genetic impairment (in Section C), and the provision of assistance for home caring (in Section D of the Act). [update_date] => 2017-08-21 17:34:38 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Social Assistance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1985017000&version=5&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein Association for People with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/Buero-Gleichstellung.php ) ) ) [29] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D7. Additional costs [theme_slug] => d7-additional-costs [theme_id] => 29 [contents] => People with disabilities are supported by the national disability insurance scheme. Article 1 paragraph 2 of the Act on Supplementary Assistance states that the guaranteed income level can be augmented by up to two-thirds to meet expenses for stays in care homes, for illness, for caring at home, or technical assistance.
Additional assistance is provided for blind people by the Law on Assistance for Blind People (Gesetz über die Gewähung von Blindenbeihilfe, of 17 December 1970, LGBl. 1971 no. 7). Article 1 of this Law states that this support is implemented for extraordinary expenses due to blindness. Articles 2 and 3 define the categories of persons who are entitled to profit from these benefits. The maximum monthly benefit is CHF 500 (Article 4). The extra assistance for blind people according to the Law is not charged to the disability insurance but is provided additionally (Article 5). In cases where the total income (including the family financial assets) is below the minimum income defined by the By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Law (Verordnung zum Gesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung (AHVV), of 07 December 1981, LGBl. 1982 no. 35), a supplementary benefit is paid to persons with an invalidity insurance allowance.

Liechtenstein government implemented in 2010 a new state financed model of care and nursing allowance and initiated a reform of its long-term care system. For the (partial) financing of outpatient care services, the care and nursing allowance is paid out irrespective of age, income and wealth.
Precondition for financial support is the proven use of third-party assistance, be it by family aid organisations or by employing relatives or third parties. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 13:54:42 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Act [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Assistance for Blind People [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1971007000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Disability Insurance [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/iv/allgemeines.html ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein Association of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/index.php ) [5] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-law on the care and nursing allowance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/konso/2009313000?search_text=Pflegegeld&search_loc=text&lrnr=&lgblid_von=&observe_date=18.02.2018 ) ) ) [30] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => D. Independent living [theme_title] => D8. Retirement income [theme_slug] => d8-retirement-income [theme_id] => 30 [contents] => The Liechtenstein regulation regarding pension systems distinguishes between the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (mandatory contribution system arranged by the state for all employees) and the occupational retirement scheme. Basically, all employees, who are subject to a compulsory pension by the occupational retirement scheme, are also subject to the compulsory Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension (AHV) insurance scheme. The pension insurance system is set up as a mandatory contribution system for inhabitants and commuters with a working engagement in Liechtenstein. Thus people with disabilities are covered by the social security system like anybody else if they have been employed and have been paying into the pension insurance during their active professional life. Article 52 of the Law on National Old Age and Widows and Widowers Pension (Gesetz über die Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung (AHVG), of 14 December 1952, LGBl. 1952 no. 29) states that every person who has paid contributions to the retirement insurance is entitled to a pension.

In 2016 the Parliament approved an amendment to the legislation for the statutory pension system. The annual state subsidy was reduced by more than 50% to an amount of 30 million Swiss francs from 2018 onward and the contributions rose from a total of 11.48% to 11.79% for employed persons. In addition, from 2018 on, the general retirement age was increased from 64 to 65 for both sexes. The early retirement arrangement with reduced pension payments for persons entitled to a statutory pension remained unchanged. In respect of the early retirement arrangement, the age conditions remained unchanged, but the corresponding reduced benefits were increased from the range of 4.5% to 26.1% up to 5.22% to 40.71%, depending on the age and duration of early retirement.
If contributions have not been paid for the whole of the professionally active period from 20 to 65 years of age, only a partial pension will be disbursed. If a person is supported by the disability insurance at the time when the pension age is reached, the disability insurance will be converted into a retirement pension (Article 67bis para 1). The main criteria for the Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension is given in the following act and regulation:

  • Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension Act, of 14 December 1952 (AHVG)
  • By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Act, of 30 November 2010 (AHVV)

The occupational retirement scheme acts as a backup policy in the sense that the whole costs of living which occur during a person’s working life mostly cannot be covered by the first line of defence (Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension). [update_date] => 2018-03-20 15:12:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on National Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1952029000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Office of National Old Age and Widow’s/Widower’s Pension [url] => http://www.ahv.li/leistungen/ahv/allgemeines.html ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-law on the Old Age and Widow’s Pension Act [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1973024000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [32] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E1. Special schools [theme_slug] => e1-special-schools [theme_id] => 32 [contents] => According to Art. 18 of Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD, Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungs-gesetz; BGlG), of 25 October 2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243), early intervention and basic training that is customised to the specific needs of persons with disabilities must be ensured by the state (§1). Art. 18 of the AEPD states:

  • Decisive are the rules of the Act on School Education.
  • The State shall further ensure that children and young people with disabilities receive vocational education with respect to their special needs, abilities and interests.

The state can participate in the disability-related costs provided that they are not covered by insurance and other benefits.
In addition, Law on Vocational Training (AVT, Art. 1c) supports the elimination of discrimination against people with disabilities in any area of vocational training. The specific needs of people with disabilities in respect of their pre-vocational training (in terms of basic education and training) are taken into account by Art. 16 of the AVT through the possibility of shortening or extending the training period.

Children and adolescents who are impaired in their development are supported by appropriate pedagogical and therapeutic measures in preparation for attending a special or regular school, in addition to training in a special school or to enable them to take part in regular lessons, insofar as this is necessary to promote their development.
The Office for Education decides on the allocation to the regular kindergarten or regular school at the request of the parents. Pursuant to Art. 51 of the Ordinance on Special Measures in Schools, Pedagogical and Therapeutic Measures, Special Training and the School Psychology Service, the following preliminary clarifications must be made:

  • the special education needs of the child or young person;
  • the suitability of the regular kindergarten or regular school eligible for allocation; and
  • the objective, content and scope of the special training course.

In addition, the parents, the kindergarten or school management, the doctor and the school psychology service must be consulted.

Children and adolescents who are impaired in their development and are therefore unable to meet the requirements of the regular kindergarten and regular school are trained in a special school. The training takes place in the form of a school education adapted to the developmental disorder or impairment, or in the form of support in manual matters, in everyday activities and in the ability to interact with the environment.
Art. 41 of the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service defines what the terms 'developmental disorders and impairment' mean.

The Office for Education decides on the allocation to a special school at the request of the parents or ex officio. Pursuant to Art. 48 of the Ordinance on Special Educational Measures, Pedagogical Therapeutic Measures, Special Training and the School Psychology Service, the following preliminary clarifications are required:

  • the special education needs of the child or young person;
  • the suitability of the special school to which the child or young person is to be assigned.

Furthermore, the doctor, the school psychology department or other experts and specialist bodies must be consulted. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 15:43:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Office for Education – Special Education and Assistance [url] => http://www.llv.li/#/1425/besondere-schulbereiche ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on School Education [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1972007000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Vocational Training (BBG) [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2008103000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [4] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/konso/2001.197 ) ) ) [33] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E2. Mainstream schools [theme_slug] => e2-mainstream-schools [theme_id] => 33 [contents] => The Law on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG) asserts that the state has to promote appropriate forms of training for pupils, as well as adequate training and support for teachers to integrate children and young people with disabilities into mainstream schools, and the assistance by professionals is given in such cases. The priority in the legal framework is to include disabled children within mainstream education. But in practice, in many cases, children and young people with disabilities attend the Special Education Centre, especially children with intellectual impairments. Art. 15a of the Law on School Education (SchulG) deals with special school actions for pupils with reduced intellectual potential or strange behaviour. Article 15b focuses on pedagogical and therapeutic measures. Support can start even before official school time begins and ends at the age of 20, exceptionally at the age of 22.
Art. 26 of the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service distinguishes between the following types of pedagogical and therapeutic measures:
  • Speech therapy measures;
  • Psycho-motor measures;
  • Early educational measures;
  • Measures for the sensory impaired

Article 15b paragraph 3 states that the professionals who are providing this special assistance must have a specific professional degree which qualifies and legitimises them to carry out these duties. Details are provided in the Law on School Education (Schulgesetzt (SchulG) and the Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 15:51:39 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on School Education [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1972007000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Ordinance on special educational measures, pedagogical-therapeutic measures, special training and the School Psychological Service [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/konso/2001.197 ) ) ) [34] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E3. Sign language and Braille in school [theme_slug] => e3-sign-language-and-braille-in-school [theme_id] => 34 [contents] => Section 2 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) says that the state promotes appropriate forms of training and support for teachers to integrate children and young people with disabilities into mainstream schools. Beside this no specific regulations about the right of children to learn Braille or sign language exist. Likewise, no specific provisions are noted in the Act on School Education (Schulgesetz (SchulG), 15.12.1971, LGBl. 1972 no. 7) with respect to sign language and Braille in school. General provisions, however, make clear that the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is preferred and assistance to do so is offered by the state, e.g. by professional experts. Most children and young people with disabilities attend the Special Education Centre, especially children with mental impairment, where they receive individual teaching and training for future professional life. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 13:14:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on School Education [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1972007000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Department of Education – Special Education [url] => http://www.llv.li/#/12429/sonderschulung ) ) ) [35] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E4. Vocational training [theme_slug] => e4-vocational-training [theme_id] => 35 [contents] => Art. 10 §1 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) covers all types and stages of vocational training and education. This includes the access to careers guidance, vocational training, retraining, and further training, as well as access to practical professional experience. In addition Art. 1c of the Act on Vocational Training (Berufsbildungsgesetz (BBG), 13.03.2008, LGBl. 2008 no. 103) promotes, among other things, the elimination of discrimination against people with disabilities in relation to a vocational training system. The specific needs of people with disabilities in respect of their pre-vocational training (in terms of basic education and training) are taken into account by Art. 16 of the Act on Vocational Training through the possibility of shortening or extending the training period. The national disability insurance is the main legal act relating to vocational training for people with disabilities. The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) provides for the relevant assistance in Articles 39 to 43. It includes a) professional and career planning, b) job service and checking out jobs, c) vocational training, and d) capital assistance for self-employed people with disabilities. The vocational training can either consist of the first professional education or, if disability occurs after having started a professional career, of training for a new profession, or of training to adapt to the existing profession. In addition, the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities provides for vocational education and training for children and young people with disabilities. This aid is supposed to be adapted to their special needs, talents, and interests (Article 18 paragraph 3). The state can also cover additional expenses stemming from disability, on condition that additional expenses are not covered by the insurances or other helping institutions. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 17:56:15 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Vocational Training [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgpage2.jsp?formname=showlaw&lgblid=2008103000&version=0&search_text=Berufsbildungsgesetz&search_loc=text&sel_lawtype=chrono&rechts_gebiet=0&menu=0&tablesel=0&observe_date=13.04.2017 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/lgsystpage2.jsp?search_text=IVG&search_loc=abk_list&rechts_gebiet=0&menu=0&tablesel=0&observe_date=13.04.2017&formname=showlaw&lgblid=1960005000&version=7 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [36] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => E. Education [theme_title] => E5. Higher education [theme_slug] => e5-higher-education [theme_id] => 36 [contents] => There are no provisions regarding specific measures for people with disabilities in university or university college education. However, general provisions from the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behinderten-gleichstellungsgesetz; BGlG), 25.10.2006, LGBl. 2006, no. 243) are also relevant for university education. This holds especially for accessibility. The Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (Art. 11-12) protects people with disabilities by ensuring access to public buildings. This means that public buildings must be constructed in a way that gives people with disabilities the possibility to move around freely. If buildings are not convenient for people with disabilities – especially public places – they must be adapted in order to give people with disabilities the freedom to move around freely as soon as work has been completed on the building. Art. 17 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities states the obligation of society to take into consideration the special requirements of people with disabilities when interacting with them. This obligation is combined with the right of speech, hearing, and visually impaired people to use familiar facilities or tools, e.g. sign language, when communicating with official authorities in Liechtenstein. It should be mentioned that most of the university level education takes place outside Liechtenstein since there is only a very limited range of studies that can be pursued in Liechtenstein. The vast majority of tertiary education for Liechtenstein residents takes place in the neighbouring countries of Switzerland and Austria. [update_date] => 2017-08-21 17:59:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the University and University College Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2005003000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [38] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F1. Non-discrimination in employment [theme_slug] => f1-non-discrimination-in-employment [theme_id] => 38 [contents] => The Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (in Art. 10, §1 and §2) specifies the extent of the duty to make provisions for the avoidance of discrimination within the area of employment and occupation. People with disabilities shall not be discriminated against as employees in the public and in the private sector or at any other workplace, either directly or indirectly. Art. 10 §1 lit. a to lit. k of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities include the aspects of recruitment, payment, voluntary social security benefits, vocational training, occupational career and promotion, other conditions for employment, termination of employment, accessibility to job services, vocational training and other services outside an employment contract, membership and co-operation in trade-unions, and conditions for the access to self-employment. There are exceptions to this general rule provided in Art. 10 §3 and §4 Art. 10 §3, which state that discrimination does not apply if a special attribute is necessary to fulfil the professional tasks and the disabled person concerned does not fit into this scheme. As there are no specific references in the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities, it can be assumed that the scope of discrimination covers all aspects of the conditions for access to employment, to self-employment or to occupation. However, in relation to the public sector, discrimination is further limited by the Act on the Employment of Public Officials (Gesetz über das Dienstverhältnis des Staatspersonals (Staatspersonalgesetz; StPG), 24.04.2008, LGBl. 2008 no. 144) which explicitly names the integration of people with special needs, such as people with disabilities (Art. 4 sect. 2), as an objective of personnel policy, whereas there are no such positive statements relating to the private sector. There are no extra provisions in the labour law. Thus, special obligations for employers concerning employees with disabilities are rather weak in Liechtenstein. [update_date] => 2017-08-22 11:25:55 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on the Employment of Public Officials [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2008144000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [39] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F2. Public employment services [theme_slug] => f2-public-employment-services [theme_id] => 39 [contents] => The Law on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG) guarantees people with disabilities assistance when they are searching for a job. The occupational integration of disabled persons is a central objective of the Liechtenstein Disability Insurance (IV). Therefore, it provides the following services for people with disabilities:

  • vocational counselling for insured persons who are handicapped as a result of invalidity in their choice of occupation or in the exercise of their previous activity;
  • covering additional costs due to disability in the case of initial vocational training, further training or preparation for an auxiliary work or employment in a sheltered workshop;
  • retraining for a new job if necessary due to disability;
  • re-training in the previous profession;
  • act as an employment agency;
  • work trials to clarify the ability to work, which are possible at specialised clarification centres and institutions with protected workplaces as well as at companies of the private sector and public administration;
  • capital support under special conditions to take up or expand self-employment and to finance operational changes due to disability.

Art. 13bis of the Bye-Law to the Act on Disability Insurance (Verordnung zum Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (Invalidenversicherungsverordnung; IVV), lists details to these activities. If a person with disability finds a new job which makes it necessary to relocate to another place (due to the disability), transportation costs are covered by the disability insurance. Expenses for advertisements, inspection of a workplace etc. are not covered by the insurance. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 15:53:14 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-Law to the Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1982036000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [40] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F3. Workplace adaptations [theme_slug] => f3-workplace-adaptations [theme_id] => 40 [contents] => Within Art. 10 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities (AEPD) no explicit regulation exists which refers to the employers' obligation to create reasonable accommodation and/or adaptation of workplaces for people with disabilities.
Art. 7 §3 of the AEPD states that indirect discrimination is observed if no attempts were undertaken to accommodate the situation of a concerned person. In terms of ensuring non-discrimination within employment and occupation, the obligations based on the AEPD do not differ according to the employment type of the disabled person. Thus, the obligations of the AEPD extend to public and private employers of any size and all employees. Adaptions to workplaces and other integrative activities are to be developed on a case-by-case basis, whilst binding and strong legal obligations on employers are lacking in Liechtenstein legislation.
In the event that indirect discrimination is a consequence of barriers, Art. 7 §4 states that it must be checked whether legal provisions regarding accessibility exist, and if so, whether the legal tasks are fulfilled. Within the same article, the AEPD lists the type of disproportionate burdens (unverhältnismässige Belastungen) that may justify unequal treatment and prevent this from being regarded as indirect discrimination. In detail, Art. 7 §2 specifies that the following criteria in particular have to be taken into consideration when deciding whether the likely burden is 'disproportionate' or not:

  • the costs of the adaptation/accommodation;
  • the resources of the enterprise;
  • the extent to which public assistance is available;
  • the effect on the general interest of people with disabilities.

Art. 20 of the Act on Equality of People with Disabilities states that pilot projects on the integration of people with disabilities into the work environment may be supported by society. The term 'society' is not elaborated any further, but one can assume that the government and the municipalities are addressed, maybe also the disability insurance and other public services. One of the measures according to Art. 20 is financial support in order to adapt a workplace to the special needs of a person with disability. Article 32bis paragraph 6 of the Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl 1950 no 5) says that the government is allowed to enact a by-law to support measurements for the preservation of an existing workplace for a disabled person, or to integrate a person into another workplace at the same enterprise or another adaptions to workplaces and other integrative activities are to be developed on a case-by-case basis, while binding and strong legal obligations on employers are lacking in the Liechtenstein's legislation. [update_date] => 2017-08-22 11:37:17 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-Law to the Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1982036000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Equality of People with Disabilities [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2006243000&version=4&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [41] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => F. Employment [theme_title] => F4. Financial incentives [theme_slug] => f4-financial-incentives [theme_id] => 41 [contents] => The Act on Disability Insurance (Gesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG), 23.12.1959, LGBl. 1960 no. 5) and the connected By-Law provide for financial incentives for employers in order to adapt the workplace of a person with a disability, or in order to continue an employment, or to integrate or to re-integrate a disabled person. Art. 45bis of the Act on Disability Insurance states that financial incentives in the sense of subventions to the wages and salaries are granted in the case of an employment of a person with a disability above 40%. There are a couple of further requirements, all in connection with the disabled person and his/her employment contract. The government is entitled to provide a state grant to the salaries for employed persons with a disability under certain conditions, which is applicable for various modes of employment: full employment, partial employment, re-integration, vocational training in the home country or abroad, etc. [update_date] => 2017-08-22 11:41:50 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1960005000&version=7&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => By-Law to the Act on Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1973024000&version=0&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [43] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G1. Official research [theme_slug] => g1-official-research [theme_id] => 43 [contents] => No specific research institute for questions on disability or data collection on disability exists. The Liechtenstein Institute does research on these questions as part of its scientific work. Statistical data on people with disabilities are rare in Liechtenstein. The real number of people with disabilities is unknown. One can estimate that the percentage of people with disabilities is similar to the neighbouring states, Switzerland and Austria. The figures shown in the annual report of the Disability Insurance and the Special Education Centre only represent persons with disabilities who are registered at the respective institutions. The annual report 2017 of the disability insurance mentions 1,491 full disability pensions, 482 half pensions and 96 quarter pensions. This amounts to a total of 2,069 disabled persons with grants from the disability insurance. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 15:58:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Annual report of the Disability Insurance [url] => https://www.ahv.li/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Ueber/Jahresberichte/AHV-IV-FAK-Jahresbericht--2016.pdf ) ) ) [44] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G2. Census data [theme_slug] => g2-census-data [theme_id] => 44 [contents] => The national census is the most important statistical survey in Liechtenstein. In the area of population structure, its main results are published by the Statistical Office on the following topics:
  • citizenship of the Liechtenstein Population
  • religious Affiliation
  • language
  • migration
  • parenthood / number of children.

Within the national census no collection of data regarding people with disabilities is made nor are they specifically identified.
The national census is conducted every five years (previously it was only every ten years). The last one was conducted in 2015. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:01:05 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Census 2015 in Liechtenstein, Department of Statistics [url] => http://www.llv.li/#/116050 ) ) ) [45] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G3. Labour Force Survey [theme_slug] => g3-labour-force-survey [theme_id] => 45 [contents] => The national Labour Force Survey is set up as employment statistic and provides an overview of the structure of persons employed and jobs as well as full-time equivalents in Liechtenstein. In particular, detailed information on commuters are also published.
Within the employment statistic no specific data regarding people with disabilities are collected, as disabled people are not identified in the collection of data. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:02:34 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Employment statistic [url] => https://www.llv.li/#/11367/beschaftigungsstatistik ) ) ) [46] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => G. Statistics and data collection [theme_title] => G4. Disability equality indicators [theme_slug] => g4-disability-equality-indicators [theme_id] => 46 [contents] => No disability equality indicators are available for Liechtenstein. Indicators have neither been developed nor adopted. [update_date] => 2012-06-11 14:18:31 [links] => Array ( ) ) [48] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H1. Awareness raising programs [theme_slug] => h1-awareness-raising-programs [theme_id] => 48 [contents] => The Office of Equality of Persons with Disabilities, which was set up in January 2007 with the entry into force of the Disability Equality Act, has the following tasks in relation to the integration and equality of persons with disabilities:

  • raise public awareness and
  • carry out public-relations projects in cooperation with public or private organisations

Twice a year, an editorial group at the Office of Equality of Persons with Disabilities publishes the newsletter 'Mittendrin' as part of a long-lasting awareness‐raising project.

The Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein (Verein für Menschenrechte, VMR), which is an independent national human rights institution, has, among others, the legally defined task to promote dialogue and cooperation with human rights-relevant bodies and to inform the public about the situation of people with disabilities in Liechtenstein.

Awareness-raising is fostered by several institutions and associations. Many of these initiatives and projects are launched and / or supported through private organisations. The networking group "Sichtwechsel", established in 2010 for persons with disabilities who are in need of support, includes a total of 20 governmental and nongovernmental bodies, met regularly during the reporting period to exchange experiences and to launch and prepare joint campaigns. The group also runs the internet platform (see links), which provides information on its activities and for persons with disabilities in Liechtenstein. Since 2012 and in collaboration with the Liechtenstein radio station (Radio L), the group organised an action day to raise awareness and inform the public on December 3, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:06:43 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Mittendrin [url] => http://www.llv.li/files/scg/ansicht-mittendrinnr9.pdf ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Sichtwechsel [url] => http://www.sichtwechsel.li/ ) [2] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Office of Equality of Persons with Disabilities [url] => http://www.lbv.li/Buero-Gleichstellung.php ) [3] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Association for Human Rights in Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.menschenrechte.li/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Statuten-VMR-definitiv.pdf ) ) ) [49] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H2. Training for teachers [theme_slug] => h2-training-for-teachers [theme_id] => 49 [contents] => Art. 15b of the Law on School Education (Schulgesetz (SchulG), of 15 December 1971, LGBl. 1972 no. 7) regulates the prerequisites that persons must meet before performing pedagogical-therapeutic measures at regular or special education schools.
Professionally qualified persons or private institutions are entrusted with pedagogical-therapeutic measures. A person holding the relevant specialist diploma from a recognised curative education college or university of applied sciences is considered to be certified.

Training for teachers in inclusive teaching methods or activities to raise their awareness is not mandatory as part of the Liechtenstein legislation. Neither the Law on School Education nor the corresponding By-laws include regulations on trainings for all teachers regarding disability awareness.
Inclusive education is mainly performed by experts acting as assistant teachers in the mainstream school education system. Such trainings do not take place in Liechtenstein since there is no pedagogical college or university department in Liechtenstein. Thus the training of teachers regarding the inclusive teaching methods or activities mainly takes place in Switzerland or Austria.
The local disabled people’s organisations are not involved as trainers. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:08:29 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Law on School Education [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1972007000&version=8&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [50] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H3. Training for lawyers [theme_slug] => h3-training-for-lawyers [theme_id] => 50 [contents] => Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programs for lawyers. Thus the national disabled people’s organizations are not involved as trainers. [update_date] => 2014-10-29 11:27:43 [links] => Array ( ) ) [51] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H4. Training for doctors [theme_slug] => h4-training-for-doctors [theme_id] => 51 [contents] => Disability awareness or disability equality issues are not a compulsory part of training programs for doctors. The Liechtenstein legislation has no specific regulations in place in this regard. Thus, the national disabled people’s organisations are not involved as trainers. Regarding the content of the training programmes in the sense of human rights, dignity and needs of persons with disabilities, no official comments or statistics exist. It cannot be evaluated whether or not the legally binding training requirements issues like autonomy of persons with disabilities, etc. are integrated in a way to ensure a raising awareness of needs of persons with disabilities. The Liechtenstein Medical Council provides no information on its webpage regarding ethical standards as part of the action programmes or training requirements for medical professionals. The Liechtenstein Nursing and Care Organisation (LAK) provides training for care personnel to ensure high quality also in the area of the needs of persons with disabilities. [update_date] => 2017-09-13 13:15:04 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Gesetz über die Ärzte, 22.10.2003, LGBl 2003, no. 239 [url] => https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=2003239000&version=6&signed=n&tablesel=0 ) ) ) [52] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H5. Training for engineers [theme_slug] => h5-training-for-engineers [theme_id] => 52 [contents] => At the University of Liechtenstein, within the field of study 'architecture and spatial development', the area of barrier-free building is not explicitly anchored in the curricula of Bachelor's or Master's degree programmes. This means that barrier-free design, equality issues or accessibility are not a compulsory part of the education/training programmes for engineers at the University of Liechtenstein.
The Liechtenstein Association of Engineers and Architects does not offer advanced training courses on barrier-free building. [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:13:59 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => University of Liechtenstein [url] => https://www.uni.li/de/studium/bachelor/bachelorstudiengang-architektur ) [1] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein Association of Engineers and Architects [url] => http://www.lia.li/lia/ ) ) ) [53] => stdClass Object ( [parent] => H. Awareness and external action [theme_title] => H6. International development aid [theme_slug] => h6-international-development-aid [theme_id] => 53 [contents] => In 2014, Liechtenstein achieved an Official Development Assistance (ODA) share of 0.5%. Due to the delayed calculation of gross domestic product and gross national income, the ODA data from 2014 is the most current. Liechtenstein continues to be committed to the ODA target of 0.7%. In terms of practical implementation, the Liechtenstein Development Service is the main institution for international development aid in Liechtenstein. It operates on behalf of the government. The Liechtenstein Development Service does not explicitly declare assistance for people with disabilities as one of the key targets of international aid. But the general approach of the Service also includes the interests of people with disabilities, since the goals of the development aid are, inter alia, social justice, self-help, and satisfaction of basic needs of people (nutrition, security, education, health). [update_date] => 2018-03-20 16:11:47 [links] => Array ( [0] => stdClass Object ( [title] => Liechtenstein Development Service [url] => http://www.led.li/home.html ) ) ) ) ) ) )